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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642950/melliferous-insects-and-the-uses-assigned-to-their-products-in-the-northern-yungas-of-salta-argentina
#1
Fabio Fernando Flores, Norma Inés Hilgert, Liliana Concepción Lupo
BACKGROUND: The order Hymenoptera comprises melliferous insects (bees, wasps and bumblebees); among them, stingless bees comprise a diverse group of eusocial insects present in tropical and subtropical areas. Of a total of approximately 500 species, 400 are found in the Neotropics. On the continent of America, before the introduction of Apis mellifera, these insects represented the main source of honey and wax. In Argentina, ethnobiological investigations had been carried out on this group of insects, principally in the Atlantic Forest and Chaco regions...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623350/group-selection-may-explain-cancer-predisposition-and-other-human-traits-evolution
#2
EDITORIAL
Konstantinos Voskarides
Group selection is a matter of acute controversy among evolutionary biologists. The most well-publicized debate in this regard is that between Edward O. Wilson and Richard Dawkins. As is widely known, Edward O. Wilson is very excited about the idea of social selection and eusociality; by contrast Richard Dawkins favors the idea of gene selection. As is often the case, the truth is somewhere in the middle. Evolution is most likely a multilevel procedure, where selection forces act on genes, individuals, and groups...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616376/chemical-fertility-signaling-in-termites-idiosyncrasies-and-commonalities-in-comparison-with-ants
#3
REVIEW
Judith Korb
Termites evolved eusociality independently from social Hymenoptera. As a common trait, reproductive monopoly is maintained through chemical communication. The queen (and in termites also a king) prevents workers from reproduction by conveying their reproductive status. In termites all soldiers are sterile, but workers' potential to reproduce differs between species. It ranges from totipotency in wood-dwelling lower termites where workers are a transient stage from which all other castes develop, to sterile workers in some higher termites...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602366/genes-and-genomic-processes-underpinning-the-social-lives-of-ants
#4
REVIEW
Emeline Favreau, Carlos Martínez-Ruiz, Leandro Rodrigues Santiago, Robert L Hammond, Yannick Wurm
The >15000 ant species are all highly social and show great variation in colony organization, complexity and behavior. The mechanisms by which such sociality evolved, as well as those underpinning the elaboration of ant societies since their ∼140 million year old common ancestor, have long been pondered. Here, we review recent insights generated using various genomic approaches. This includes understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying caste differentiation and the diversity of social structures, studying the impact of eusociality on genomic evolutionary rates, and investigating gene expression changes associated with differences in lifespan between castes...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602361/a-molecular-concept-of-caste-in-insect-societies
#5
REVIEW
Seirian Sumner, Emily Bell, Daisy Taylor
The term 'caste' is used to describe the division of reproductive labour that defines eusocial insect societies. The definition of 'caste' has been debated over the last 50 years, specifically with respect to the simplest insect societies; this raises the question of whether a simple categorisation of social behaviour by reproductive state alone is helpful. Gene-level analyses of behaviours of individuals in hymenopteran social insect societies now provide a new empirical base-line for defining caste and understanding the evolution and maintenance of a reproductive division of labour...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568150/limited-social-plasticity-in-the-socially-polymorphic-sweat-bee-lasioglossum-calceatum
#6
P J Davison, J Field
Abstract: Eusociality is characterised by a reproductive division of labour, where some individuals forgo direct reproduction to instead help raise kin. Socially polymorphic sweat bees are ideal models for addressing the mechanisms underlying the transition from solitary living to eusociality, because different individuals in the same species can express either eusocial or solitary behaviour. A key question is whether alternative social phenotypes represent environmentally induced plasticity or predominantly genetic differentiation between populations...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538466/allometry-of-individual-reproduction-and-defense-in-eusocial-colonies-a-comparative-approach-to-trade-offs-in-social-sponge-dwelling-synalpheus-shrimps
#7
Sarah L Bornbusch, Jonathan S Lefcheck, J Emmett Duffy
Eusociality, one of the most complex forms of social organization, is thought to have evolved in several animal clades in response to competition for resources and reproductive opportunities. Several species of snapping shrimp in the genus Synalpheus, the only marine organisms known to exhibit eusociality, form colonies characterized by high reproductive skew, and aggressive territoriality coupled with cooperative defense. In eusocial Synalpheus colonies, individual reproduction is limited to female 'queens', whose fecundity dictates colony growth...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538451/phylogeographic-analysis-reveals-high-genetic-structure-with-uniform-phenotypes-in-the-paper-wasp-protonectarina-sylveirae-hymenoptera-vespidae
#8
Marjorie da Silva, Fernando Barbosa Noll, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa E Castro
Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536541/foxp-in-bees-a-comparative-study-on-the-developmental-and-adult-expression-pattern-in-three-bee-species-considering-isoforms-and-circuitry
#9
Adriana Schatton, Ezequiel Mendoza, Kathrin Grube, Constance Scharff
Mutations in the transcription factors FOXP1, FOXP2 and FOXP4 affect human cognition, including language. The FoxP gene locus is evolutionarily ancient and highly conserved in its DNA-binding domain. In Drosophila melanogaster FoxP has been implicated in courtship behavior, decision making and specific types of motor-learning. Because honeybees (Apis mellifera, Am) excel at navigation and symbolic dance communication, they are a particularly suitable insect species to investigate a potential link between neural FoxP expression and cognition...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526717/biogenic-amine-signaling-systems-in-the-red-imported-fire-ant-solenopsis-invicta-possible-contributors-to-worker-division-of-labor
#10
Yi-Xiang Qi, Tian Zeng, Lei Wang, Yong-Yue Lu
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, is a dangerous invasive pest in the United States, China and other countries. Efficient division of labor is one of the main reasons for the success of this social insect. Biogenic amines are important regulators of worker division of labor in this eusocial insect, but the related molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we identified 10 candidate biogenic amine synthetic enzyme genes and 17 candidate biogenic amine receptor genes in the genome of S...
March 8, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492015/active-explorers-show-low-learning-performance-in-a-social-insect
#11
Eve Udino, Margot Perez, Claudio Carere, Patrizia d'Ettorre
An intriguing question in behavioral biology is whether consistent individual differences (called animal personalities) relate to variation in cognitive performance because commonly measured personality traits may be associated with risk-reward trade-offs. Social insects, whose learning abilities have been extensively characterized, show consistent behavioral variability, both at colony and at individual level. We investigated the possible link between personality traits and learning performance in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops ...
October 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489858/tricks-of-the-trade-mechanism-of-brood-theft-in-an-ant
#12
Bishwarup Paul, Sumana Annagiri
Thievery is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, social insects not being an exception. Brood is invaluable for the survival of social insect colonies and brood theft is well documented in ants. In many species the stolen brood act as slaves in the thief colony as they take up tasks related to foraging, defence and colony maintenance. Slave-making (dulotic) ants are at an advantage as they gain workforce without investing in rearing immature young, and several slave-making species have been recorded in temperate regions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488013/candidate-genes-for-cooperation-and-aggression-in-the-social-wasp-polistes-dominula
#13
Fabio Manfredini, Mark J F Brown, Amy L Toth
Cooperation and aggression are ubiquitous in social groups, and the genetic mechanisms underlying these behaviours are of great interest for understanding how social group formation is regulated and how it evolves. In this study, we used a candidate gene approach to investigate the patterns of expression of key genes for cooperation and aggression in the brain of a primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes dominula, during colony founding, when multiple foundresses can join the same nest and establish subtle hierarchies of dominance...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486700/spontaneous-and-experimentally-induced-pathologies-in-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber
#14
REVIEW
V N Manskikh, O A Averina, A I Nikiforova
The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber, Rüppell, 1842) is a unique eusocial rodent with unusually long lifespan. Therefore, the study of spontaneous and experimentally induced pathologies in these animals is one of the most important tasks of gerontology. Various infections, noninfectious pathologies (including age-dependent changes), and tumors have been described in the naked mole rat. The most frequent pathologies are traumas (bite wounds), purulent and septic complications of traumatic injuries, renal tubular calcinosis, chronic progressive nephropathy, hepatic hemosiderosis, testicular interstitial cell hyperplasia, calcinosis cutis, cardiomyopathy, and dysbiosis-related infectious lesions of the digestive system...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481653/when-darwin-s-special-difficulty-promotes-diversification-in-insects
#15
Frederic Legendre, Fabien L Condamine
Eusociality, Darwin's special difficulty, has been widely investigated but remains a topic of great debate in organismal biology. Eusocial species challenge existing theories, and the impact of highly integrated societies on diversification dynamics is controversial with opposing assertions and hypotheses in the literature. Here, using phylogenetic approaches in termites - the first group that has evolved eusociality - we assessed the fundamental prediction that eusocial lineages have higher diversification rates than non-eusocial clades...
February 21, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474488/sex-and-brain-region-specific-patterns-of-gene-expression-associated-with-socially-mediated-puberty-in-a-eusocial-mammal
#16
Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, D Ashley Monks, Iva B Zovkic, Melissa M Holmes
The social environment can alter pubertal timing through neuroendocrine mechanisms that are not fully understood; it is thought that stress hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids or corticotropin-releasing hormone) influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to inhibit puberty. Here, we use the eusocial naked mole-rat, a unique species in which social interactions in a colony (i.e. dominance of a breeding female) suppress puberty in subordinate animals. Removing subordinate naked mole-rats from this social context initiates puberty, allowing for experimental control of pubertal timing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444845/antibacterial-activity-of-male-and-female-sperm-storage-organs-in-ants
#17
Francisco Dávila, Anne Botteaux, David Bauman, Sarah Chérasse, Serge Aron
Bacteria can damage sperm and thus reduce the reproductive success of both males and females; selection should therefore favour the evolution of antimicrobial protection. Eusocial hymenopterans might be particularly affected by such bacterial infections because of their mating ecology. In both sexes, mating is restricted to a short window early in the adult stage; there are no further chances to mate later in life. Males die shortly after mating, but queens use the acquired sperm to fertilise their eggs for years, sometimes decades...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403074/hemimetabolous-genomes-reveal-molecular-basis-of-termite-eusociality
#18
Mark C Harrison, Evelien Jongepier, Hugh M Robertson, Nicolas Arning, Tristan Bitard-Feildel, Hsu Chao, Christopher P Childers, Huyen Dinh, Harshavardhan Doddapaneni, Shannon Dugan, Johannes Gowin, Carolin Greiner, Yi Han, Haofu Hu, Daniel S T Hughes, Ann-Kathrin Huylmans, Carsten Kemena, Lukas P M Kremer, Sandra L Lee, Alberto Lopez-Ezquerra, Ludovic Mallet, Jose M Monroy-Kuhn, Annabell Moser, Shwetha C Murali, Donna M Muzny, Saria Otani, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Monica Poelchau, Jiaxin Qu, Florentine Schaub, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Kim C Worley, Qiaolin Xie, Guillem Ylla, Michael Poulsen, Richard A Gibbs, Coby Schal, Stephen Richards, Xavier Belles, Judith Korb, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Around 150 million years ago, eusocial termites evolved from within the cockroaches, 50 million years before eusocial Hymenoptera, such as bees and ants, appeared. Here, we report the 2-Gb genome of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and the 1.3-Gb genome of the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. We show evolutionary signatures of termite eusociality by comparing the genomes and transcriptomes of three termites and the cockroach against the background of 16 other eusocial and non-eusocial insects...
March 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380454/low-levels-of-hybridization-in-two-species-of-african-driver-ants
#19
Ian A Butler, Marcell K Peters, Daniel J C Kronauer
Hybridization in ants can have consequences different from those observed in most other species, with many of the potential deleterious effects being mitigated due to haplodiploidy and eusociality. In some species where colonies are either headed by multiple queens or single queens that mate with many males, hybridization is associated with genetic caste determination, where hybrids develop into workers and purebred individuals develop into queens. A previous study suggested that hybridization occurs between two Dorylus army ant species with multiply mated queens...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371110/intramembranal-disulfide-cross-linking-elucidates-the-super-quaternary-structure-of-mammalian-catspers
#20
Christopher Bystroff
CatSper is a voltage-dependent calcium channel located in the plasma membrane of the sperm flagellum and is responsible for triggering hyperactive motility. A homology model for the transmembrane region was built in which the arrangement of the subunits around the pseudo-four-fold symmetry axis was deduced by the pairing of conserved transmembranal cysteines across mammals. Directly emergent of the predicted quaternary structure is an architecture in which tetramers polymerize through additional, highly conserved cysteines, creating one or more double-rows channels extending the length of the principal piece of the mammalian sperm tail...
January 19, 2018: Reproductive Biology
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