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Obesity epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#1
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904521/epigenetic-modifications-in-adipose-tissue-relation-to-obesity-and-diabetes
#2
Marta A Kasinska, Jozef Drzewoski, Agnieszka Sliwinska
The growing number of people suffering from obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health problem that results in increased mortality from their complications, mainly cardiovascular diseases. Although the relationship between obesity and T2DM is well established, the common molecular pathomechanisms are still under investigation. Recently, it has been suggested that epigenetic modifications may be involved in both obesity and T2DM development. Epigenetics plays a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression by the reversible modifications of chromatin structure without any changes in DNA sequence...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895808/mendelian-inheritance-of-trimodal-cpg-methylation-sites-suggests-distal-cis-acting-genetic-effects
#3
Shaza B Zaghlool, Mashael Al-Shafai, Wadha A Al Muftah, Pankaj Kumar, Christian Gieger, Melanie Waldenberger, Mario Falchi, Karsten Suhre
BACKGROUND: Environmentally influenced phenotypes, such as obesity and insulin resistance, can be transmitted over multiple generations. Epigenetic modifications, such as methylation of DNA cytosine-guanine (CpG) pairs, may be carriers of inherited information. At the population level, the methylation state of such "heritable" CpG sites is expected to follow a trimodal distribution, and their mode of inheritance should be Mendelian. METHODS: Using the Illumina Infinium 450 K DNA methylation array, we determined DNA CpG-methylation in blood cells from a family cohort 123 individuals of Arab ethnicity, including 18 elementary father-mother-child trios, we asked whether Mendelian inheritance of CpG methylation is observed, and most importantly, whether it is independent of any genetic signals...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889327/epigenetics-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jooho Lee, Yuri Kim, Simonetta Friso, Sang-Woon Choi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a common hepatic disorder ranging from simple steatosis through steatohepatitis to fibrosis and cirrhosis, is an emerging health concern. NAFLD is a pathologic condition characterized by the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol consumption. Excess hepatic fat accumulation results from increased delivery of triglycerides (TG) to the liver or conversion of surplus carbohydrates to TG. Importantly, a subgroup of NAFLD results in hepatocellular injury and inflammation, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and may progress to irreversible cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886642/obesity-and-the-breast-cancer-methylome
#5
REVIEW
William B Coleman
Breast cancer is associated with risk factors such as advancing age and obesity. However, the linkages between these risk factors for breast cancer development and initiation of the disease are not yet clear. Obesity may drive breast cancer development through increases in circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Mammary cell susceptibility to neoplastic transformation requires both genetic and epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation. Obesity is also subject to epigenetic regulation...
November 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882346/epigenetic-regulation-of-macrophage-polarization-and-inflammation-by-dna-methylation-in-obesity
#6
Xianfeng Wang, Qiang Cao, Liqing Yu, Huidong Shi, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi
Obesity is associated with increased classically activated M1 adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and decreased alternatively activated M2 ATMs, both of which contribute to obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We find that inhibiting DNA methylation pharmacologically using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or genetically by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) deletion promotes alternative activation and suppresses inflammation in macrophages. Consistently, mice with myeloid DNMT1 deficiency exhibit enhanced macrophage alternative activation, suppressed macrophage inflammation, and are protected from obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881521/is-famine-exposure-during-developmental-life-in-rural-bangladesh-associated-with-a-metabolic-and-epigenetic-signature-in-young-adulthood-a-historical-cohort-study
#7
S Finer, M S Iqbal, R Lowe, B W Ogunkolade, S Pervin, C Mathews, M Smart, D S Alam, G A Hitman
OBJECTIVES: Famine exposure in utero can 'programme' an individual towards type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. We sought to identify, (1) whether Bangladeshis exposed to famine during developmental life are programmed towards diabetes and obesity, (2) whether this programming was specific to gestational or postnatal exposure windows and (3) whether epigenetic differences were associated with famine exposure. DESIGN: A historical cohort study was performed as part of a wider cross-sectional survey...
November 23, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874008/the-gcn5-cited2-pka-signalling-module-controls-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-through-a-camp-induced-substrate-switch
#8
Mashito Sakai, Tomoko Tujimura-Hayakawa, Takashi Yagi, Hiroyuki Yano, Masaru Mitsushima, Hiroyuki Unoki-Kubota, Yasushi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Inoue, Yoshiaki Kido, Masato Kasuga, Michihiro Matsumoto
Hepatic gluconeogenesis during fasting results from gluconeogenic gene activation via the glucagon-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, a process whose dysregulation underlies fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. Such transcriptional activation requires epigenetic changes at promoters by mechanisms that have remained unclear. Here we show that GCN5 functions both as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) to activate fasting gluconeogenesis and as an acetyltransferase for the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α to inhibit gluconeogenesis in the fed state...
November 22, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871293/genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations-in-the-gnas-locus-and-clinical-consequences-in-pseudohypoparathyroidism-italian-common-healthcare-pathways-adoption
#9
L de Sanctis, F Giachero, G Mantovani, G Weber, M Salerno, G I Baroncelli, M F Elli, P Matarazzo, M Wasniewska, L Mazzanti, G Scirè, D Tessaris
BACKGROUND: Genetic and epigenetic alterations in the GNAS locus are responsible for the Gsα protein dysfunctions causing Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type Ia/c and Ib, respectively. For these heterogeneous diseases characterized by multiple hormone resistances and Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) the current classification results inadequate because of the clinical overlap between molecular subtypes and a standard clinical approach is still missing. In the present paper several members of the Study Group Endocrine diseases due to altered function of Gsα protein of the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED) have reviewed and updated the clinical-molecular data of the largest case series of (epi)/genetically characterized AHO/PHP patients; they then produced a common healthcare pathway for patients with these disorders...
November 21, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870410/sex-differences-in-neuroinflammation-and-neuroprotection-in-ischemic-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Monica S Spychala, Pedram Honarpisheh, Louise D McCullough
Stroke is not only a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide it also disproportionally affects women. There are currently over 500,000 more women stroke survivors in the US than men, and elderly women bear the brunt of stroke-related disability. Stroke has dropped to the fifth leading cause of death in men, but remains the third in women. This review discusses sex differences in common stroke risk factors, the efficacy of stroke prevention therapies, acute treatment responses, and post-stroke recovery in clinical populations...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869693/putting-the-barker-theory-into-the-future-time-to-act-on-preventing-pediatric-obesity
#11
EDITORIAL
Angelo Pietrobelli, Massimo Agosti, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, The MeNu Group
Growth and development are key characteristics of childhood and sensitive markers of health and adequate nutrition. The first 1000 days of life-conception through 24 months of age-represent a fundamental period for development and thus the prevention of childhood obesity and its adverse consequences is mandatory. There are many growth drivers during this complex phase of life, such as nutrition, genetic and epigenetic factors, and hormonal regulation. The challenge thus involves maximizing the potential for normal growth without increasing the risk of associated disorders...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858497/high-fat-diet-and-exercise-lead-to-a-disrupted-and-pathogenic-dna-methylome-in-mouse-liver
#12
Dan Zhou, Ryan A Hlady, Marissa J Schafer, Thomas A White, Chen Liu, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Jordan D Miller, Lewis R Roberts, Nathan K LeBrasseur, Keith D Robertson
High-fat diet consumption and sedentary life style elevates risk for obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cancer. Exercise training conveys health benefits in populations with or without these chronic conditions. Diet and exercise regulate gene expression by mediating epigenetic mechanisms in many tissues; however, such effects are poorly documented in the liver, a central metabolic organ. To dissect the consequences of diet and exercise on the liver epigenome, we measured DNA methylation, using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, and transcription, using RNA-seq, in mice maintained on a fast food diet with sedentary lifestyle or exercise, compared to control diet with and without exercise...
November 18, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825817/influence-of-maternal-obesity-diet-and-exercise-on-epigenetic-regulation-of-adipocytes
#13
REVIEW
Archana Dhasarathy, James N Roemmich, Kate J Claycombe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814400/sperm-microrna-content-is-altered-in-a-mouse-model-of-male-obesity-but-the-same-suite-of-micrornas-are-not-altered-in-offspring-s-sperm
#14
Tod Fullston, E Maria C Ohlsson-Teague, Cristin G Print, Lauren Y Sandeman, Michelle Lane
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and has tripled in men of reproductive age since the 1970s. Concerningly, obesity is not only comorbid with other chronic diseases, but there is mounting evidence that it increases the non-communicable disease load in their children (eg mortality, obesity, autism). Animal studies have demonstrated that paternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic (eg glucose metabolism defects, obesity) and reproductive disorders in offspring. Epigenetic changes within sperm are clear mechanistic candidates that are associated with both changes to the father's environment and offspring phenotype...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809239/substitution-models-of-water-for-other-beverages-and-the-incidence-of-obesity-and-weight-gain-in-the-sun-cohort
#15
Ujué Fresán, Alfredo Gea, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Miguel A Martínez-Gonzalez
Obesity is a major epidemic for developed countries in the 21st century. The main cause of obesity is energy imbalance, of which contributing factors include a sedentary lifestyle, epigenetic factors and excessive caloric intake through food and beverages. A high consumption of caloric beverages, such as alcoholic or sweetened drinks, may particularly contribute to weight gain, and lower satiety has been associated with the intake of liquid instead of solid calories. Our objective was to evaluate the association between the substitution of a serving per day of water for another beverage (or group of them) and the incidence of obesity and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort, using mathematical models...
October 31, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800025/histone-macroh2a1-2-promotes-metabolic-health-and-leanness-by-inhibiting-adipogenesis
#16
Valerio Pazienza, Concetta Panebianco, Francesca Rappa, Domenico Memoli, Michela Borghesan, Sara Cannito, Asami Oji, Giuseppe Mazza, Domenico Tamburrino, Giuseppe Fusai, Rosario Barone, Giulia Bolasco, Francesc Villarroya, Joan Villarroya, Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa, Francesco Cappello, Roberta Tarallo, Tomoko Nakanishi, Manlio Vinciguerra
BACKGROUND: Obesity has tremendous impact on the health systems. Its epigenetic bases are unclear. MacroH2A1 is a variant of histone H2A, present in two alternatively exon-spliced isoforms macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2, regulating cell plasticity and proliferation, during pluripotency and tumorigenesis. Their role in adipose tissue plasticity is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we show evidence that macroH2A1.1 protein levels in the visceral adipose tissue of obese humans positively correlate with BMI, while macroH2A1...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795744/global-dna-methylation-patterns-in-barrett-s-esophagus-dysplastic-barrett-s-and-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-are-associated-with-bmi-gender-and-tobacco-use
#17
Andrew M Kaz, Chao-Jen Wong, Vinay Varadan, Joseph E Willis, Amitabh Chak, William M Grady
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing Barrett's esophagus (BE) and/or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is associated with specific demographic and behavioral factors, including gender, obesity/elevated body mass index (BMI), and tobacco use. Alterations in DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification that can affect gene expression and that can be influenced by environmental factors, is frequently present in both BE and EAC and is believed to play a role in the formation of BE and its progression to EAC...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795551/attenuation-of-diet-induced-obesity-and-induction-of-white-fat-browning-with-a-chemical-inhibitor-of-histone-deacetylases
#18
A Ferrari, E Fiorino, R Longo, S Barilla, N Mitro, G Cermenati, M Giudici, D Caruso, A Mai, U Guerrini, E De Fabiani, M Crestani
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In the last decade a strict link between epigenetics and metabolism has been demonstrated. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have emerged as key epigenetic regulators involved in metabolic homeostasis in normal and pathologic conditions. Here we investigated the effect of the class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275 in a model of obesity induced by a high fat diet (HFD). METHODS: C57BL6/J male mice were fed HFD for 17 weeks and then randomized in two groups treated intraperitoneally with vehicle (DMSO) or with the class I selective HDAC inhibitor MS-275 every other day for 22 days...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792161/maternal-dietary-vitamin-d-does-not-program-systemic-inflammation-and-bone-health-in-adult-female-mice-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#19
Christopher R Villa, Jianmin Chen, Bijun Wen, Sandra M Sacco, Amel Taibi, Wendy E Ward, Elena M Comelli
Obesity is associated with systemic inflammation and impaired bone health. Vitamin D regulates bone metabolism, and has anti-inflammatory properties and epigenetic effects. We showed that exposure to high dietary vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation beneficially programs serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bone structure in male offspring fed an obesogenic diet. Here we assessed if this effect is also apparent in females. C57BL/6J dams were fed AIN93G diet with high (5000 IU/kg diet) or low (25 IU/kg diet) vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789200/maternal-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-and-circulating-micrornas-in-pregnancy
#20
Daniel A Enquobahrie, Pandora L Wander, Mahlet G Tadesse, Chunfang Qiu, Claudia Holzman, Michelle A Williams
BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obese status has been associated with a number of pregnancy complications and adverse offspring outcomes. Mechanisms for observed associations, however, are largely unknown. We investigated associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index with early-mid pregnancy epigenetic biomarkers, circulating microRNAs. METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from participants (16-27 weeks gestation) of two multi-racial pregnancy cohorts, the Omega Study and the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study...
October 24, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
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