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Paper wasp

Nikolai Attard
A research study cannot commence without a proposal. This paper highlights the preparatory steps and details the individual sections of a research proposal. The importance of the proposal toward the research project and the eventual writing of a thesis or dissertation is also emphasised. The implications of using human subjects are also discussed.
April 21, 2018: Early Human Development
Jimmy Paul, Pradeep M Sankaran, Pothalil A Sebastian, Mathew M Joseph
The monotypic velvet ant-mimicking spider genus Coenoptychus Simon, 1885 is revised. The paper provides the first detailed morphological and genitalic description, with the first description and illustrations of the male of the type species, Coenoptychus pulcher Simon, 1885, and a redescription of its female. Two new combinations are proposed: Coenoptychus mutillicus (Haddad, 2004) comb. nov. and Coenoptychus tropicalis (Haddad, 2004) comb. nov.; both species were previously included in Graptartia Simon, 1896...
April 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Adam Byk, AleŠ BezdĚk, Tomasz Gazurek, David KrÁl, Sebastian Tylkowski
The genus Ahermodontus Báguena, 1930 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) is currently comprised of three species: A. marini Báguena, 1930 and A. ambrosi (Pardo Alcaide, 1936) from southern Spain and Morocco and A. bischoffi (Všetečka, 1939) from Albania (see e.g., Dellacasa et al. 2001, 2002, 2016). The distribution and bionomy of both of the western Mediterranean Ahermodontus species are relatively well known. Contrastingly, A. bischoffi was described using a single female specimen collected by A. Bischoff in Llogara, Albania in 1934 (Všetečka 1939) and additional specimens remained unknown until now...
January 10, 2018: Zootaxa
Victor Grech
Spreadsheet analysis software allows easy data management, as has been shown by the WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) sets of papers in these Best Practice Guidelines (BGP) in the previous issues. However, commonly available spreadsheet software, such as Excel, is weaker on the more advanced statistical techniques. Potential alternatives include the creation of custom macros, the utilisation of an Excel add-in, or using a standard, stand-alone, dedicated statistics package. This does not imply that Excel need be abandoned...
April 20, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri, Victor Grech
The increasing demand on academics and researchers to publish has led to the development of fake journals (also known as predatory journals). Such journals lack peer review and precipitate unfair criticism toward legitimate open access journals. Predatory journals tend to bombard a researcher's mailbox on a daily basis, inviting authors to submit a review/manuscript/opinion/short case to their journal while promising expedited publication - against a fee. This study assessed the unsolicited emails received over the period of November 2017 by a young and by a senior researcher...
April 20, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
The ancient Greeks honoured the concept of kleos (κλέος) aphthiton, eternal renown. An ancient Greek hero earned kleos through great deeds, up to and including his own death. However, the Greeks also believed that kleos could be earned through feats of intellectual procreation. Publication is thus the modern avenue for an academic to earn kleos. The young academic must perforce make an Achillean choice, to go with the mainstream flow and pragmatically publish only that which is needed or required for career advancement - the more facile path - or to strive to produce respectable papers over and above that which is strictly required...
April 20, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Correlation and regression measure the closeness of association between two continuous variables. This paper explains how to perform these tests in Microsoft Excel and their interpretation, as well as how to up these tests dynamically using Excel's functions.
April 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech, Neville Calleja
Linear regression is the equation which provides of straight line that best describes the association between two continuous variables, x and y. However, it is often the case that the dependent variable y is influenced by more than one variable and not just a single x variable. Multivariate analysis is a statistical modeling technique wherein multiple x variables are analysed simultaneously for their effect on y, resulting in an additive model (via an equation) that explains the observation/s and corrects for confounding association/s using one dependent and several independent variables, assigning a gradient to each of these independent variables, and with all product terms of gradient and magnitude of the independent variables adding up to estimate 'y'...
April 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech, Neville Calleja
Data may be normally distributed in which case standard and relatively familiar tests may be used for inferential testing. Or data may be non-normally distributed, such as ordinal data, in which case, non-parametric tests are usually advocated. This paper will review current thinking with regard to these tests, and the appropriateness of their application/s.
April 17, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech, Neville Calleja
This paper outlines Binomial and Poisson distributions which are both used to measure the occurrence of a number of random events within a certain period.
April 17, 2018: Early Human Development
Fabio Fernando Flores, Norma Inés Hilgert, Liliana Concepción Lupo
BACKGROUND: The order Hymenoptera comprises melliferous insects (bees, wasps and bumblebees); among them, stingless bees comprise a diverse group of eusocial insects present in tropical and subtropical areas. Of a total of approximately 500 species, 400 are found in the Neotropics. On the continent of America, before the introduction of Apis mellifera, these insects represented the main source of honey and wax. In Argentina, ethnobiological investigations had been carried out on this group of insects, principally in the Atlantic Forest and Chaco regions...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Carlo Polidori, Agustín Pastor, Alberto Jorge, José Pertusa
Polistes paper wasps can be used to monitor trace metal contaminants, but the effects of pollution on the health of these insects are still unknown. We evaluated, in a south-eastern area of Spain, whether workers of Polistes dominula collected at urban and rural sites differ in health of midgut tissue and in fluctuating asymmetry, an estimate of developmental noise. We found that wasps collected at the urban sites had abundant lead (Pb)-containing spherites, which were less visible in wasps from the rural sites...
March 21, 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Marjorie da Silva, Fernando Barbosa Noll, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa E Castro
Swarm-founding wasps are endemic and common representatives of neotropical fauna and compose an interesting social tribe of vespids, presenting both complex social characteristics and uncommon traits for a eusocial group, such as the absence of castes with distinct morphology. The paper wasp Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure) presents a broad distribution from Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, occurring widespread in the Atlantic rainforest and arboreal Caatinga, being absent in the Amazon region. Given the peculiar distribution among swarm-founding wasps, an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of P...
2018: PloS One
Victor Grech
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) may be required by researchers as an inferential statistical test when more than two means require comparison. This paper explains how to perform ANOVA in Microsoft Excel.
March 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Contingency tables may be required to perform chi-test analyses. This provides pointers as to how to do this in Microsoft Excel and explains how to set up methods to calculate confidence intervals for proportions, including proportions with zero numerators.
March 1, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
t-Testing is a common component of inferential statistics when comparing two means. This paper explains the central limit theorem and the concept of the null hypothesis as well as types of errors. On the practical side, this paper outlines how different t-tests may be performed in Microsoft Excel, for different purposes, both statically as well as dynamically, with Excel's functions.
February 28, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Carrying out research beyond that which is required by one's work/academic obligations, and teaching and training others so that one can be replaced or even surpassed, are both metamotivational. The Write a Scientific Paper (WASP) course provides a metamotivational outlet for senior academics to impart their collective experiences to WASP delegates in this crucial aspect of career progress.
February 27, 2018: Early Human Development
Sarah Cuschieri
Academics have a duty towards peers and scholars alike to engage in research work and to publish their findings. This also assists in establishing personal academic success as well as the attainment of research grants. In the past, authors used to publish their research articles for free but access to these articles was restricted to subscription users only. Recently, open access publishing has gained momentum, whereby such articles are made freely accessible online. However open access publishing comes with a price tag for the author through article processing charges...
February 27, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
The calculation of descriptive statistics after data collection provides researchers with an overview of the shape and nature of their datasets, along with basic descriptors, and may help identify true or incorrect outlier values. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible. This paper provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel, both statically and dynamically, with Excel's functions, including the calculation of standard deviation and variance and the relevance of the t-distribution...
March 2018: Early Human Development
Colin M Wright, Trevor D Hyland, Amanda S Izzo, Donna R McDermott, Elizabeth A Tibbetts, Jonathan N Pruitt
Consistent differences in behavior between individuals, otherwise known as animal personalities, have become a staple in behavioral ecology due to their ability to explain a wide range of phenomena. Social organisms are especially serviceable to animal personality techniques because they can be used to explore behavioral variation at both the individual and group level. Despite the success of personality research in social organisms generally, and social Hymenoptera in particular, social wasps (Vespidae) have received little to no attention in the personality literature...
February 2018: Current Zoology
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