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Paper wasp

Eduardo G P Fox, Meng Xu, Lei Wang, Li Chen, Yong-Yue Lu
This paper summarises gas-chromatography (GC-MS) and preliminary UV-spectroscopy analyses data of fresh, unmodified venom of aculeate hymenopterans (ants, bees, wasps), mainly focusing on red imported fire ants. No solvents nor fractionation were used at any point, which is a novel approach to describing integral toxins cocktails as proposed by Fox et al. (2018a) [1] 10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.02.050 where these results are discussed in deeper details. Herein we focus on further characterising the obtained venom extracted through a novel approach...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Dane C Elmquist, Peter J Landolt
We investigated associative learning of food odors by the European paper wasp Polistes dominula Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) because of consistent low rates of attraction to food materials in laboratory assays. We hypothesized that wasps in nature exhibit nonspecific food-finding behavior until locating a suitable food, and then respond more strongly and specifically to odors associated with that food reward. Female P. dominula workers exhibited higher rates of attraction in a flight tunnel to piped odors of fermented fruit purees following previous experience with that puree, compared to wasps with no prior experience with the fermented fruits...
June 9, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Victor Ukleev, Sergey Suturin, Taro Nakajima, Taka-Hisa Arima, Thomas Saerbeck, Takayasu Hanashima, Alla Sitnikova, Demid Kirilenko, Nikolai Yakovlev, Nikolai Sokolov
The metastable ε-Fe2 O3 is known to be the most intriguing ferrimagnetic and multiferroic iron oxide phase exhibiting a bunch of exciting physical properties both below and above room temperature. The present paper unveils the structural and magnetic peculiarities of a few nm thick interface layer discovered in these films by a number of techniques. The polarized neutron reflectometry data suggests that the interface layer resembles GaFeO3 in composition and density and is magnetically softer than the rest of the ε-Fe2 O3 film...
June 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pierre Mallia
Past experience in science has thought us the importance of ethics in research. Research is important to the advancement of medicine and therefore good clinical practice in research maintains public trust which otherwise is not only lost but may cause science to seem negative. The rights of participants in the research trial are discussed. This includes knowledge and information about the research itself, the obligations of the researchers and the rights of participants during the research. The EU Directive on Good Clinical Practice in research trials is reviewed, including the twelve principles of the directive...
June 4, 2018: Early Human Development
André Rodrigues de Souza, Talitta Guimarães Simões, Markus J Rantala, Eduardo Fernando Santos, José Lino-Netto, Fábio Santos do Nascimento
It has been recently suggested that female mate choice, based on sexually selected ornaments, is an important component of social wasps' reproductive biology. The correlates of male ornaments that could be of a female's interest, however, remain to be investigated. Males of the Neotropical paper wasp Polistes simillimus have sexually dimorphic melanin-based black spots on their faces. In this species, male spots work like sexual ornaments, as it has been experimentally demonstrated that females prefer sexual partners with a higher proportion of black pigment on their faces...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Thomas Looi, Karolina Piorkowska, Charles Mougenot, Adam Waspe, Kullervo Hynynen, James Drake
PURPOSE: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) affects approximately 50% of premature births where 50% further develop post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation (PHVD). Patients face significant impact to long-term development if PHVD is not managed. Unfortunately, there is no accepted treatment to remove the thrombus caused by IVH. This paper describes an acute and chronic IVH model for use with magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thrombolysis. METHODS: A total of 12 pigs (~ 1 month in age) were used in the model (eight acute and four chronic)...
May 23, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Justin O Schmidt
Many familiar Hymenoptera are brightly colored and can sting painfully-thus, their threat and clinical importance may be exaggerated. Most stinging insects only sting to defend themselves or their colonies from predators. The clinical nature of Hymenoptera envenomations contrasts that of other venomous animals, including other arthropods, primarily because allergic reaction, not direct intoxication, is the usual main concern. This review focuses mainly on the clinical features of direct toxicity to Hymenoptera envenomations, which can induce a high incidence of acute renal failure, liver failure, multiple organ failures, and death...
May 18, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Lena Grinsted, Jeremy Field
Abstract: In cooperative breeders, subordinates that have alternative reproductive options are expected to stay and help dominant breeders only as long as they contribute to group productivity, if their fitness is linked with colony success. Female Polistes dominula paper wasps live as cooperative breeders in small groups of typically fewer than 10 females. Subordinates tend to have high-quality outside options, and so could choose alternative breeding tactics if their work efforts increased productivity negligibly...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Marthe-Lisa Schaarschmidt, Mandy Gutknecht, Lisa Schoeben, Astrid Schmieder
BACKGROUND: Insect venom allergy is common and greatly impairs patients' quality of life. Additionally, low compliance with carrying emergency medication is reported. The aim of our study was to analyze the disease burden, levels of anxiety and depression, and to evaluate attitudes towards the set of emergency medication in affected patients. METHODS: Between April 2016 and January 2017, patients ≥18 years visiting our department because of an insect venom allergy were asked to complete a paper-based questionnaire...
May 16, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Pierre Mallia
The data protection directive of the EU was set up to allow the freedom of movement of people between member states. This has the consequence of allowing the freedom of transfer of data between member states in research. The paper discusses three cases discussed during the project to see whether RECs can refuse research based on concern for data protection in some member states. Since the directive is not, as commonly thought, intended to protect the rights and freedoms of individuals - something which is the function of the Data Protection Acts of individual states, Member States do not have a right to prohibit research based on data laws...
May 9, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech, Elizabeth Grech, Jason T Eberl
Doctors in Star Trek are vital and central characters, often crucial in helping their captains to reach command decisions. They are also interdisciplinarians, performing not only medical tasks but also any form of work related to all fields of biology. Furthermore, these doctors also carry out any required research that pertains to the biological sciences. It is perhaps this unique blend of skills, combined with a fundamental orientation towards humanism and compassion, that leads to their default position, de facto, if not de jure, as the crew's ethics officers, a role that they embrace with as much dedication and zeal as the former Soviet communist political officers/commissars (the Zampolit) did theirs...
May 9, 2018: Early Human Development
Víctor Sarto I Monteys, Glòria Torras I Tutusaus
In this paper, the invasion of a new alien beetle species to Europe, the longhorn Xylotrechus chinensis (Chevrolat) (Cerambycidae), originating from East Asia, is revealed. It has settled in Catalonia (Spain), occupying at present an area of at least 44.1 km², where it has been shown to severely infest (ca. 10 to 45%) and eventually kill mulberry trees in private and public grounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate its impact and provide new significant insights into its life history, seasonality, reproductive capacity (females produce an average of 83...
May 9, 2018: Insects
Victor Grech
Medical ethics and related topics such as data protection are often viewed as extraneous encumberments by researchers. However these fields provide guidelines for correct conduct and are mostly common sense. This Best Practice Guideline collection will focus on various related aspects pertaining to ethics in publication, and this paper will outline the key points in each of these papers in the collection.
May 4, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Mallia
The recruitment of patients must occur in accordance with approved standards. Speaking to a patient during a routine clinical consultation and offering to participate in a research, even if consented to, can only be an introduction to the recruitment process. The potential participant must then be referred to a competent person who explains the reasons for the research, why the patient is a good candidate, what the requirements from the participant will be, such as any additional visits and blood samples to be taken, how long the research will last, any compensation and what type of research is to be undertaken, such as a double blind-controlled trial and what it means...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Josanne Vassallo
This paper aims to define and discuss the various forms and degrees of plagiarism. The potential consequences of this particular form of scientific misconduct will be highlighted. The overarching principles in ensuring adherence to research and work ethics are reviewed and the necessity for honesty, objectivity, integrity, respect for intellectual property, confidentiality as well as responsible publication emphasised. The "Publish or Perish" mantra has led to an increasing need for an understanding of the responsibilities related to authorship, acknowledgments and what these encompass...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Mallia
Research Ethics Committees are composed of a minimum of five members which include a lay person, a member from a different institution and at least another three members which should be versed in ethics. Legal and expert advisors can be sought by the committee. The REC will require a detailed protocol from the researcher including the curriculum of the principal investigator and all other researchers under him/her. The protocol should include all details of the research to be undertaken including a detailed description, the reasons for the research, literature pertaining to the research, a clear description of the target population, the actual consent form including what information is to be given to the participants, a declaration where necessary that things prohibited by the law (such as use of embryonic stem cells if this is the case in the country [2] will not be researchers, and a declaration that the relevant directives and rules and procedures which the REC falls under will be followed...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Mallia
The autonomy of patients participating in research means that a proper informed consent process must take place. This means that information must be given according to a reasonable person standard implying what legally and ethical a reasonable person participating in the research would want to know. The research must assure that the patient has understood all the information given and that a voluntary choice has been made. This means that no form of coercion must take place and that information must not be manipulated in such a way as to influence the participant...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech, Hugo Agius-Muscat
Data protection (DP) protects crucial and humane fundamentals - the respect of human rights, particularly protecting aspects of privacy and confidentiality for living and identifiable persons. DP is enshrined in legislation, and this paper will outline the duties of potential data controllers (researchers) when applying for access to data, when processing said data, and what to do with it at the end of the study.
May 2, 2018: Early Human Development
Pierre Mallia
Fetuses at low gestational age limit of viability, neonates with life threatening or life limiting congenital anomalies and deteriorating acutely ill newborn babies in intensive care, pose taxing ethical questions on whether to forego or stop treatment and allow them to die naturally. Although there is essentially no ethical difference between end of life decision between neonates and other children and adults, in the former, the fact that we are dealing with a new life, may pose greater problems to staff and parents...
May 3, 2018: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
The calculation of various test characteristics may be required as part of a data analysis exercise. This paper explains how to set up these calculations in Microsoft Excel in order to obtain sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, diagnostic accuracy and prevalence.
April 27, 2018: Early Human Development
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