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Obesity epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090638/late-gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-metabolic-and-epigenetic-changes-in-male-adult-offspring-mice
#1
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Rene Cortese, Zhuanhong Qiao, Honggang Ye, Riyue Bao, Jorge Andrade, David Gozal
Pregnancy, particularly late gestation, has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089486/molecular-genetics-of-human-obesity-a-comprehensive-review
#2
Rajan Kumar Singh, Permendra Kumar, Kulandaivelu Mahalingam
Obesity and its related health complications is a major problem worldwide. Hypothalamus and their signalling molecules play a critical role in the intervening and coordination with energy balance and homeostasis. Genetic factors play a crucial role in determining an individual's predisposition to the weight gain and being obese. In the past few years, several genetic variants were identified as monogenic forms of human obesity having success over common polygenic forms. In the context of molecular genetics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) approach and their findings signified a number of genetic variants predisposing to obesity...
January 12, 2017: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076319/impact-of-nutrition-on-pollutant-toxicity-an-update-with-new-insights-into-epigenetic-regulation
#3
Jessie B Hoffman, Michael C Petriello, Bernhard Hennig
Exposure to environmental pollutants is a global health problem and is associated with the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrition can both positively and negatively modulate the toxic effects of pollutant exposure. Diets high in proinflammatory fats, such as linoleic acid, can exacerbate pollutant toxicity, whereas diets rich in bioactive and anti-inflammatory food components, including omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, can attenuate toxicant-associated inflammation...
January 11, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074555/pediatric-stress-from-neuroendocrinology-to-contemporary-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Stavroula Stavrou, Nicolas C Nicolaides, Elena Critselis, Christina Darviri, Evangelia Charmandari, George P Chrousos
BACKGROUND: Stress is defined as a state of threatened or perceived as threatened homeostasis. A broad spectrum of extrinsic or intrinsic, real or perceived stressful stimuli, called "stressors", activates a highly conserved system, the "stress system", which adjusts homeostasis through central and peripheral neuroendocrine responses. Inadequate, excessive or prolonged adaptive responses to stress may underlie the pathogenesis of several disease states prevalent in modern societies. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071704/high-fat-diet-induced-changes-of-mouse-hepatic-transcription-and-enhancer-activity-can-be-reversed-by-subsequent-weight-loss
#5
Majken Siersbæk, Lyuba Varticovski, Shutong Yang, Songjoon Baek, Ronni Nielsen, Susanne Mandrup, Gordon L Hager, Jay H Chung, Lars Grøntved
Epigenetic factors have been suggested to play an important role in metabolic memory by trapping and maintaining initial metabolic changes within the transcriptional regulatory machinery. In this study we fed mice a high fat diet (HFD) for seven weeks followed by additional five weeks of chow, to identify HFD-mediated changes to the hepatic transcriptional program that may persist after weight loss. Mice fed a HFD displayed increased fasting insulin levels, hepatosteatosis and major changes in hepatic gene transcription associated with modulation of H3K27Ac at enhancers, but no significant changes in chromatin accessibility, indicating that HFD-regulated gene transcription is primarily controlled by modulating the activity of pre-established enhancers...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068899/maternal-bmi-as-a-predictor-of-methylation-of-obesity-related-genes-in-saliva-samples-from-preschool-age-hispanic-children-at-risk-for-obesity
#6
Kathryn Tully Oelsner, Yan Guo, Sophie Bao-Chieu To, Amy L Non, Shari L Barkin
BACKGROUND: The study of epigenetic processes and mechanisms present a dynamic approach to assess complex individual variation in obesity susceptibility. However, few studies have examined epigenetic patterns in preschool-age children at-risk for obesity despite the relevance of this developmental stage to trajectories of weight gain. We hypothesized that salivary DNA methylation patterns of key obesogenic genes in Hispanic children would 1) correlate with maternal BMI and 2) allow for identification of pathways associated with children at-risk for obesity...
January 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068485/obesity-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-burden-drivers-and-emerging-challenges
#7
Nicole D Ford, Shivani A Patel, K M Venkat Narayan
We have reviewed the distinctive features of excess weight, its causes, and related prevention and management efforts, as well as data gaps and recommendations for future research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Obesity is rising in every region of the world, and no country has been successful at reversing the epidemic once it has begun. In LMICs, overweight is higher in women compared with men, in urban compared with rural settings, and in older compared with younger individuals; however, the urban-rural overweight differential is shrinking in many countries...
December 23, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061846/map4k4-and-il-6-th17-cells-play-important-roles-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Huai-Chia Chuang, Tse-Hua Tan
Obesity is a causal factor of type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, people without obesity (including lean, normal weight, or overweight) may still develop T2D. Non-obese T2D is prevalent in Asia and also frequently occurs in Europe. Recently, multiple evidences oppose the notion that either obesity or central obesity (visceral fat accumulation) promotes non-obese T2D. Several factors such as inflammation and environmental factors contribute to non-obese T2D. According to the data derived from gene knockout mice and T2D clinical samples in Asia and Europe, the pathogenesis of non-obese T2D has been unveiled recently...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050331/placental-microrna-expression-is-not-altered-by-maternal-obesity-and-fetal-overgrowth
#9
Neda Ghaffari, Samuel Parry, Michal A Elovitz, Celeste P Durnwald
Objective The epigenetic mechanisms underlying fetal metabolic programming are poorly understood. We studied whether obesity is associated with alterations in placental miRNA expression. Study Design A cross-sectional study was performed, including (1) normal-weight women (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m(2)) and normal-birth-weight (BW) infants (2,700-3,500 g) (n = 20), (2) normal-weight and macrosomic infants (BW ≥ 4,000 g) (n = 10), (3) obese (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2)) and normal BW infants (n = 16), and (4) obese and macrosomic infants (n = 10)...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049748/maternal-nutrition-opportunities-in-the-prevention-of-gestational-diabetes
#10
Irma Silva-Zolezzi, Tinu Mary Samuel, Jörg Spieldenner
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is currently defined as glucose intolerance that is of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study, including 25 000 nondiabetic pregnant women in 15 centers across the world, reported that an average of 17.8% of pregnancies are affected by GDM and its frequency can be as high as 25.5% in some countries, based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Nevertheless, true global prevalence estimates of GDM are currently lacking due to the high level of heterogeneity in screening approaches, diagnostic criteria, and differences in the characteristics of the populations that were studied...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044047/parental-obesity-and-early-childhood-development
#11
Edwina H Yeung, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Akhgar Ghassabian, Yunlong Xie, Germaine Buck Louis
BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. METHODS: Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation...
January 2, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031460/inhibitory-role-of-%C3%AE-2-6-sialylation-in-adipogenesis
#12
Tomoko Kaburagi, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Shinobu Kitazume, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Adipose tissue plays critical roles in obesity and related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports suggest that glycans, the most common post-translational modifications, are involved in obesity-related diseases, but what type of glycan regulates adipogenesis during obesity remains unclear. In this study, we first quantified the mRNA levels of 167 genes (encoding 144 glycosyltransferases and 23 related enzymes) in visceral adipose tissues (VATs) from control mice and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030845/withdrawn-could-some-epigenetic-modifications-hold-the-key-to-opposing-the-metabolic-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Giovanni Tarantino, Matteo Nicola Di Minno, Carmine Finelli
Ahead of Print article withdrawn by publisher.
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030376/the-effect-of-obesity-weight-gain-and-weight-loss-on-asthma-inception-and-control
#14
Erick Forno, Juan C Celedón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is ample and growing evidence that obesity increases the risk of asthma and morbidity from asthma. Here, we review recent clinical evidence supporting a causal link between obesity and asthma, and the mechanisms that may lead to 'obese asthma'. RECENT FINDINGS: Although in some children obesity and asthma simply co-occur, those with 'obese asthma' have increased asthma severity, lower quality of life, and reduced medication response. Underlying mechanistic pathways may include anatomical changes of the airways such as obstruction and dysanapsis, systemic inflammation, production of adipokines, impaired glucose-insulin metabolism, altered nutrient levels, genetic and epigenetic changes, and alterations in the airway and/or gut microbiome...
December 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989961/role-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-activation-in-cardiac-diastolic-dysfunction
#15
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Yan Jia, James R Sowers
The prevalence of cardiac diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world, is increasing due, in part, to increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Characteristics of cardiac diastolic dysfunction include increased myocardial stiffness and impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation that is characterized by prolonged isovolumic LV relaxation and slow LV filling. Obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, especially in females promote activation of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling with resultant increases in oxidative stress, maladaptive immune responses, inflammation, and impairment of coronary blood flow and cardiac interstitial fibrosis...
October 28, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988168/dna-methylation-and-histone-deacetylation-regulating-insulin-sensitivity-due-to-chronic-cold-exposure
#16
Xiaoqing Wang, Lai Wang, Yizheng Sun, Ruiping Li, Jinbo Deng, Jiexin Deng
In this study, we investigated the causal relationship between chronic cold exposure and insulin resistance and the mechanisms of how DNA methylation and histone deacetylation regulate cold-reduced insulin resistance. 46 adult male mice from postnatal day 90-180 were randomly assigned to control group and cold-exposure group. Mice in cold-exposure group were placed at temperature from -1 to 4 °C for 30 days to mimic chronic cold environment. Then, fasting blood glucose, blood insulin level and insulin resistance index were measured with enzymatic methods...
December 14, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986580/no-effect-of-different-bariatric-surgery-procedures-on-line-1-dna-methylation-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-morbidly-obese-patients
#17
G M Martín-Núñez, A Cabrera-Mulero, J Alcaide-Torres, E García-Fuentes, F J Tinahones, S Morcillo
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery (BS) is proposed as a highly effective therapy for reducing weight and improving obesity-related co-morbidities. The molecular mechanisms involved in the metabolic improvement after BS are not completely resolved. Epigenetic modifications could have an important role. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different BS procedures (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy) on global DNA methylation (long interspersed nucleotide element 1 [LINE-1]) in a group of nondiabetic and diabetic severely obese patients...
October 21, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981852/epigenetics-obesity-and-early-life-cadmium-or-lead-exposure
#18
Sarah S Park, David A Skaar, Randy L Jirtle, Cathrine Hoyo
Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity...
January 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968834/methylation-loci-associated-with-body-mass-index-waist-circumference-and-waist-to-hip-ratio-in-chinese-adults-an-epigenome-wide-analysis
#19
Biqi Wang, Wenjing Gao, Jun Li, Canqing Yu, Weihua Cao, Jun Lv, Zengchang Pang, Liming Cong, Hua Wang, Xianping Wu, Liming Liang, Tangchun Wu, Liming Li
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has been implicated in the pathology of obesity, but little is known about such epigenetic variants in Chinese people. We conducted an epigenome-wide analysis of methylation at CpG sites in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among Chinese adult populations. METHODS: 469 twins from the Chinese National Twin Registry were the discovery cohort. After quality control, methylation levels in whole blood leukocyte DNA were tested for association with BMI, WC, and WHR using mixed linear regressions, adjusting for demographics, lifestyle, and family structure...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957816/ascorbic-acid-drives-the-differentiation-of-mesoderm-derived-embryonic-stem-cells-involvement-of-p38-mapk-creb-and-svct2-transporter
#20
F Rahman, B Bordignon, R Culerrier, F Peiretti, S Spicuglia, M Djabali, J F Landrier, M Fontes
SCOPE: Here we tested the hypothesis that ascorbic acid (AA) is a signalling molecule acting on stem cells via the differentiation of mesoderm derivatives, including myocytes, osteocytes and adipocytes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Investigations used a murine embryonic stem cell line CGR8 able to differentiate into different cell types and treated or not with ascorbic acid. Differentiation was tracked mainly through cellular anatomy (including presence of beating cardiomyocytes) and expression of specific markers...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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