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brainstem encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627955/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-with-thalamic-brainstem-and-cerebellar-involvement
#1
Meenal Garg, Shilpa Kulkarni, Anaita Udwadia Hegde
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis is a common and treatable cause of acute encephalitis in all age groups. Certain radiological features such as temporal parenchymal involvement facilitate the diagnosis. The use of herpes simplex virus polymerase chain reaction has expanded the clinical and imaging spectrum. We report the case of a young patient who presented with a movement disorder and predominant involvement of thalami, brainstem and cerebellum on magnetic resonance imaging, and was diagnosed with herpes simplex virus encephalitis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578629/chaetomiaceae-fungi-novel-pathogens-of-equine-neurotropic-phaeohyphomycosis
#2
Quinci Plumlee, Courtney Meason-Smith, Alexandra Dieterly, Gabriel Gomez, Brian F Porter, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann
Many previously unrecognized fungi are emerging as potential pathogens. One such group is dematiaceous fungi of the Chaetomiaceae family (phylum Ascomycota, class Sordariomycetes). These fungi are rare causes of opportunistic, neurotropic phaeohyphomycosis in humans but are not known to cause similar infections in animals. The aims of this study were to investigate equine hyphal mycotic encephalitis, characterize key histopathologic features, and classify causative organisms with molecular diagnostic techniques...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559410/case-report-encephalitis-with-brainstem-involvement-following-checkpoint-inhibitor-therapy-in-metastatic-melanoma
#3
Simon Bossart, Selina Thurneysen, Elisabeth Rushing, Karl Frontzek, Henning Leske, Daniela Mihic-Probst, Hannes W Nagel, Johanna Mangana, Simone M Goldinger, Reinhard Dummer
Checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used in the treatment of malignant melanoma and other cancers. With the use of such therapies, autoimmune-mediated adverse events in the central and peripheral nervous system are likely to occur more frequently. We report a unique case of brainstem encephalitis with a sudden lethal outcome following ipilimumab and pembrolizumab therapy in a patient with malignant melanoma. The autopsy showed a diffuse nodular activation of microglia in the whole encephalon with prominent intraparenchymal and perivascular lymphocytic infiltration of the brainstem...
June 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547518/life-threatening-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-the-cerebellum-treated-by-posterior-fossa-decompression
#4
Yousef Abusabha, Athanasios K Petridis, Bastian Kraus, Marcel A Kamp, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Kerim Beseoglu
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-neuroradiological syndrome associated with various clinical conditions, such as headache, encephalopathy, and seizures. It is reversible if a prompt diagnosis is made and treatment undertaken. We report a 52-year-old male with hypertensive crisis. Progressing somnolence and an unresponsive left pupil occurred. MRI revealed an intra-axial hyperintensity of the cerebellum and brainstem and occlusive hydrocephalus suggestive of encephalitis or a tumor...
July 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545782/autoimmune-encephalopathy-for-psychiatrists-when-to-suspect-autoimmunity-and-what-to-do-next
#5
REVIEW
Mark Oldham
OBJECTIVE: To provide a critical review of autoimmune encephalopathy-broadly defined as neuropsychiatric features directly related to an autoimmune process-relevant for psychiatric practice. METHODS: We consulted rheumatology textbooks to define the scope of autoimmune conditions and identified recent reviews of rheumatic conditions, autoimmune vasculitis, and autoimmune encephalitis. We integrated these with primary reports to provide a clinically relevant overview of autoimmune encephalopathy...
May 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514704/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-variants-forms-fruste-reclassification-with-new-criteria
#6
Fu Liong Hiew, Rahmansah Ramlan, Shanthi Viswanathan, Santhi Puvanarajah
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of various distinctive classical and localised Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) subtypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical characteristics and electrophysiological data of sixty-one consecutive patients admitted between 2012 and 2015 were systematically analysed and reclassified according to the new GBS clinical classification. Neurophysiology was evaluated with Hadden et al...
July 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489032/clinical-significance-and-prognostic-effect-of-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-in-critical-and-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#7
Hong-Xing Dang, Cheng-Jun Liu, Jing Li, Shi-Jiao Chen, Feng Xu
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with critical and severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and assess the clinical significance and prognostic effect of 25(OH)D concentrations in children with HFMD. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study. The 138 children with HFMD were divided into common (49 cases), severe (52 cases), and critical (37 cases) HFMD groups. Another 59 healthy children undergoing outpatient medical examinations during the same period were chosen as the control group...
May 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469998/analysis-of-mirnas-involved-in-mouse-brain-damage-upon-enterovirus-71-infection
#8
Xiaoxia Yang, Jing Xie, Leili Jia, Nan Liu, Yuan Liang, Fuli Wu, Beibei Liang, Yongrui Li, Jinyan Wang, Chunyu Sheng, Hao Li, Hongbo Liu, Qiuxia Ma, Chaojie Yang, Xinying Du, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infects the central nervous system (CNS) and causes brainstem encephalitis in children. MiRNAs have been found to play various functions in EV71 infection in human cell lines. To identify potential miRNAs involved in the inflammatory injury in CNS, our study, for the first time, performed a miRNA microarray assay in vivo using EV71 infected mice brains. Twenty differentially expressed miRNAs were identified (four up- and 16 down-regulated) and confirmed by qRT-PCR. The target genes of these miRNAs were analyzed using KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis, revealing that the miRNAs were mainly involved in the regulation of inflammation and neural system function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468063/-health-related-quality-of-life-on-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-patients
#9
Y M Zheng, J Yang, Q H Liao
Objective: To evaluate the health related quality of life (HRQoL) for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) patients with different complications. Methods: A national telephone interview under the EQ-5D proxy2 questionnaire (EQ-SD and EQ-VAS), was conducted to obtain the HRQoL of lab-confirmed severe HFMD patients, aged between six months and five-year-olds from the national communicable disease surveillance system from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Results: A total of 685 severe HFMD cases were included in the study...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445307/alteration-of-serum-high-mobility-group-protein-1-hmgb1-levels-in-children-with-enterovirus-71-induced-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#10
Weikun Zheng, Haifan Shi, Yiping Chen, Zhiwei Xu, Jie Chen, Longteng Jin
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric disease caused by enterovirus infection. It typically presents as a fever along with flat, discolored spots and bumps on the hands, feet, and mouth. Compared with other viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced HFMD is more prone to cause severe complications in children, such as brainstem encephalitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, and even death. More in-depth studies are still necessary to understand the characteristics of EV71-induced HFMD, although some related research has been reported so far...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364664/contribution-of-neuroinflammation-to-changes-in-11-c-flumazenil-binding-in-the-rat-brain-evaluation-of-the-inflamed-pons-as-reference-tissue
#11
Andrea Parente, David Vállez García, Alexandre Shoji, Isadora Lopes Alves, Bram Maas, Rolf Zijlma, Rudi Ajo Dierckx, Carlos A Buchpiguel, Erik Fj de Vries, Janine Doorduin
INTRODUCTION: [(11)C]Flumazenil is a well-known PET tracer for GABAA receptors and is mainly used as an imaging biomarker for neuronal loss. Recently, GABAA receptors on immune cells have been investigated as target for modulation of inflammation. Since neuronal loss is often accompanied by neuroinflammation, PET imaging with [(11)C]flumazenil is potentially affected by infiltrating immune cells. This may also compromise the validity of using the pons as reference tissue in quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344164/outbreak-of-brainstem-encephalitis-associated-with-enterovirus-a71-in-catalonia-spain-2016-a-clinical-observational-study-in-a-children-s-reference-centre-in-catalonia
#12
D Casas-Alba, M F de Sevilla, A Valero-Rello, C Fortuny, J-J García-García, C Ortez, J Muchart, T Armangué, I Jordan, C Luaces, I Barrabeig, R González-Sanz, M Cabrerizo, C Muñoz-Almagro, C Launes
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of an outbreak of brainstem encephalitis and encephalomyelitis related to enterovirus (EV) infection in Catalonia (Spain), a setting in which these manifestations were uncommon. METHODS: Clinical and microbiological data were analysed from patients with neurological symptoms associated with EV detection admitted to a reference paediatric hospital between April and June 2016. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258082/dppx-antibody-associated-encephalitis-main-syndrome-and-antibody-effects
#13
Makoto Hara, Helena Ariño, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Lidia Sabater, Maarten J Titulaer, Eugenia Martinez-Hernandez, Marco W J Schreurs, Myrna R Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, Josep Dalmau
OBJECTIVE: To report the main syndrome of dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein 6 (DPPX) antibody-associated encephalitis, immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass, and the antibody effects on DPPX/Kv4.2 potassium channels. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of new patients and cases reported since 2013 was performed. IgG subclass and effects of antibodies on cultured neurons were determined with described techniques. RESULTS: Nine new patients were identified (median age 57 years, range 36-69 years)...
April 4, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256369/anti-hu-paraneoplastic-brainstem-encephalitis-caused-by-a-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumor-presenting-with-central-hypoventilation
#14
Marc Najjar, Andrew Taylor, Surbhi Agrawal, Tito Fojo, Alexander E Merkler, Marc K Rosenblum, Laura Lennihan, Michael D Kluger
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are rare autoimmune manifestations of malignancies associated with specific antibodies. Anti-Hu associated brainstem encephalitis, a well-described syndrome, usually presents subacutely with preferential involvement of the medulla. Anti-Hu antibodies target intraneuronal antigens and are therefore highly correlated with neurological syndromes when present concomitantly with a neoplasm. Reported is a case of anti-Hu brainstem encephalitis associated with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) presenting with central hypoventilation...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166691/rhombencephalitis-caused-by-listeria-monocytogenes-in-a-pastured-bull
#15
Carolina Matto, Gustavo Varela, María Inés Mota, Ruben Gianneechini, Rodolfo Rivero
A pastured 2-y-old cross-breed bull developed brainstem encephalitis (rhombencephalitis); Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the brain. In the brainstem, there was perivascular cuffing, multiple microabscesses, and positive immunostaining for L. monocytogenes. Samples of bovine feces, water, feedstuffs, milking parlor soil, and bulk tank milk were collected from the dairy farm. Seven isolates of the genus Listeria were obtained, 6 of L. innocua and 1 of L. monocytogenes, which was found in the pasture where the bull grazed...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059631/acute-necrotizing-encephalopathy-causing-human-bocavirus
#16
Ayse Betul Ergul, Umit Altug, Kursad Aydin, Ahmet Sami Guven, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is characterized by multiple, symmetrical lesions involving the thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter and develops secondarily to viral infections. Influenza viruses are the most common etiological agents. Here, we present the first case of acute necrotizing encephalopathy to develop secondarily to human bocavirus. A 3-year-old girl presented with fever and altered mental status. She had had a fever, cough, and rhinorrhea for five days. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with an initial diagnosis of encephalitis when vomiting, convulsions, and loss of consciousness developed...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056277/-direct-medical-costs-and-influencing-factors-in-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-children-aged-between-six-months-and-five-years-old
#17
Y M Zheng, J Yang, Q H Liao
Objective: To estimate the direct medical cost of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in patients aged less than five years. Methods: A stratified sampling method was used to collect data on severe HFMD cases reported in the National HFMD surveillance database between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2013. The sampling was referenced with the national aetiologic distribution of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and other Enteroviruses (OEV) for severe HFMD cases and the included cases were distributed among seven geographic regions (Northeast, North China, Northwest, Central China, Southwest, East China and South China)...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974981/an-overlapping-case-of-miller-fisher-syndrome-bickerstaff-s-encephalitis-and-the-asman-variant-of-guillain-barre-syndrome
#18
E J Pegg, S K Chhetri, U G Lekwuwa, T Majeed
A 56-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of progressive tingling of the hands, unsteadiness, and diplopia. He was initially diagnosed clinically with Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) but later developed limb weakness consistent with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and subsequently reduced consciousness consistent with Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE). Neurophysiology revealed an axonal motor and sensory neuropathy, in keeping with the Acute Motor and Sensory Axonal Neuropathy (AMSAN) variant of GBS...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919476/acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-complicating-dengue-infection-with-neuroimaging-mimicking-multiple-sclerosis-a-report-of-two-cases
#19
S Viswanathan, N Botross, B N Rusli, A Riad
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) complicating dengue infection is still exceedingly rare even in endemic countries such as Malaysia. Here we report two such cases, the first in an elderly female patient and the second in a young man. Both presented with encephalopathy, brainstem involvement and worsening upper and lower limb weakness. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain was normal in the first case. Serum for dengue Ig M and NS-1 was positive in both cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis in both with Dengue IgM and NS-1 positive in the second case but not done in the first...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915419/necrotizing-meningoencephalitis-caused-by-sarcocystis-falcatula-in-bare-faced-ibis-phimosus-infuscatus
#20
Guilherme Konradt, Matheus Viezzer Bianchi, Ronaldo Viana Leite-Filho, Bruna Zafalon da Silva, Rodrigo Martins Soares, Saulo Petinatti Pavarini, David Driemeier
The infection by S. falcatula is commonly associated with respiratory disease in captive psittacine birds, with a few case reports of this protozoan causing encephalitis in wild birds. We describe the clinical, pathological, and molecular aspects of an infection by S. falcatula in a bare-faced ibis (Phimosus infuscatus). Clinically, wing paralysis and mild motor incoordination were observed. At necropsy, the telencephalic cortex showed multifocal to coalescing yellowish soft areas. Histologically, multifocal to coalescent nonsuppurative necrotizing meningoencephalitis of telencephalic cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem was observed...
February 2017: Parasitology Research
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