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Obesity epigenetics polyphenols

Inhae Kang, Teresa Buckner, Neil F Shay, Liwei Gu, Soonkyu Chung
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, including berries, pomegranates, grapes, and walnuts. EA has been investigated extensively because of its antiproliferative action in some cancers, along with its anti-inflammatory effects. A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of EA is effective in attenuating obesity and ameliorating obesity-mediated metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Sarandeep S S Boyanapalli, Ah-Ng Tony Kong
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenolic compound, is a component of Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric. It is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-lipidemic agent and has recently been shown to modulate several diseases via epigenetic regulation. Many recent studies have demonstrated the role of epigenetic inactivation of pivotal genes that regulate human pathologies, such as neurocognitive disorders, inflammation, obesity, and cancers. Epigenetic changes involve changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, or altered microRNA expression patterns which are known to be interconnected and play a key role in tumor progression and failure of conventional chemotherapy...
April 2015: Current Pharmacology Reports
Gian Luigi Russo, Viviana Vastolo, Marco Ciccarelli, Luigi Albano, Paolo Emidio Macchia, Paola Ungaro
Polyphenols are the most abundant phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables and plant-derived beverages. Recent findings suggest that polyphenols display the ability to reverse adverse epigenetic regulation involved in pathological conditions, such as obesity, metabolic disorder, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and various forms of cancer. Epigenetics, defined as heritable changes to the transcriptome, independent from those occurring in the genome, includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and post transcriptional gene regulation by non-coding RNAs...
September 10, 2015: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
F Santilli, M T Guagnano, N Vazzana, S La Barba, G Davi
This review article is intended to describe how oxidative stress regulates cardiovascular disease development and progression. Epigenetic mechanisms related to oxidative stress, as well as more reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress, are emerging over the last years as potentially useful tools to design therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating enhanced oxidative stress "in vivo", thereby mitigating the consequent atherosclerotic burden. As a paradigm, we describe the case of obesity, in which the intertwining among oxidative stress, due to caloric overload, chronic low-grade inflammation induced by adipose tissue dysfunction, and platelet activation represents a vicious cycle favoring the progression of atherothrombosis...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Enrique Barrajón-Catalán, María Herranz-López, Jorge Joven, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Carlos Alonso-Villaverde, Javier A Menéndez, Vicente Micol
The use of plant-derived polyphenols for the management of diseases has been under debate in the last decades. Most studies have focused on the specific effects of polyphenols on particular targets, while ignoring their pleiotropic character. The multitargeted character of polyphenols, a plausible consequence of their molecular promiscuity, may suppose an opportunity to fight multifactorial diseases. Therefore, a wider perspective is urgently needed to elucidate whether their rational use as bioactive food components may be valid for the management of diseases...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tyler Benn, Bohkyung Kim, Young-Ki Park, Casey J Wegner, Ellen Harness, Tae-Gyu Nam, Dae-Ok Kim, Jong Suk Lee, Ji-Young Lee
Obesity is closely associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation. We investigated if polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent inflammation in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M control diet containing high fat/high cholesterol (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol by weight) or the control diet supplemented with 0.1% BCE (wt/wt) for 12 weeks. In BCE-fed mice, the percentage of body weight and adipocyte size of the epididymal fat were significantly lower than those of control mice. There were fewer crown-like structures (CLS) with concomitant decreases in F4/80, cluster of differentiation 68 and inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase ε (IKKε) mRNA in the epididymal adipose of BCE-fed mice...
October 2014: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Noemi Boqué, Rocío de la Iglesia, Ana L de la Garza, Fermín I Milagro, Mónica Olivares, Oscar Bañuelos, Ana Cristina Soria, Sonia Rodríguez-Sánchez, José Alfredo Martínez, Javier Campión
This study was conducted to determine the mechanisms implicated in the beneficial effects of apple polyphenols (APs) against diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats, described in a previous study from our group. Supplementation of high-fat sucrose diet with AP prevented adiposity increase by inhibition of adipocyte hypertrophy. Rats supplemented with AP exhibited improved glucose tolerance while adipocytes isolated from these rats showed an enhanced lipolytic response to isoproterenol. AP intake led to reduced Lep, Plin, and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (Srebf1) mRNA levels and increased aquaporin 7 (Aqp7), adipocyte enhancer binding protein 1 (Aebp1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a) mRNA levels in epididymal adipocytes...
August 2013: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Min-Hsiung Pan, Ching-Shu Lai, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho
An epigenetic change is defined as an alteration in gene expression that does not involve a change in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone modification (acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation) and miRNA, are critical for regulating developmental events. However, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms may lead to pathological consequences such as cardiovascular disease (CAD), neurodegenerative disease, obesity, metabolic disorder, bone and skeletal diseases and various cancers...
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Clarissa Gerhauser
Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004)...
October 2008: Planta Medica
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