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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444845/antibacterial-activity-of-male-and-female-sperm-storage-organs-in-ants
#1
Francisco Dávila, Anne Botteaux, David Bauman, Sarah Chérasse, Serge Aron
Bacteria can damage sperm and thus reduce the reproductive success of both males and females; selection should therefore favour the evolution of antimicrobial protection. Eusocial hymenopterans might be particularly affected by such bacterial infections because of their mating ecology. In both sexes, mating is restricted to a short window early in the adult stage; there are no further chances to mate later in life. Males die shortly after mating, but queens use the acquired sperm to fertilise their eggs for years, sometimes decades...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403074/hemimetabolous-genomes-reveal-molecular-basis-of-termite-eusociality
#2
Mark C Harrison, Evelien Jongepier, Hugh M Robertson, Nicolas Arning, Tristan Bitard-Feildel, Hsu Chao, Christopher P Childers, Huyen Dinh, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Johannes Gowin, Carolin Greiner, Yi Han, Haofu Hu, Daniel S T Hughes, Ann-Kathrin Huylmans, Carsten Kemena, Lukas P M Kremer, Sandra L Lee, Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Ludovic Mallet, Jose M Monroy-Kuhn, Annabell Moser, Shwetha C Murali, Donna M Muzny, Saria Otani, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Monica Poelchau, Jiaxin Qu, Florentine Schaub, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Kim C Worley, Qiaolin Xie, Guillem Ylla, Michael Poulsen, Richard A Gibbs, Coby Schal, Stephen Richards, Xavier Belles, Judith Korb, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Around 150 million years ago, eusocial termites evolved from within the cockroaches, 50 million years before eusocial Hymenoptera, such as bees and ants, appeared. Here, we report the 2-Gb genome of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and the 1.3-Gb genome of the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. We show evolutionary signatures of termite eusociality by comparing the genomes and transcriptomes of three termites and the cockroach against the background of 16 other eusocial and non-eusocial insects...
February 5, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380454/low-levels-of-hybridization-in-two-species-of-african-driver-ants
#3
Ian A Butler, Marcell K Peters, Daniel J C Kronauer
Hybridization in ants can have consequences different from those observed in most other species, with many of the potential deleterious effects being mitigated due to haplodiploidy and eusociality. In some species where colonies are either headed by multiple queens or single queens that mate with many males, hybridization is associated with genetic caste determination, where hybrids develop into workers and purebred individuals develop into queens. A previous study suggested that hybridization occurs between two Dorylus army ant species with multiply mated queens...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371110/intramembranal-disulfide-cross-linking-elucidates-the-super-quaternary-structure-of-mammalian-catspers
#4
Christopher Bystroff
CatSper is a voltage-dependent calcium channel located in the plasma membrane of the sperm flagellum and is responsible for triggering hyperactive motility. A homology model for the transmembrane region was built in which the arrangement of the subunits around the pseudo-four-fold symmetry axis was deduced by the pairing of conserved transmembranal cysteines across mammals. Directly emergent of the predicted quaternary structure is an architecture in which tetramers polymerize through additional, highly conserved cysteines, creating one or more double-rows channels extending the length of the principal piece of the mammalian sperm tail...
January 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368265/caste-fate-determination-primarily-occurs-after-adult-emergence-in-a-primitively-eusocial-paper-wasp-significance-of-the-photoperiod-during-the-adult-stage
#5
Hideto Yoshimura, Yoshihiro Y Yamada
Independent-founding paper wasps constitute a major group of primitively eusocial insects, and when caste-fate determination occurs in temperate species of these wasps, particularly regarding whether it occurs before or after emergence, remains unclear. No critical morphological differences occur between potential queens of the next generation (often called gynes) and workers in primitively eusocial insects. The gynes of temperate species are characterized by diapausing, and the nutrients available during the larval stage have often been believed to determine caste fate...
January 24, 2018: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364116/naked-mole-rat-mortality-rates-defy-gompertzian-laws-by-not-increasing-with-age
#6
J Graham Ruby, Megan Smith, Rochelle Buffenstein
The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), has a reported maximum lifespan of >30 years and exhibits delayed and/or attenuated age-associated physiological declines. We questioned whether these mouse-sized, eusocial rodents conform to Gompertzian mortality laws by experiencing an exponentially increasing risk of death as they get older. We compiled and analyzed a large compendium of historical naked mole-rat lifespan data with >3000 data points. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a substantial portion of the population to have survived at 30 years of age...
January 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351018/the-behavior-and-reproductive-physiology-of-a-solitary-progressive-provisioning-vespid-wasp-evidence-for-a-solitary-cycle-origin-of-reproductive-castes
#7
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Tiago Falcon Lopes, Theresa C Wossler
The emergence of queens and workers from solitary antecedents mark a major evolutionary transition in the history of life. The solitary progressive provisioning wasp Synagris cornuta, a member of the subfamily Eumeninae (basal to eusocial vespid wasps), alternates between behavioral states characterized as queenlike and worker-like. Akin to a queen in eusocial wasps, a S. cornuta female initiates construction of a cell into which she oviposits and then, similar to a worker, cares for the brood as it develops...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341390/building-a-new-research-framework-for-social-evolution-intralocus-caste-antagonism
#8
Tanya M Pennell, Luke Holman, Edward H Morrow, Jeremy Field
The breeding and non-breeding 'castes' of eusocial insects provide a striking example of role-specific selection, where each caste maximises fitness through different morphological, behavioural and physiological trait values. Typically, queens are long-lived egg-layers, while workers are short-lived, largely sterile foragers. Remarkably, the two castes are nevertheless produced by the same genome. The existence of inter-caste genetic correlations is a neglected consequence of this shared genome, potentially hindering the evolution of caste dimorphism: alleles that increase the productivity of queens may decrease the productivity of workers and vice versa, such that each caste is prevented from reaching optimal trait values...
January 16, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311307/emergence-of-cooperation-and-division-of-labor-in-the-primitively-eusocial-wasp-ropalidia-marginata
#9
Anindita Brahma, Souvik Mandal, Raghavendra Gadagkar
In most primitively eusocial wasps new nests are initiated by a single female or by small groups of females. To study the emergence of division of labor (DOL) among the nest foundresses and to determine its possible effect on nest productivity we maintained newly eclosed females of Ropalidia marginata in small boxes with one, two, or three nestmate wasps of the same age per box. Only one wasp developed her ovaries and laid eggs in each box, while the other wasp(s) built the nest, brought food, and fed larvae, demonstrating the spontaneous emergence of reproductive DOL in the presence of more than one wasp...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258586/identification-of-24-new-microsatellite-loci-in-the-sweat-bee-lasioglossum-malachurum-hymenoptera-halictidae
#10
Paul J Parsons, Christelle Couchoux, Gavin J Horsburgh, Deborah A Dawson, Jeremy Field
OBJECTIVE: The objective here is to identify highly polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Palaearctic sweat bee Lasioglossum malachurum. Sweat bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) are widespread pollinators that exhibit an unusually large range of social behaviours from non-social, where each female nests alone, to eusocial, where a single queen reproduces while the other members of the colony help to rear her offspring. They thus represent excellent models for understanding social evolution...
December 19, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258251/what-kills-the-hindgut-flagellates-of-lower-termites-during-the-host-molting-cycle
#11
REVIEW
Christine A Nalepa
Subsocial wood feeding cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus, the sister group of termites, retain their symbiotic gut flagellates during the host molting cycle, but in lower termites, closely related flagellates die prior to host ecdysis. Although the prevalent view is that termite flagellates die because of conditions of starvation and desiccation in the gut during the host molting cycle, the work of L.R. Cleveland in the 1930s through the 1960s provides a strong alternate hypothesis: it was the changed hormonal environment associated with the origin of eusociality and its concomitant shift in termite developmental ontogeny that instigates the death of the flagellates in termites...
December 18, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208229/pheromones-involved-in-insect-parental-care-and-family-life
#12
REVIEW
Sandra Steiger, Johannes Stökl
Effective parental care requires recognition and communication processes. Whereas chemical communication has been studied intensively in eusocial organisms, in which the workers (siblings) predominantly provide brood care, insect groups in which parents engage in care have been largely neglected. However, the study of communication in insect families might complement and enhance our understanding not only of the evolution of signaling process involved in social insects, but also of those involved in vertebrate families...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163007/from-mice-to-mole-rats-species-specific-modulation-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#13
Maria K Oosthuizen
Rodent populations living in their natural environments have very diverse ecological and life history profiles that may differ substantially from that of conventional laboratory rodents. Free-living rodents show species-specific neurogenesis that are dependent on their unique biology and ecology. This perspective aims to illustrate the benefit of studying wild rodent species in conjunction with laboratory rodents. African mole-rats are discussed in terms of habitat complexity, social structures, and longevity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160553/the-evolutionary-dynamics-of-adaptive-virginity-sex-allocation-and-altruistic-helping-in-haplodiploid-animals
#14
Petri Rautiala, Heikki Helanterä, Mikael Puurtinen
In haplodiploids, females can produce sons from unfertilized eggs without mating. However, virgin reproduction is usually considered to be a result of a failure to mate, rather than an adaptation. Here we build an analytical model for evolution of virgin reproduction, sex-allocation, and altruistic female helping in haplodiploid taxa. We show that when mating is costly (e.g. when mating increases predation risk), virginity can evolve as an adaptive female reproductive strategy. Furthermore, adaptive virginity results in strongly divergent sex-ratios in mated and virgin queen nests ('split sex ratios'), which promotes the evolution of altruistic helping by daughters in mated queen nests...
November 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147977/are-isomeric-alkenes-used-in-species-recognition-among-neo-tropical-stingless-bees-melipona-spp
#15
Stephen J Martin, Sue Shemilt, Cândida B da S Lima, Carlos A L de Carvalho
Our understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) in recognition is based largely on temperate ant species and honey bees. The stingless bees remain relatively poorly studied, despite being the largest group of eusocial bees, comprising more than 400 species in some 60 genera. The Meliponini and Apini diverged between 80-130 Myr B.P. so the evolutionary trajectories that shaped the chemical communication systems in ants, honeybees and stingless bees may be very different. The aim of this study was to study if a unique species CHC signal existed in Neotropical stingless bees, as has been shown for many temperate species, and what compounds are involved...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113015/subfamily-dependent-alternative-reproductive-strategies-in-worker-honey-bees
#16
Boris Yagound, Michael Duncan, Nadine C Chapman, Benjamin P Oldroyd
Functional worker sterility is the defining feature of insect societies. Yet, workers are sometimes found reproducing in their own or foreign colonies. The proximate mechanisms underlying these alternative reproductive phenotypes are key to understanding how reproductive altruism and selfishness are balanced in eusocial insects. In this study we show that in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies the social environment of a worker, i.e. the presence and relatedness of the queens in a worker's natal colony and in surrounding colonies, significantly influences her fertility and drifting behaviour...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102645/caste-differences-in-the-association-between-dopamine-and-reproduction-in-the-bumble-bee-bombus-ignitus
#17
Ken Sasaki, Hinako Matsuyama, Naruaki Morita, Masato Ono
A society of bumble bees is primitively eusocial, with an annual life cycle, and can be used as a physiological model of social bees for comparative studies with highly eusocial hymenopterans. We investigated the dynamics of biogenic amine levels in the brain, meso-metathoracic ganglia, terminal abdominal ganglion, and hemolymph in queens 1 day after mating (1DAM), during diapause (Dp), and during colony founding (CF) in the bumble bee, Bombus ignitus. Dopamine levels in the brain of CF queens were significantly lower than in 1DAM and Dp queens, and the levels in the thoracic ganglia and hemolymph in CF queens were lower than in 1DAM queens, but did not differ from other groups in the abdominal ganglion...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089938/evidence-for-widespread-associations-between-neotropical-hymenopteran-insects-and-actinobacteria
#18
Bernal Matarrita-Carranza, Rolando D Moreira-Soto, Catalina Murillo-Cruz, Marielos Mora, Cameron R Currie, Adrián A Pinto-Tomas
The evolutionary success of hymenopteran insects has been associated with complex physiological and behavioral defense mechanisms against pathogens and parasites. Among these strategies are symbiotic associations between Hymenoptera and antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, which provide protection to insect hosts. Herein, we examine associations between culturable Actinobacteria and 29 species of tropical hymenopteran insects that span five families, including Apidae (bees), Vespidae (wasps), and Formicidae (ants)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078289/divergence-of-developmental-trajectories-is-triggered-interactively-by-early-social-and-ecological-experience-in-a-cooperative-breeder
#19
Stefan Fischer, Lena Bohn, Evelyne Oberhummer, Cecilia Nyman, Barbara Taborsky
Cooperative breeders feature the highest level of social complexity among vertebrates. Environmental constraints foster the evolution of this form of social organization, selecting for both well-developed social and ecological competences. Cooperative breeders pursue one of two alternative social trajectories: delaying reproduction to care for the offspring of dominant breeders or dispersing early to breed independently. It is yet unclear which ecological and social triggers determine the choice between these alternatives and whether diverging developmental trajectories exist in cooperative vertebrates predisposing them to dispersal or philopatry...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075460/the-evolution-of-queen-control-over-worker-reproduction-in-the-social-hymenoptera
#20
Jason Olejarz, Carl Veller, Martin A Nowak
A trademark of eusocial insect species is reproductive division of labor, in which workers forego their own reproduction while the queen produces almost all offspring. The presence of the queen is key for maintaining social harmony, but the specific role of the queen in the evolution of eusociality remains unclear. A long-discussed scenario is that a queen either behaviorally or chemically sterilizes her workers. However, the demographic and ecological conditions that enable such manipulation are still debated...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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