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brainstem encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669602/cerebral-vasculitis-and-lateral-rectus-palsy-two-rare-central-nervous-system-complications-of-dengue-fever-two-case-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
H M M Herath, J S Hewavithana, C M De Silva, O A R Kularathna, N P Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from a simple febrile illness to potentially life-threatening complications such as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Dengue infection can affect many organs, including the central nervous system. The neurological manifestations reported in dengue infections are meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the cases of two interesting patients with confirmed dengue infection who presented with complications of possible central nervous system vasculitis and cranial nerve palsy...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664458/brainstem-encephalitis-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#2
Sarah A Bin Abdulqader, Hisham M Alkhalidi, Abdulrazag M Ajlan
Brainstem encephalitis (BE) is a rare, severe, and potentially life-threatening inflammation of the central nervous system. Brainstem encephalitis has multiple etiologies, which vary in treatment and outcomes. The current literature is generally focused on the infectious causes of BE, while little is known about the other entities, including cases with inconclusive diagnoses. Additionally, the outcomes of BE are not well documented. We present a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with progressive symptoms of brainstem involvement...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661538/an-unusual-case-of-anti-mog-cns-demyelination-with-concomitant-mild-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#3
Jiajia Zhou, Winwen Tan, Suyin Elaine Tan, Jing Hu, Zhongqin Chen, Kang Wang
We report the case of a patient who presented with progressive unsteadiness and narcoleptic attacks followed by behavioral change and psychosis, without visual disturbances or seizures. MRI revealed multiple areas of fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesions involving the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus and third ventricular peri-ependymal region consistent with demyelination. Both the serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibodies (MOG-Abs) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) anti-N-methyl-d-as-partate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were positive using transfected cell based assays...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628174/early-identification-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-presenting-cerebral-lesions-in-unconventional-locations-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Weihe Zhang, Lei Cui, Wei Wang, Yujuan Jiao, Yeqiong Zhang, Jinsong Jiao
To facilitate the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis presenting with brain lesions in unconventional locations (BLUL) on MRI, we retrospectively analyzed forty-five Chinese patients. Eighteen (40.0%) of their MRI initially exhibited one or more BLUL. These locations predominantly included cerebral gray matter (cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus), as well as white matter and brainstem. Due to these BLUL, thirteen (72.2%) patients were originally misdiagnosed with other diseases and developed poor clinical and imaging outcomes...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627783/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-relapse-in-the-brainstem
#5
Yuya Kobayashi, Shunichi Sato, Ken Takasone, Ryota Takamatsu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624567/clinical-value-of-dorsal-medulla-oblongata-involvement-detected-with-conventional-mri-for-prediction-of-outcome-in-children-with-enterovirus-71-related-brainstem-encephalitis
#6
Kun Liu, Yongjin Zhou, Shihan Cui, Jiawen Song, Peipei Ye, Wei Xiang, Xiaoyan Huang, Yiping Chen, Zhihan Yan, Xinjian Ye
BACKGROUND: Brainstem encephalitis is the most common neurologic complication after enterovirus 71 infection. The involvement of brainstem, especially the dorsal medulla oblongata, can cause severe sequelae or death in children with enterovirus 71 infection. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement in children with enterovirus 71-related brainstem encephalitis (EBE) by using conventional MRI and to evaluate the value of dorsal medulla oblongata involvement in outcome prediction...
April 5, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547206/chikungunya-encephalitis-presenting-as-a-brainstem-syndrome-and-boomerang-sign
#7
Rajendra Singh Jain, Ibraheem Khan, Kapil Khandelwal, Pankaj Kumar Saini, Reenu Chaudhary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515559/enterovirus-a71-proteins-structure-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Jingjing Yuan, Li Shen, Jing Wu, Xinran Zou, Jiaqi Gu, Jianguo Chen, Lingxiang Mao
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection has grown to become a serious threat to global public health. It is one of the major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. EV-A71 can also infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce diverse neurological complications, such as brainstem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis, or even death. Viral proteins play a crucial role in EV-A71 infection. Many recent studies have discussed the structure and function of EV-A71 proteins, and the findings reported will definitely aid the development of vaccines and therapeutic approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489680/miller-fisher-syndrome-complicated-by-bickerstaff-brainstem-encephalitis-a-case-report
#9
Chaoyang Jing, Zhuo Wang, Chaojia Chu, Ming Dong, Weihong Lin
RATIONALE: Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE) and Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) might be a pedigree disease. Herein, we report a rare case that fits the diagnoses of both MFS and BBE. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 48-year-old woman was hospitalized due to blurred vision and unsteady gait lasting for 9 days, and numbness of the limbs lasting for 6 days. Physical examination showed restricted eye movement without nystagmus, bilateral flattening of forehead and nasolabial folds, and positive eyelash sign...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465358/bickerstaff-brainstem-encephalitis-in-a-patient-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-on-tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-inhibitor
#10
Mingyo Kim, Min-Jung Kim, Young Sun Suh, Hyun-Ok Kim, Sang-Il Lee, Yun-Hong Cheon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459060/bickerstaff-s-brainstem-encephalitis-with-overlapping-guillain-barre-syndrome-usefulness-of-sequential-nerve-conduction-studies
#11
Choong Yi Fong, Hnin Wint Wint Aung, Arie Khairani, Chin Seng Gan, Nortina Shahrizaila, Khean Jin Goh
Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a rare immune-mediated disorder characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbance of consciousness, which may overlap with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) if there is additional limb weakness. We report a 7-month-old boy presented with ophthalmoplegia followed by a rapidly ascending paralysis of all four limbs and disturbance of consciousness. The initial impression was BBE with overlapping GBS. This was supported by sequential nerve conduction study (NCS) findings compatible with an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)...
February 16, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440480/trismus-caused-by-paraneoplastic-brainstem-encephalitis
#12
Naveed Malek, Maxwell Damian
We discuss the assessment and differential diagnoses of a middle-aged man who presented with trismus, double vision and behavioural problems. MRI scan of the brain was initially normal, but a month later showed high signal in the hippocampal region on fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) imaging. We suspected a paraneoplastic brainstem encephalitis because of his smoking history, rapidly progressive symptoms and abnormal brainstem signs. A positron emission tomography-CT scan identified abnormal subcarinal nodes, shown on biopsy to be metastatic small cell lung cancer...
April 2018: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366609/surgical-treatment-of-enterovirus-d68-brainstem-encephalitis-induced-dysphagia
#13
Takafumi Togashi, Hironori Baba, Meiko Kitazawa, Nao Takahashi, Yasuhiro Samejima, Eiji Yumoto, Arata Horii
Cluster of acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction was associated with a 2014 outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory illness in US. We describe a 33 year-old male patient of refractory dysphagia due to EV-D68-induced brainstem encephalitis successfully treated by surgery. Following acute upper respiratory tract infection, he developed dysphagia and bilateral facial paralysis. A coughing reflex was readily produced when the laryngopharyngeal fiberscope touched the epiglottis, however, water infusion induced only very weak and slow swallowing reflex, suggesting that only motor component was impaired but sensory function was preserved during swallowing...
January 20, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352287/ifn%C3%AE-inhibits-g-csf-induced-neutrophil-expansion-and-invasion-of-the-cns-to-prevent-viral-encephalitis
#14
Chandran Ramakrishna, Edouard M Cantin
Emergency hematopoiesis facilitates the rapid expansion of inflammatory immune cells in response to infections by pathogens, a process that must be carefully regulated to prevent potentially life threatening inflammatory responses. Here, we describe a novel regulatory role for the cytokine IFNγ that is critical for preventing fatal encephalitis after viral infection. HSV1 encephalitis (HSE) is triggered by the invasion of the brainstem by inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In mice lacking IFNγ (GKO), we observed unrestrained increases in G-CSF levels but not in GM-CSF or IL-17...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338930/neurologic-disorders-associated-with-anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies-a-comparison-of-anti-gad-antibody-titers-and-time-dependent-changes-between-neurologic-disease-and-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Hideto Nakajima, Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Yuiko Inaba, Chiharu Tsutsumi, Kiichi Unoda, Takafumi Hosokawa, Fumiharu Kimura, Toshiaki Hanafusa, Masamichi Date, Haruko Kitaoka
To determine clinical features of neurologic disorders associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD-Ab), we examined titers and time-dependent changes of anti-GAD-Ab. Six patients, stiff person syndrome (2), cerebellar ataxia (1), limbic encephalitis (1), epilepsy (1), brainstem encephalitis (1), were compared with 87 type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients without neurologic disorders. Anti-GAD-Ab titers and index were higher in neurologic disorders than in T1DM, suggesting intrathecal antibody synthesis...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335082/-a-comparative-analysis-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-with-or-without-abnormal-findings-on-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jian-Zhao Zhang, Qian Chen, Ping Zheng, Li-Na Xie, Xiao-Li Yi, Hai-Tao Ren, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis with normal or abnormal cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings via a comparative analysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The clinical features and prognosis were compared between the children with normal and abnormal cranial MRI findings. RESULTS: In the 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, the most common initial symptoms were seizures (61%) and involuntary movement (61%), followed by language disorder (54%), mental and behavioral abnormalities (52%), and disturbance of consciousness (30%)...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243130/neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-as-a-presenting-feature-of-subacute-sclerosing-panencephalitis
#17
Divyani Garg, Varun Reddy, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Deepa Dash, Rohit Bhatia, Manjari Tripathi
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder caused by measles virus. It is characterised by typical clinical and electrophysiological features in the form of slow myoclonic jerks, with progressive cognitive impairment, visual symptoms, and periodic complexes on EEG, with raised titres of anti-measles antibodies in CSF and serum. Atypical presentations of SSPE have been reported including brainstem involvement, ADEM-like presentation, acute encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia...
February 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233145/suppression-of-interleukin-6-increases-enterovirus-a71-lethality-in-mice
#18
Li-Chiu Wang, Hui-Wen Yao, Chuan-Fa Chang, Shainn-Wei Wang, Shih-Min Wang, Shun-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection can induce fatal encephalitis in young children. Clinical reports show that interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of infected patients with brainstem encephalitis are significantly elevated. We used a murine model to address the significance of endogenous IL-6 in EV-A71 infection. RESULTS: EV-A71 infection transiently increased serum and brain IL-6 protein levels in mice. Most importantly, absence of IL-6 due to gene knockout or depletion of IL-6 using neutralizing monoclonal antibody enhanced the mortality and tissue viral load of infected mice...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177548/pediatric-bickerstaff-brainstem-encephalitis-a-systematic-review-of-literature-and-case-series
#19
Jonathan Douglas Santoro, Daniel V Lazzareschi, Cynthia Jane Campen, Keith P Van Haren
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the phenotype of pediatric Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) and evaluate prognostic features in the clinical course, diagnostic studies, and treatment exposures. METHODS: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases as well as medical records at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital to identify cases of pediatric BBE. Inclusion required all of the following criteria: age ≤ 20 years, presence of somnolence or alterations in mental status at the time of presentation or developed within 7 days of presentation, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia...
January 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141829/cerebral-cortical-encephalitis-followed-by-recurrent-cns-demyelination-in-a-patient-with-concomitant-anti-mog-and-anti-nmda-receptor-antibodies
#20
Lei Zhou, Jingzi ZhangBao, Haiqing Li, Xiaoyang Li, Yongheng Huang, Min Wang, Chongbo Zhao, Jiahong Lu, Chuanzhen Lu, Yuxin Li, Chao Quan
We report the case of a patient who initially presented with fever, headache and seizure. MRI revealed a fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesion involving the right temporal, parietal and occipital cortex. Afterwards, the patient developed three recurrent episodes, manifested as brainstem encephalitis, optic neuritis and ADEM-like illness successively, indicating demyelination. Both of his serum anti-MOG and CSF anti-NMDAR antibodies were proved positive by transfected cell based assays...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
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