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Eusociality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021562/the-sex-pheromone-of-a-globally-invasive-honey-bee-predator-the-asian-eusocial-hornet-vespa-velutina
#1
Ping Wen, Ya-Nan Cheng, Shi-Hao Dong, Zheng-Wei Wang, Ken Tan, James C Nieh
The Asian hornet, Vespa velutina, is an invasive, globally-distributed predator of European honey bees and other insects. To better under its reproductive biology and to find a specific, effective, and low-impact control method for this species, we identified and tested the key compounds in V. velutina sex pheromone. Virgin gynes (reproductive females) produced this sex pheromone in the sixth intersegmental sternal glands of their abdomens. The active compounds were 4-oxo-octanoic acid (4-OOA, 10.4 μg bee(-1)) and 4-oxo-decanoic acid (4-ODA, 13...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981168/delayed-dispersal-and-prolonged-brood-care-in-a-family-living-beetle
#2
Jacqueline R Dillard, Thomas A Maigret
Delayed juvenile dispersal is an important prerequisite for the evolution of family-based social systems, such as cooperative breeding and eusociality. In general, young adults forego dispersal if there are substantial benefits to remaining in the natal nest and/or the likelihood of dispersing and breeding successfully is low. We investigate some general factors thought to drive delayed juvenile dispersal in the horned passalus beetle, a family-living beetle in which young adults remain with their families in their natal nest for several months before dispersing...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973493/survey-of-hatching-spines-of-bee-larvae-including-those-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apoidea
#3
Jerome G Rozen, Corey Shepard Smith, James H Cane
This article explores the occurrence of hatching spines among bee taxa and how these structures enable a larva on hatching to extricate itself from the egg chorion. These spines, arranged in a linear sequence along the sides of the first instar just dorsal to the spiracles, have been observed and recorded in certain groups of solitary and cleptoparasitic bee taxa. After eclosion, the first instar remains loosely covered by the egg chorion. The fact that this form of eclosion has been detected in five families (Table 1 identifies four of the families...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961457/evolutionary-processes-in-suicide
#4
REVIEW
Bruno Chiurliza, Megan L Rogers, Matthew E Schneider, Carol Chu, Thomas E Joiner
Suicidal behavior contains several dynamic elements. Due to its complexity, empirical science may approach suicide through various avenues. One underutilized approach is taking an evolutionary perspective. Our review of the literature presents two evolutionary processes that may be implicated in suicidal behavior, namely eusocial behavior and antipredator response behaviors. Studies have indicated that aspects of suicidal behavior parallel self-sacrificial behavior in eusocial animals, and that systems similar to hyperarousal-shutdown systems involved in antipredator behaviors may be activated among suicidal individuals...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957466/queens-and-workers-contribute-differently-to-adaptive-evolution-in-bumble-bees-and-honey-bees
#5
Brock A Harpur, Alivia Dey, Jennifer R Albert, Sani Patel, Heather M Hines, Martin Hasselmann, Laurence Packer, Amro Zayed
Eusociality represents a major transition in evolution and is typified by cooperative brood care and reproductive division of labor between generations. In bees, this division of labor allows queens and workers to phenotypically specialize. Worker traits associated with helping are thought to be crucial to the fitness of a eusocial lineage, and recent studies of honey bees (genus Apis) have found that adaptively evolving genes often have worker-biased expression patterns. It is unclear however if worker-biased genes are disproportionately acted on by strong positive selection in all eusocial insects...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950481/trophallaxis-inspired-model-for-distributed-transport-between-randomly-interacting-agents
#6
Johannes Gräwer, Henrik Ronellenfitsch, Marco G Mazza, Eleni Katifori
Trophallaxis, the regurgitation and mouth to mouth transfer of liquid food between members of eusocial insect societies, is an important process that allows the fast and efficient dissemination of food in the colony. Trophallactic systems are typically treated as a network of agent interactions. This approach, though valuable, does not easily lend itself to analytic predictions. In this work we consider a simple trophallactic system of randomly interacting agents with finite carrying capacity, and calculate analytically and via a series of simulations the global food intake rate for the whole colony as well as observables describing how uniformly the food is distributed within the nest...
August 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941994/the-microrna-ame-mir-279a-regulates-sucrose-responsiveness-of%C3%A2-forager-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#7
Fang Liu, Tengfei Shi, Wei Yin, Xin Su, Lei Qi, Zachary Y Huang, Shaowu Zhang, Linsheng Yu
Increasing evidence demonstrates that microRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in the regulation of animal behaviours. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are eusocial insects, with honey bee workers displaying age-dependent behavioural maturation. Many different miRNAs have been implicated in the change of behaviours in honey bees and ame-miR-279a was previously shown to be more highly expressed in nurse bee heads than in those of foragers. However, it was not clear whether this difference in expression was associated with age or task performance...
September 20, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940239/allee-effects-in-social-species
#8
REVIEW
E Angulo, G Luque, S D Gregory, J W Wenzel, C Bessa-Gomes, L Berec, F Courchamp
Allee effects have important implications for many aspects of basic and applied ecology. The benefits of aggregation of conspecific individuals are central to Allee effects, which have led to the widely held assumption that social species are more prone to Allee effects. Robust evidence for this assumption, however, remains rare. Further, previous research on Allee effects has failed to adequately address the consequences of the different levels of organization within social species' populations. Here, we review available evidence of Allee effects and model the role of demographic and behavioural factors that may combine to dampen or strengthen Allee effects in social species...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936978/advances-on-polyphenism-in-insects
#9
Xian-Ci Xue, Li Yu
Polyphenism denotes that one genome produces two or more distinct phenotypes due to environmental inductions. Many cases have been reported in insects, for example, metamorphosis, seasonal polyphenism, the caste of eusocial insects and so on. Polyphenism is one of the most important reasons for insects to survive and thrive, because insects can adapt and use the environmental cues around them in order to avoid predators and reproduce by changing their phenotypes. Polyphenism has received growing attentions, ranging from the earlier description of this phenomenon to the exploration of possible inducing factors...
September 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887149/transcriptome-and-target-dna-enrichment-sequence-data-provide-new-insights-into-the-phylogeny-of-vespid-wasps-hymenoptera-aculeata-vespidae
#10
Sarah Bank, Manuela Sann, Christoph Mayer, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Donath, Lars Podsiadlowski, Alexey Kozlov, Malte Petersen, Lars Krogmann, Rudolf Meier, Paolo Rosa, Thomas Schmitt, Mareike Wurdack, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Bernhard Misof, Ralph S Peters, Oliver Niehuis
The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. The phylogenetic relationships of the major vespid wasp lineages (i.e., subfamilies and tribes) have been investigated repeatedly by analyzing behavioral and morphological traits as well as nucleotide sequences of few selected genes with largely incongruent results. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships using a phylogenomic approach...
November 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883425/computational-genome-wide-survey-of-odorant-receptors-from-two-solitary-bees-dufourea-novaeangliae-hymenoptera-halictidae-and-habropoda-laboriosa-hymenoptera-apidae
#11
Snehal D Karpe, Surbhi Dhingra, Axel Brockmann, R Sowdhamini
Olfactory/odorant receptors (ORs) probably govern eusocial behaviour in honey bees through detection of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and queen mandibular gland pheromones (QMP). CHCs are involved in nest-mate recognition whereas QMP acts as sex pheromone for drones and as retinue pheromone for female workers. Further studies on the effect of eusociality on the evolution of ORs are hindered by the non-availability of comprehensive OR sets of solitary species. We report complete OR repertoires from two solitary bees Dufourea novaeangliae (112 ORs) and Habropoda laboriosa (151 ORs)...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879477/sex-specific-inhibition-and-stimulation-of-worker-reproductive-transition-in-a-termite
#12
Qian Sun, Kenneth F Haynes, Jordan D Hampton, Xuguo Zhou
In social insects, the postembryonic development of individuals exhibits strong phenotypic plasticity in response to the environment, thus generating the caste system. Different from eusocial Hymenoptera, in which queens dominate reproduction and inhibit worker fertility, the primary reproductive caste in termites (kings and queens) can be replaced by neotenic reproductives derived from functionally sterile individuals. Feedback regulation of nestmate differentiation into reproductives has been suggested, but the sex specificity remains inconclusive...
September 6, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854636/variation-in-dna-methylation-is-not-consistently-reflected-by-sociality-in-hymenoptera
#13
Karl M Glastad, Samuel V Arsenault, Kim L Vertacnik, Scott M Geib, Sasha Kay, Bryan N Danforth, Sandra M Rehan, Catherine R Linnen, Sarah D Kocher, Brendan G Hunt
Changes in gene regulation that underlie phenotypic evolution can be encoded directly in the DNA sequence or mediated by chromatin modifications such as DNA methylation. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of eusocial division of labor is associated with enhanced gene regulatory potential, which may include expansions in DNA methylation in the genomes of Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, and sawflies). Recently, this hypothesis garnered support from analyses of a commonly used metric to estimate DNA methylation in silico, CpG content...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853926/genetics-and-evolution-of-social-behavior-in-insects
#14
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Romain Libbrecht, Laurent Keller
The study of insect social behavior has offered tremendous insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating behavioral and phenotypic plasticity. Genomic applications to the study of eusocial insect species, in particular, have led to several hypotheses for the processes underlying the molecular evolution of behavior. Advances in understanding the genetic control of social organization have also been made, suggesting an important role for supergenes in the evolution of divergent behavioral phenotypes. Intensive study of social phenotypes across species has revealed that behavior and caste are controlled by an interaction between genetic and environmentally mediated effects and, further, that gene expression and regulation mediate plastic responses to environmental signals...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851819/o2-binding-and-co2-sensitivity-in-hemoglobins-of-subterranean-african-mole-rats
#15
Roy E Weber, Jennifer U M Jarvis, Angela Fago, Nigel C Bennett
Inhabiting deep and sealed subterranean burrows, mole rats exhibit a remarkable suite of specializations, including eusociality (living in colonies with single breeding queens), extraordinary longevity, cancer immunity and poikilothermy, and extreme tolerance of hypoxia and hypercapnia.With little information available on adjustments in hemoglobin (Hb) function that may mitigate the impact of exogenous and endogenous constraints on the uptake and internal transport of O2, we measured hematological characteristics, as well as Hb-O2 binding affinities and their sensitivities to pH (Bohr effect), CO2, temperature and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (DPG, the major allosteric modulator of Hb-O2 affinity in the red cells) in four social and two solitary species of African mole rats (family Bathyergidae) originating from different biomes and soil types across Central and Southern Africa...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846170/stalk-size-and-altruism-investment-within-and-among-populations-of-the-social-amoeba
#16
H R Votaw, E A Ostrowski
Reproductive division of labour is common in many societies, including those of eusocial insects, cooperatively breeding vertebrates, and most forms of multicellularity. However, conflict over what is best for the individual vs. the group can prevent an optimal division of labour from being achieved. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, cells aggregate to become multicellular and a fraction behaves altruistically, forming a dead stalk that supports the rest. Theory suggests that intra-organismal conflict over spore-stalk cell fate can drive rapid evolutionary change in allocation traits, leading to polymorphisms within populations or rapid divergence between them...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833132/foraging-traits-modulate-stingless-bee-community-disassembly-under-forest-loss
#17
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Chase D Mendenhall, Berry Brosi
Anthropogenic land use change is an important driver of impacts to biological communities and the ecosystem services they provide. Pollination is one ecosystem service that may be threatened by community disassembly. Relatively little is known about changes in bee community composition in the tropics, where pollination limitation is most severe and land use change is rapid. Understanding how anthropogenic changes alter community composition and functioning has been hampered by high variability in responses of individual species...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832579/extreme-polyandry-aids-the-establishment-of-invasive-populations-of-a-social-insect
#18
G Ding, H Xu, B P Oldroyd, R S Gloag
Although monandry is believed to have facilitated the evolution of eusociality, many highly eusocial insects have since evolved extreme polyandry. The transition to extreme polyandry was likely driven by the benefits of within-colony genetic variance to task specialization and/or disease resistance, but the extent to which it confers secondary benefits, once evolved, is unclear. Here we investigate the consequences of extreme polyandry on the invasive potential of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. In honey bees and other Hymenoptera, small newly founded invasive populations must overcome the genetic constraint of their sex determination system that requires heterozygosity at a sex-determining locus to produce viable females...
November 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826970/symbiogenesis-beyond-the-endosymbiosis-theory
#19
Duur K Aanen, Paul Eggleton
Symbiogenesis, literally 'becoming by living together', refers to the crucial role of symbiosis in major evolutionary innovations. The term usually is reserved for the major transition to eukaryotes and to photosynthesising eukaryotic algae and plants by endosymbiosis. However, in some eukaryote lineages endosymbionts have been lost secondarily, showing that symbiosis can trigger a major evolutionary innovation, even if symbionts were lost secondarily. This leads to the intriguing possibility that symbiosis has played a role in other major evolutionary innovations as well, even if not all extant representatives of such groups still have the symbiotic association...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821570/juvenile-hormone-but-not-nutrition-or-social-cues-affects-reproductive-maturation-in-solitary-alkali-bees-nomia-melanderi
#20
Karen M Kapheim, Makenna M Johnson
Eusocial insect colonies are defined by extreme variation in reproductive activity among castes, but the ancestral conditions from which this variation arose are unknown. Investigating the factors that contribute to variation in reproductive physiology among solitary insects that are closely related to social species can help to fill this gap. We experimentally tested the role of nutrition, juvenile hormone (JH) and social cues on reproductive maturation in solitary alkali bees (Halictidae: Nomia melanderi)...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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