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Obesity epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#1
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219716/genetic-regulation-of-differentially-methylated-genes-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-severely-obese-men-discordant-for-the-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Frédéric Guénard, André Tchernof, Yves Deshaies, Simon Biron, Odette Lescelleur, Laurent Biertho, Simon Marceau, Louis Pérusse, Marie-Claude Vohl
A genetic influence on methylation levels has been reported and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) have been identified in various tissues. The contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has also been noted. To pinpoint candidate genes for testing the association of SNPs with MetS and its components, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of genetic variations to differentially methylated CpG sites in severely obese men discordant for MetS. A genome-wide differential methylation analysis was conducted in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 31 severely obese men discordant for MetS (16 with and 15 without MetS) and identified ∼17,800 variable CpG sites...
February 2, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216432/epigenetic-modification-by-dietary-factors-implications-in-metabolic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Jae-Ho Park, Soon-Hee Kim, Myeong Soo Lee, Myung-Sunny Kim
Dietary factors play a role in normal biological processes and are involved in the regulation of pathological progression over a lifetime. Evidence has emerged indicating that dietary factor-dependent epigenetic modifications can significantly affect genome stability and the expression of mRNA and proteins, which are involved in metabolic dysfunction. Since metabolic syndrome is a progressive phenotype characterized by insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or type 2 diabetes, gene-diet interactions are important processes involved in the initiation of particular symptoms of metabolic syndrome and their progression...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214526/recent-advances-in-human-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-adiposity-pathway-to-precision-medicine
#4
Tove Fall, Michael Mendelson, Elizabeth K Speliotes
Obesity is a heritable trait that contributes to substantial global morbidity and mortality. Here, we summarize findings from the last decade of genetic and epigenetic research focused on unravelling the underpinnings of adiposity. More than 140 genetic regions are now known to influence adiposity traits. The genetics of general adiposity, as measured by body mass index, and that of abdominal obesity, as measured by waist to hip ratio, have distinct biological backgrounds. Expression of genes associated with general adiposity are enriched in the nervous system...
February 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211912/dna-methylation-map-in-circulating-leukocytes-mirrors-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-methylation-pattern-a-genome-wide-analysis-from-non-obese-and-obese-patients
#5
A B Crujeiras, A Diaz-Lagares, J Sandoval, F I Milagro, S Navas-Carretero, M C Carreira, A Gomez, D Hervas, M P Monteiro, F F Casanueva, M Esteller, J A Martinez
The characterization of the epigenetic changes within the obesity-related adipose tissue will provide new insights to understand this metabolic disorder, but adipose tissue is not easy to sample in population-based studies. We aimed to evaluate the capacity of circulating leukocytes to reflect the adipose tissue-specific DNA methylation status of obesity susceptibility. DNA samples isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and circulating leukocytes were hybridized in the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210913/dietary-and-commercialized-fructose-sweet-or-sour
#6
REVIEW
Aslihan Yerlikaya, Tuncay Dagel, Christopher King, Masanari Kubawara, Miguel A Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Adrian Covic, Jacek Manitius, Alan A Sag, Mehmet Kanbay
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are main health problems of modern life in the twenty-first century. Alarming ratios of global prevalence lead to conduct more and more researches about etiological factors and pathogenesis. Disease mechanism is elementary for advancing more efficient and practicable treatment methods. Concurrent increase in both fructose consumption with Western diet and metabolic syndrome has revealed fructose hypothesis that suggests fructose as one of etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, etc...
February 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210884/energy-balance-and-obesity-what-are-the-main-drivers
#7
Isabelle Romieu, Laure Dossus, Simón Barquera, Hervé M Blottière, Paul W Franks, Marc Gunter, Nahla Hwalla, Stephen D Hursting, Michael Leitzmann, Barrie Margetts, Chizuru Nishida, Nancy Potischman, Jacob Seidell, Magdalena Stepien, Youfa Wang, Klaas Westerterp, Pattanee Winichagoon, Martin Wiseman, Walter C Willett
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. METHODS: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). RESULTS: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198702/epigenetic-clock-analysis-of-diet-exercise-education-and-lifestyle-factors
#8
Austin Quach, Morgan E Levine, Toshiko Tanaka, Ake T Lu, Brian H Chen, Luigi Ferrucci, Beate Ritz, Stefania Bandinelli, Marian L Neuhouser, Jeannette M Beasley, Linda Snetselaar, Robert B Wallace, Philip S Tsao, Devin Absher, Themistocles L Assimes, James D Stewart, Yun Li, Lifang Hou, Andrea A Baccarelli, Eric A Whitsel, Steve Horvath
Behavioral and lifestyle factors have been shown to relate to a number of health-related outcomes, yet there is a need for studies that examine their relationship to molecular aging rates. Toward this end, we use recent epigenetic biomarkers of age that have previously been shown to predict all-cause mortality, chronic conditions, and age-related functional decline. We analyze cross-sectional data from 4,173 postmenopausal female participants from the Women's Health Initiative, as well as 402 male and female participants from the Italian cohort study, Invecchiare nel Chianti...
February 14, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191013/quercetin-and-quercetin-rich-red-onion-extract-alter-pgc-1%C3%AE-promoter-methylation-and-splice-variant-expression
#9
Prasad P Devarshi, Aarin D Jones, Erin M Taylor, Barbara Stefanska, Tara M Henagan
Pgc-1α and its various isoforms may play a role in determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations in response to diet. 8 wks of dietary supplementation with the flavonoid quercetin (Q) or red onion extract (ROE) in a high fat diet (HFD) ameliorates HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/J mice while upregulating Pgc-1α and increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and function. Here, mice were fed a low fat (LF), high fat (HF), high fat plus quercetin (HF + Q), or high fat plus red onion extract (HF + RO) diet for 9 wks and skeletal muscle Pgc-1α isoform expression and DNA methylation were determined...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189002/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-an-independent-disease-to-atherosclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Bradley J Toghill, Athanasios Saratzis, Matthew J Bown
Atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are multifactorial and polygenic diseases with known environmental and genetic risk factors that contribute toward disease development. Atherosclerosis represents an important independent risk factor for AAA, as people with AAA often have atherosclerosis. Studies have shown that comorbidity is usually between ~25% and 55%, but it is still not fully known whether this association is causal or a result of common shared risk profiles. Most recent epidemiological, clinical, and biological evidence suggests that the two pathologies are more distinct than traditionally thought...
January 29, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186371/gene-expression-and-epigenetic-aberrations-in-f1-placentas-fathered-by-obese-males
#11
Megan Mitchell, Reiner Strick, Pamela L Strissel, Ralf Dittrich, Nicole O McPherson, Michelle Lane, Galyna Pliushch, Ramya Potabattula, Thomas Haaf, Nady El Hajj
Gene expression and/or epigenetic deregulation may have consequences for sperm and blastocysts, as well as for the placenta, together potentially contributing to problems observed in offspring. We previously demonstrated specific perturbations of fertilization, blastocyst formation, implantation, as well as aberrant glucose metabolism and adiposity in offspring using a mouse model of paternal obesity. The current investigation analysed gene expression and methylation of specific CpG residues in F1 placentas of pregnancies fathered by obese and normal-weight male mice, using real-time PCR and bisulfite pyrosequencing...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183455/cardiometabolic-risk-markers-adipocyte-fatty-acid-binding-protein-afabp-and-the-impact-of-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-in-obese-adolescents
#12
Susann Blüher, Jakob Käpplinger, Sabine Herget, Sandra Reichardt, Yvonne Böttcher, Andrea Grimm, Jürgen Kratzsch, David Petroff
OBJECTIVE: The impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as well as the association between the adipocyte fatty binding protein (aFABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight adolescents was investigated. METHODS: Twenty-eight adolescents (13-18years; BMI≥90th percentile according to German reference values) were offered HIIT twice weekly for 6months. At baseline and after program completion, anthropometric, clinical and metabolic characteristics were assessed and a fasting blood sample was obtained...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181167/adherence-to-mediterranean-diet-is-associated-with-methylation-changes-in-inflammation-related-genes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#13
A Arpón, J I Riezu-Boj, F I Milagro, C Razquin, M A Martínez-González, D Corella, R Estruch, R Casas, M Fitó, E Ros, J Salas-Salvadó, J A Martínez
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, might be modulated by environmental factors such as the diet, which in turn have been associated with the onset of several diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular events. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated favourable effects on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, inflammation and other complications related to excessive adiposity. Some of these effects could be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the adherence to MedDiet is associated with changes in the methylation status from peripheral blood cells...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179100/nutrition-modulates-fto-and-irx3-gene-transcript-levels-but-does-not-alter-their-dna-methylation-profiles-in-rat-white-adipose-tissues
#14
Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Maciej Szydlowski, Izabela Szczerbal
The fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) and iroquois homeobox 3 (Irx3) genes have been recognised as important obesity-related genes. Studies on the expression of these genes in the fat tissue of human and mouse have produced inconsistent results, while similar data on rat are limited. Environmental factors such as diet, should be considered as potential modulators of gene transcript levels through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation. The aim of this study was to evaluate transcription levels and DNA methylation profiles of rat Fto and Irx3 genes in two white adipose tissue depots in response to high-fat and high-protein diets...
February 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169463/relationship-between-epigenetic-regulation-dietary-habits-and-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-theory
#15
REVIEW
Kazuki Mochizuki, Natsuyo Hariya, Kazue Honma, Toshinao Goda
Environmental stressors during developmental stages are hypothesized to increase the risk of developing metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and psychiatric diseases during later life. This theory is known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Recent studies suggest that accumulation of environmental stress, including during developmental stages, is internalized as acquired information designated as "epigenetic memory." This epigenetic memory is generally indicated as DNA methylation and histone modifications in the chromatin...
February 7, 2017: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150927/-pregnancy-after-bariatric-surgery
#16
Franco Pepe, Francesco DE Luca, Mariagrazia Stracquadanio, Claudia Garraffo, Veronica C Santonocito, Agata Privitera
Pregnancy after bariatric surgery has some peculiarities related to obesity, type of surgery, amount of weight loss, time elapsed from the surgery and adherence to medical prescriptions. Pregnant woman is at risk of nutritional deficiencies and it is unclear whether there is an increased incidence of intestinal complications during pregnancy after bariatric surgery and whether this kind of complications are more frequent during cesarean section. The fetus is at high risk of prematurity and fetal growth restriction, but they seem not at increased risk of birth defects (DTN) except in individual cases of folic acid deficiency (DTN) or vitamin K defect (similar abnormalities in patients receiving oral anticoagulants)...
April 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133504/egcg-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-changes-in-gut-microbiota-decreases-of-dna-strand-breaks-and-changes-in-expression-and-dna-methylation-of-dnmt1-and-mlh1-in-c57bl-6j-male-mice
#17
Marlene Remely, Franziska Ferk, Sonja Sterneder, Tahereh Setayesh, Sylvia Roth, Tatjana Kepcija, Rahil Noorizadeh, Irene Rebhan, Martina Greunz, Johanna Beckmann, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Siegfried Knasmüller, Alexander G Haslberger
Obesity as a multifactorial disorder involves low-grade inflammation, increased reactive oxygen species incidence, gut microbiota aberrations, and epigenetic consequences. Thus, prevention and therapies with epigenetic active antioxidants, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are of increasing interest. DNA damage, DNA methylation and gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, interleukin 6, and MutL homologue 1 were analyzed in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet (CD) with and without EGCG supplementation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123940/genome-wide-dna-promoter-methylation-and-transcriptome-analysis-in-human-adipose-tissue-unravels-novel-candidate-genes-for-obesity
#18
Maria Keller, Lydia Hopp, Xuanshi Liu, Tobias Wohland, Kerstin Rohde, Raffaella Cancello, Matthias Klös, Karl Bacos, Matthias Kern, Fabian Eichelmann, Arne Dietrich, Michael R Schön, Daniel Gärtner, Tobias Lohmann, Miriam Dreßler, Michael Stumvoll, Peter Kovacs, Anna-Maria DiBlasio, Charlotte Ling, Hans Binder, Matthias Blüher, Yvonne Böttcher
OBJECTIVE/METHODS: DNA methylation plays an important role in obesity and related metabolic complications. We examined genome-wide DNA promoter methylation along with mRNA profiles in paired samples of human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and omental visceral adipose tissue (OVAT) from non-obese vs. obese individuals. RESULTS: We identified negatively correlated methylation and expression of several obesity-associated genes in our discovery dataset and in silico replicated ETV6 in two independent cohorts...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122818/effects-of-g6pc2-deletion-on-body-weight-and-cholesterol-in-mice
#19
Kayla A Boortz, Kristen E Syring, Lynley D Pound, Huan Mo, Lisa Bastarache, James K Oeser, Owen Patrick McGuinness, Joshua C Denny, Richard O'Brien
Genome wide association study (GWAS) data have linked the G6PC2 gene to variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG). G6PC2 encodes an islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit that forms a substrate cycle with the beta cell glucose sensor glucokinase. This cycle modulates the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion and hence FBG. GWAS data have not linked G6PC2 to variations in body weight but we previously reported that female C57BL/6J G6pc2 knockout (KO) mice were lighter than wild-type littermates on both a chow and high fat diet...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107248/how-mice-are-indispensable-for-understanding-obesity-and-diabetes-genetics
#20
Alan D Attie, Gary A Churchill, Joseph H Nadeau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The task of cataloging human genetic variation and its relation to disease is rapidly approaching completion. The new challenge is to discover the function of disease-associated genes and to understand the pathways that lead to human disease. We propose that achieving this new level of understanding will increasingly rely on the use of model organisms. We discuss the advantages of the mouse as a model organism. RECENT FINDINGS: The collection of available mouse strains represents as much genetic and phenotype variation as is found in the human population...
January 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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