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Eusociality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643786/a-unified-model-of-hymenopteran-preadaptations-that-trigger-the-evolutionary-transition-to-eusociality
#1
Andrés E Quiñones, Ido Pen
Explaining the origin of eusociality, with strict division of labour between workers and reproductives, remains one of evolutionary biology's greatest challenges. Specific combinations of genetic, behavioural and demographic traits in Hymenoptera are thought to explain their relatively high frequency of eusociality, but quantitative models integrating such preadaptations are lacking. Here we use mathematical models to show that the joint evolution of helping behaviour and maternal sex ratio adjustment can synergistically trigger both a behavioural change from solitary to eusocial breeding, and a demographic change from a life cycle with two reproductive broods to a life cycle in which an unmated cohort of female workers precedes a final generation of dispersing reproductives...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624394/reduced-foraging-investment-as-an-adaptation-to-patchy-food-sources-a-phasic-army-ant-simulation
#2
Serafino Teseo, Francesco Delloro
Colonies of several ant species within the subfamily Dorylinae alternate stereotypical discrete phases of foraging and reproduction. Such phasic cycles are thought to be adaptive because they minimize the amount of foraging and the related costs, and at the same time enhance the colony-level ability to rely on patchily distributed food sources. In order to investigate these hypotheses, we use here a simple computational approach to study the population dynamics of two species of virtual ant colonies that differ quantitatively in their foraging investment...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609463/uric-acid-an-important-antioxidant-contributing-to-survival-in-termites
#3
Eisuke Tasaki, Hiroki Sakurai, Masaru Nitao, Kenji Matsuura, Yoshihito Iuchi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated spontaneously in all organisms and cause oxidative damage to biomolecules when present in excess. Accumulated oxidative damage accelerates aging; enhanced antioxidant capacity may be a positive factor for longevity. Recently, numerous studies of aging and longevity have been performed using short-lived animals, however, longevity mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show that a termite Reticulitermes speratus that is thought to be long-lived eusocial insect than other solitary insects uses large quantities of uric acid as an antioxidant against ROS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608545/an-alternative-pathway-to-eusociality-exploring-the-molecular-and-functional-basis-of-fortress-defense
#4
Sarah P Lawson, Leah Sigle, Abigail Lind, Andrew W Legan, Jessica N Mezzanotte, Hans-Willi Honegger, Patrick Abbot
Some animals express a form of eusociality known as 'fortress defense', in which defense rather than brood care is the primary social act. Aphids are small plant-feeding insects, but like termites, some species express division of labor and castes of aggressive juvenile 'soldiers'. What is the functional basis of fortress defense eusociality in aphids? Previous work showed that the acquisition of venoms might be a key innovation in aphid social evolution. We show that the lethality of aphid soldiers derives in part from the induction of exaggerated immune responses in insects they attack...
June 13, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568812/second-order-cooperation-cooperative-offspring-as-a-living-public-good-arising-from-second-order-selection-on-non-cooperative-individuals
#5
Antoine Frénoy, François Taddei, Dusan Misevic
Switching rate between cooperating and non-cooperating genotypes is a crucial social evolution factor, often neglected by game theory-inspired theoretical and experimental frameworks. We show that the evolution of alleles increasing the mutation or phenotypic switching rates toward cooperation is in itself a social dilemma. Although cooperative offspring are often unlikely to reproduce, due to high cost of cooperation, they can be seen both as a living public good and a part of the extended parental phenotype...
May 31, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559110/protein-restriction-affects-sperm-number-but-not-sperm-viability-in-male-ants
#6
Francisco Dávila, Serge Aron
Sperm cells are costly to produce; diet should therefore affect sperm number and/or viability. In non-social insects and vertebrates, there is compelling evidence that diet influences sperm production. Less is known about this relationship in eusocial hymenopterans (all ants and some bees and wasps), whose mating systems impose unique selective pressures on sperm production. Males face physiological constraints: they acquire all of the resources they will use in future reproductive efforts as larvae and emerge from the pupal stage with a fixed, non-renewable amount of sperm...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542566/proteomic-analysis-in-the-dufour-s-gland-of-africanized-apis-mellifera-workers-hymenoptera-apidae
#7
Aparecida das Dores Teixeira, Patricia D Games, Benjamin B Katz, John M Tomich, José C Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
The colony of eusocial bee Apis mellifera has a reproductive queen and sterile workers performing tasks such as brood care and foraging. Chemical communication plays a crucial role in the maintenance of sociability in bees with many compounds released by the exocrine glands. The Dufour's gland is a non-paired gland associated with the sting apparatus with important functions in the communication between members of the colony, releasing volatile chemicals that influence workers roles and tasks. However, the protein content in this gland is not well studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533385/solitary-bees-reduce-investment-in-communication-compared-with-their-social-relatives
#8
Bernadette Wittwer, Abraham Hefetz, Tovit Simon, Li E K Murphy, Mark A Elgar, Naomi E Pierce, Sarah D Kocher
Social animals must communicate to define group membership and coordinate social organization. For social insects, communication is predominantly mediated through chemical signals, and as social complexity increases, so does the requirement for a greater diversity of signals. This relationship is particularly true for advanced eusocial insects, including ants, bees, and wasps, whose chemical communication systems have been well-characterized. However, we know surprisingly little about how these communication systems evolve during the transition between solitary and group living...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514634/convergent-reversion-to-single-mating-in-a-wasp-social-parasite
#9
Kevin J Loope, Federico Lopez-Osorio, Libor Dvořák
While eusociality arose in species with single-mating females, multiple mating by queens has evolved repeatedly across the social ants, bees, and wasps. Understanding the benefits and costs of multiple mating of queens is important because polyandry results in reduced relatedness between siblings, reducing kin-selected benefits of helping while also selecting for secondary social traits that reduce intracolony conflict. The leading hypothesis for the benefits of polyandry in social insects emphasizes advantages of a genetically diverse workforce...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508537/superorganismality-and-caste-differentiation-as-points-of-no-return-how-the-major-evolutionary-transitions-were-lost-in-translation
#10
Jacobus J Boomsma, Richard Gawne
More than a century ago, William Morton Wheeler proposed that social insect colonies can be regarded as superorganisms when they have morphologically differentiated reproductive and nursing castes that are analogous to the metazoan germ-line and soma. Following the rise of sociobiology in the 1970s, Wheeler's insights were largely neglected, and we were left with multiple new superorganism concepts that are mutually inconsistent and uninformative on how superorganismality originated. These difficulties can be traced to the broadened sociobiological concept of eusociality, which denies that physical queen-worker caste differentiation is a universal hallmark of superorganismal colonies...
May 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490760/hormonal-pleiotropy-helps-maintain-queen-signal-honesty-in-a-highly-eusocial-wasp
#11
Ricardo Caliari Oliveira, Ayrton Vollet-Neto, Cintia Akemi Oi, Jelle S van Zweden, Fabio Nascimento, Colin Sullivan Brent, Tom Wenseleers
In insect societies, both queens and workers produce chemicals that reliably signal caste membership and reproductive status. The mechanisms that help to maintain the honesty of such queen and fertility signals, however, remain poorly studied. Here we test if queen signal honesty could be based on the shared endocrine control of queen fertility and the production of specific signals. In support of this "hormonal pleiotropy" hypothesis, we find that in the common wasp, application of methoprene (a juveline hormone analogue) caused workers to acquire a queen-like cuticular hydrocarbon profile, resulting in the overproduction of known queen pheromones as well as some compounds typically linked to worker fertility...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481294/queen-quality-and-the-impact-of-honey-bee-diseases-on-queen-health-potential-for-interactions-between-two-major-threats-to-colony-health
#12
REVIEW
Esmaeil Amiri, Micheline K Strand, Olav Rueppell, David R Tarpy
Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, live in highly eusocial colonies that are each typically headed by a single queen. The queen is the sole reproductive female in a healthy colony, and because long-term colony survival depends on her ability to produce a large number of offspring, queen health is essential for colony success. Honey bees have recently been experiencing considerable declines in colony health. Among a number of biotic and abiotic factors known to impact colony health, disease and queen failure are repeatedly reported as important factors underlying colony losses...
May 8, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472327/contrasting-sex-and-caste-dependent-pirna-profiles-in-the-transposon-depleted-haplodiploid-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#13
Weiwen Wang, Regan Ashby, Hua Ying, Ryszard Maleszka, Sylvain Forêt
Protecting genome integrity against transposable elements is achieved by intricate molecular mechanisms involving PIWI proteins, their associated small RNAs (piRNAs), and epigenetic modifiers such as DNA methylation. Eusocial bees, in particular the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, have one of the lowest contents of transposable elements in the animal kingdom, and, unlike other animals with a functional DNA methylation system, appear not to methylate their transposons. This raises the question of whether the PIWI machinery has been retained in this species...
May 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448564/insights-into-the-biochemical-defence-and-methylation-of-the-solitary-bee-osmia-rufa-l-a-foundation-for-examining-eusociality-development
#14
Aneta Strachecka, Jacek Chobotow, Jerzy Paleolog, Aleksandra Łoś, Michał Schulz, Dariusz Teper, Halina Kucharczyk, Maciej Grzybek
We examined age-related biochemical and histological changes in the fat bodies and hemolymph of Osmia rufa males and females. We analysed solitary bees during diapause, in October and in April; as well as the flying insects following diapause, in May and June. The trophocyte sizes, as well as the numbers of lipid droplets were the greatest at the beginning of diapause. Subsequently, they decreased along with age. Triglyceride and glucose concentrations systematically decreased in fat body cells but increased in the hemolymph from October to June...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446695/breaking-the-cipher-ant-eavesdropping-on-the-variational-trail-pheromone-of-its-termite-prey
#15
Xiao-Lan Wen, Ping Wen, Cecilia A L Dahlsjö, David Sillam-Dussès, Jan Šobotník
Predators may eavesdrop on their prey using innate signals of varying nature. In regards to social prey, most of the prey signals are derived from social communication and may therefore be highly complex. The most efficient predators select signals that provide the highest benefits. Here, we showed the use of eusocial prey signals by the termite-raiding ant Odontoponera transversaO. transversa selected the trail pheromone of termites as kairomone in several species of fungus-growing termites (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae: Odontotermes yunnanensis, Macrotermes yunnanensis, Ancistrotermes dimorphus)...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435856/dynamic-microbiome-evolution-in-social-bees
#16
Waldan K Kwong, Luis A Medina, Hauke Koch, Kong-Wah Sing, Eunice Jia Yu Soh, John S Ascher, Rodolfo Jaffé, Nancy A Moran
The highly social (eusocial) corbiculate bees, comprising the honey bees, bumble bees, and stingless bees, are ubiquitous insect pollinators that fulfill critical roles in ecosystem services and human agriculture. Here, we conduct wide sampling across the phylogeny of these corbiculate bees and reveal a dynamic evolutionary history behind their microbiota, marked by multiple gains and losses of gut associates, the presence of generalist as well as host-specific strains, and patterns of diversification driven, in part, by host ecology (for example, colony size)...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428832/a-meta-analysis-testing-eusocial-co-option-theories-in-termite-gut-physiology-and-symbiosis
#17
Michael E Scharf, Yunpeng Cai, Yijun Sun, Ruchira Sen, Rhitoban Raychoudhury, Drion G Boucias
The termite gut accomplishes key physiologic functions that underlie termite symbiosis and sociality. However, potential candidate functions of the host-symbiont holobiome have not yet been explored across seemingly divergent processes such as digestion, immunity, caste differentiation, and xenobiotic tolerance. This study took a meta-analysis approach for concurrently studying host and symbiont gut metatranscriptome responses of the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes, which has ancestral characteristics and hosts a diverse mix of eukaryotic and bacterial symbionts...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410430/caste-sex-and-age-dependent-expression-of-immune-related-genes-in-a-japanese-subterranean-termite-reticulitermes-speratus
#18
Yuki Mitaka, Kazuya Kobayashi, Kenji Matsuura
Insects protect themselves from microbial infections through innate immune responses, including pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, the activation of proteolytic cascades, and the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides. Termites, eusocial insects inhabiting microbe-rich wood, live in closely-related family groups that are susceptible to shared pathogen infections. To resist pathogenic infection, termite families have evolved diverse immune adaptations at both individual and societal levels, and a strategy of trade-offs between reproduction and immunity has been suggested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403157/effects-of-age-and-nutritional-state-on-the-expression-of-gustatory-receptors-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera
#19
Nicola K Simcock, Luisa A Wakeling, Dianne Ford, Geraldine A Wright
Gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in insect taste neurons signal the presence of carbohydrates, sugar alcohols, CO2, bitter compounds and oviposition stimulants. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has one of the smallest Gr gene sets (12 Gr genes) of any insect whose genome has been sequenced. Honeybees live in eusocial colonies with a division of labour and perform age-dependent behavioural tasks, primarily food collection. Here, we used RT-qPCR to quantify Gr mRNA in honeybees at two ages (newly-emerged and foraging-age adults) to examine the relationship between age-related physiology and expression of Gr genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396492/the-geometric-framework-for-nutrition-reveals-interactions-between-protein-and-carbohydrate-during-larval-growth-in-honey-bees
#20
Bryan R Helm, Garett P Slater, Arun Rajamohan, George D Yocum, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes nutritional studies challenging, because diet components cannot be systematically manipulated in the hive...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
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