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brainstem encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243130/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-as-a-presenting-feature-of-subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis
#1
Divyani Garg, Varun Reddy, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Deepa Dash, Rohit Bhatia, Manjari Tripathi
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder caused by measles virus. It is characterised by typical clinical and electrophysiological features in the form of slow myoclonic jerks, with progressive cognitive impairment, visual symptoms, and periodic complexes on EEG, with raised titres of anti-measles antibodies in CSF and serum. Atypical presentations of SSPE have been reported including brainstem involvement, ADEM-like presentation, acute encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233145/suppression-of-interleukin-6-increases-enterovirus-a71-lethality-in-mice
#2
Li-Chiu Wang, Hui-Wen Yao, Chuan-Fa Chang, Shainn-Wei Wang, Shih-Min Wang, Shun-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection can induce fatal encephalitis in young children. Clinical reports show that interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of infected patients with brainstem encephalitis are significantly elevated. We used a murine model to address the significance of endogenous IL-6 in EV-A71 infection. RESULTS: EV-A71 infection transiently increased serum and brain IL-6 protein levels in mice. Most importantly, absence of IL-6 due to gene knockout or depletion of IL-6 using neutralizing monoclonal antibody enhanced the mortality and tissue viral load of infected mice...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177548/pediatric-bickerstaff-brainstem-encephalitis-a-systematic-review-of-literature-and-case-series
#3
Jonathan Douglas Santoro, Daniel V Lazzareschi, Cynthia Jane Campen, Keith P Van Haren
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the phenotype of pediatric Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) and evaluate prognostic features in the clinical course, diagnostic studies, and treatment exposures. METHODS: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases as well as medical records at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital to identify cases of pediatric BBE. Inclusion required all of the following criteria: age ≤ 20 years, presence of somnolence or alterations in mental status at the time of presentation or developed within 7 days of presentation, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141829/cerebral-cortical-encephalitis-followed-by-recurrent-cns-demyelination-in-a-patient-with-concomitant-anti-mog-and-anti-nmda-receptor-antibodies
#4
Lei Zhou, Jingzi ZhangBao, Haiqing Li, Xiaoyang Li, Yongheng Huang, Min Wang, Chongbo Zhao, Jiahong Lu, Chuanzhen Lu, Yuxin Li, Chao Quan
We report the case of a patient who initially presented with fever, headache and seizure. MRI revealed a fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesion involving the right temporal, parietal and occipital cortex. Afterwards, the patient developed three recurrent episodes, manifested as brainstem encephalitis, optic neuritis and ADEM-like illness successively, indicating demyelination. Both of his serum anti-MOG and CSF anti-NMDAR antibodies were proved positive by transfected cell based assays...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110767/cerebrospinal-fluid-findings-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-and-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathies
#5
Zsolt Illes, Morten Blaabjerg
The classic immunologic alteration of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), albuminocytologic dissociation, has been known since the original paper by Guillain, Barré, and Strohl. Albuminocytologic dissociation has been also described in other forms of the GBS spectrum, such as axonal motor or motor-sensory forms (AMAN, AMSAN), the anti-GQ1b spectrum of Miller Fisher syndrome, and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis. Cytokines, chemokines, antibodies, complement components, and molecules with a putative neuroprotective role or indicating axonal damage have also been examined using different methods...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065229/prediction-of-disease-progression-in-miller-fisher-and-overlap-syndromes
#6
Christine Verboon, Heleen van Berghem, Pieter A van Doorn, Liselotte Ruts, Bart C Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Patients with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) may have a relatively mild clinical course or progress to Guillain-Barré syndrome with limb weakness (MFS-GBS overlap syndrome). Other variants in this spectrum are GBS with ophthalmoparesis and Bickerstaff's Brainstem encephalitis (BBE). AIM: To compare the clinical course of MFS and overlap syndromes and to identify predictors of disease progression. METHODS: In a prospective study of 170 patients with GBS and variant forms, 37 (22%) had a MFS, MFS-GBS overlap syndrome, ophthalmoplegic GBS or BBE...
October 24, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062233/sporadic-hyperekplexia-due-to-self-limiting-brainstem-encephalopathy
#7
Dilek Yilmaz, Bülent Cengiz
Hyperekplexia is a rare movement disorder characterized by pathologically exaggerated response to unexpected stimuli. It is differentiated from the normal startle reflex by its lower threshold, higher intensity, and resistance to habituation. Many of the acquired hyperekplexias result from brainstem involvement such as encephalitis, infarct, hemorrhage, pontocerebellar hypoplasia and medullary compression. This case report depicts a rare manifestation of hyperekplexia. The unusual aspect of this case was the vocalization that was reproduced in response to startling stimuli...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050838/three-children-of-meningoencephalitis-with-kikuchi-necrotizing-lymphadenitis
#8
Joung-Hee Byun, Su Eun Park, Sang Ook Nam, Young A Kim, Young Mi Kim, Gyu Min Yeon, Yun-Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: Kikuchi necrotizing lymphadenitis (KNL) is a rare and benign cause of lymphadenopathy, most often cervical. The etiology of KNL remains unknown. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, such as in meningoencephalitis, is a very rare clinical manifestation of KNL, especially in children. CASE REPORTS: A 12-year-old boy presented with unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Histopathological findings led to the diagnosis of KNL. He revisited due to severe headache and vomiting one week later...
October 16, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049234/case-report-features-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-neonates
#9
Wen-Wen Chen, Zhao-Bin Yang, Lian-Shu Lian, Li-Ping Xu
RATIONALE: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused by enterovirus. The virus may exist in secretions. PATIENT CONCERNS: Five neonates had symptoms of fever and maculopapular rashes involving face, trunk, breech, arms, and legs, especially scattering on palms and feet. Blood, oropharyngeal fluid, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected and detected for further diagnoses with the consent of the infants' parents. Some of them suffered aseptic meningitis...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905216/slowly-progressing-varicella-zoster-brainstem-encephalitis-complicating-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Vito A G Ricigliano, Lorenzo Saraceno, Michele Cavalli, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giovanni Meola
A 56-year-old immunocompetent male developed brainstem encephalitis complicating Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The disease had a slowly progressing course of months after the triggering infection, much longer than previously reported. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging, physical-chemical, and cell count analyses on cerebrospinal fluid were normal, whereas polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus DNA was positive. The simultaneous negativity of both imaging and basic CSF exams is very rare, although possible event which confirms the irreplaceable role of viral screening on CSF...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899886/brainstem-encephalitis-and-acute-polyneuropathy-associated-with-hepatitis-e-infection
#11
Omar Jabbar Salim, Amy Davidson, Kathy Li, John Paul Leach, Craig Heath
A 59-year-old man presented with feverish illness. His Glasgow Coma Scale was 15, had reduced visual acuity in the left eye with partial left ptosis and mild left hemiparesis with an extensor left plantar. Over 48 hours, he accrued multiple cranial nerves palsies and progressed to a flaccid paralysis necessitating admission to an intensive care unit.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study showed 20 lymphocytes and raised protein. Viral and bacterial PCRs were negative. Samples for Lyme, blood-borne viruses, syphilis and autoantibodies were also negative...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895082/clinical-manifestations-and-treatment-outcomes-of-parvovirus-b19-encephalitis-in-immunocompetent-adults
#12
Jin-Sun Jun, Jangsup Moon, Jung-Ick Byun, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Jung-Ah Lim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) has rarely been identified as a cause of encephalitis in immunocompetent adults, in whom clinical information regarding PVB19 encephalitis has remained unclear. Herein, we report the clinical presentations, laboratory and imaging findings, and treatment outcomes of five immunocompetent adults with PVB19 encephalitis. Although none of the patients showed any distinctive features of PVB19 infection, they showed various clinical manifestations, including one instance of brainstem involvement...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888467/early-electrophysiological-findings-in-fisher-bickerstaff-syndrome
#13
M A Alberti, M Povedano, J Montero, C Casasnovas
INTRODUCTION: The term Fisher-Bickerstaff syndrome (FBS) has been proposed to describe the clinical spectrum encompassing Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis. The pathophysiology of FBS and the nature of the underlying neuropathy (demyelinating or axonal) are still subject to debate. This study describes the main findings of an early neurophysiological study on 12 patients diagnosed with FBS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of clinical characteristics and electrophysiological findings of 12 patients with FBS seen in our neurology department within 10 days of disease onset...
September 6, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878050/antibody-associated-cns-syndromes-without-signs-of-inflammation-in-the-elderly
#14
Domingo Escudero, Mar Guasp, Helena Ariño, Carles Gaig, Eugenia Martínez-Hernández, Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus
OBJECTIVE: To report the CNS syndromes of patients ≥60 years of age with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens but no evidence of brain MRI and CSF inflammatory changes. METHODS: This was a retrospective clinical analysis of patients with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens who fulfilled 3 criteria: age ≥60 years, no inflammatory abnormalities in brain MRI, and no CSF pleocytosis. Antibodies were determined with reported techniques. RESULTS: Among 155 patients ≥60 years of age with neurologic syndromes related to antibodies against neuronal surface antigens, 35 (22...
October 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829730/clinical-characteristics-of-severe-japanese-encephalitis-a-case-series-from-south-korea
#15
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Jangsup Moon, Ki-Young Jung, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of devastating viral encephalitis, especially in Asia. Although a successful vaccination program led to its near-elimination over three decades in South Korea, the incidence of JE has increased since 2010. The present study investigated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and factors affecting neurological outcomes of reemerging JE. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of laboratory-confirmed JE patients who presented with acute encephalitis syndrome at three tertiary hospitals between 2010 and 2015...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762041/neuroinfluenza-evaluation-of-seasonal-influenza-associated-severe-neurological-complications-in-children-a-multicenter-study
#16
Muhammet Sukru Paksu, Kerim Aslan, Tanil Kendirli, Basak Nur Akyildiz, Nazik Yener, Riza Dincer Yildizdas, Mehmet Davutoglu, Ayhan Yaman, Sedat Isikay, Gulnar Sensoy, Haydar Ali Tasdemir
PURPOSE: Although influenza primarily affects the respiratory system, in some cases, it can cause severe neurological complications. Younger children are especially at risk. Pediatric literature is limited on the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of influenza-related neurological complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate children who suffered severe neurological manifestation as a result of seasonal influenza infection. METHODS: The medical records of 14 patients from six hospitals in different regions of the country were evaluated...
July 31, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756061/assessment-of-acute-motor-deficit-in-the-pediatric-emergency-room
#17
REVIEW
Marcio Moacyr Vasconcelos, Luciana G A Vasconcelos, Adriana Rocha Brito
OBJECTIVES: This review article aimed to present a clinical approach, emphasizing the diagnostic investigation, to children and adolescents who present in the emergency room with acute-onset muscle weakness. SOURCES: A systematic search was performed in PubMed database during April and May 2017, using the following search terms in various combinations: "acute," "weakness," "motor deficit," "flaccid paralysis," "child," "pediatric," and "emergency". The articles chosen for this review were published over the past ten years, from 1997 through 2017...
July 27, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647978/-severe-cases-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-data-based-on-national-pilot-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-surveillance-system
#18
Y M Zheng, Z R Chang, L L Jiang, H Ji, G P Chen, P Luo, J J Pan, X L Tian, L L Wei, D Huo, Z P Miao, X N Zou, J H Chen, Q H Liao
Objective: To investigate the clinical severity, etiological classification and risk factors of severe cases with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods: A total of 1 489 records on severe and fatal HFMD cases reported to the national pilot surveillance system of HFMD were used to analyze the demographic, medical treatment, etiological classification of the cases. Treatment outcome related risk factors were also studied with multi-variable stepwise logistic regression method. Results: Seven out of the 1 489 severe HFMD cases died of this disease...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637936/a-case-of-bickerstaff-brainstem-encephalitis-with-transient-reflex-myoclonus
#19
Ryusuke Takaki, Takamura Nagasaka, Yumi Suwa, Mai Tsuchiya, Kishin Kho, Yoshihisa Takiyama
A 33-year-old woman was admitted due to disturbance of consciousness, dysarthria, dysphagia, sensory disturbances and weakness of the left upper limb after mycoplasma infection. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone as Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE). On the 15th hospital day, reflex myoclonus appeared on her face, neck, body and limbs induced by techniques of jaw jerk reflex and patellar tendon reflex. The myoclonus was disappeared after two weeks in accordance with improvement of BBE...
July 29, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627955/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-with-thalamic-brainstem-and-cerebellar-involvement
#20
Meenal Garg, Shilpa Kulkarni, Anaita Udwadia Hegde
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. We report the case of a young patient who presented with a movement disorder and predominant involvement of thalami, brainstem and cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging, and was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus encephalitis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
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