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Obesity epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027120/elucidating-the-preadipocyte-and-its-role-in-adipocyte-formation-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Christos N Sarantopoulos, Derek A Banyard, Mary E Ziegler, Beatrice Sun, Ashkaun Shaterian, Alan D Widgerow
Adipogenesis is a complex process whereby the multipotent adipose-derived stem cell is converted to a preadipocyte before terminal differentiation into the mature adipocyte. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life, exhibit adipose fat depot specificity, and differentiate and proliferate from distinct progenitor cells. The mechanisms that promote preadipocyte commitment and maturation involve numerous protein factor regulators, epigenetic factors, and miRNAs. Detailed characterization of this process is currently an area of intense research and understanding the roles of preadipocytes in tissue plasticity may provide insight into novel approaches for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and treating a host of obesity-related conditions...
October 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019419/prenatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disruptors-and-reprogramming-of-adipogenesis-an-early-life-risk-factor-for-childhood-obesity
#2
Ayman El-Sayed Shafei, Enas Samir Nabih, Kirolos Atalla Shehata, Emad Sherif Mohamed Abd Elfatah, Abou Bakr Ahmed Sanad, Mohamed Yehia Marey, Abd Alla Mohamed Ahmed Hammouda, Mounir Mostafa Moussa Mohammed, Randa Mostafa, Mahmoud A Ali
Obesity is a global health problem. It is characterized by excess adipose tissue that results from either increase in the number of adipocytes or increase in adipocytes size. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly regulated process that involves the activation of several transcription factors culminating in the removal of adipocytes from the cell cycle and induction of highly specific proteins. Several other factors, including hormones, genes, and epigenetics, are among the most important triggers of the differentiation process...
October 11, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016858/maternal-bmi-at-the-start-of-pregnancy-and-offspring-epigenome-wide-dna-methylation-findings-from-the-pregnancy-and-childhood-epigenetics-pace-consortium
#3
Gemma C Sharp, Lucas A Salas, Claire Monnereau, Catherine Allard, Paul Yousefi, Todd M Everson, Jon Bohlin, Zongli Xu, Rae-Chi Huang, Sarah E Reese, Cheng-Jian Xu, Nour Baïz, Cathrine Hoyo, Golareh Agha, Ritu Roy, John W Holloway, Akram Ghantous, Simon K Merid, Kelly M Bakulski, Leanne K Küpers, Hongmei Zhang, Rebecca C Richmond, Christian M Page, Liesbeth Duijts, Rolv T Lie, Phillip E Melton, Judith M Vonk, Ellen A Nohr, ClarLynda Williams-DeVane, Karen Huen, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Carlos Ruiz-Arenas, Semira Gonseth, Faisal I Rezwan, Zdenko Herceg, Sandra Ekström, Lisa Croen, Fahimeh Falahi, Patrice Perron, Margaret R Karagas, Bilal M Quraishi, Matthew Suderman, Maria C Magnus, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Jack A Taylor, Denise Anderson, Shanshan Zhao, Henriette A Smit, Michele J Josey, Asa Bradman, Andrea A Baccarelli, Mariona Bustamante, Siri E Håberg, Göran Pershagen, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Craig Newschaffer, Eva Corpeleijn, Luigi Bouchard, Debbie A Lawlor, Rachel L Maguire, Lisa F Barcellos, George Davey Smith, Brenda Eskenazi, Wilfried Karmaus, Carmen J Marsit, Marie-France Hivert, Harold Snieder, M Daniele Fallin, Erik Melén, Monica C Munthe-Kaas, Hasan Arshad, Joseph L Wiemels, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Martine Vrijheid, Emily Oken, Nina Holland, Susan K Murphy, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Gerard H Koppelman, John P Newnham, Allen J Wilcox, Wenche Nystad, Stephanie J London, Janine F Felix, Caroline L Relton
Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse offspring outcomes at birth and later in life. Individual studies have shown that epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation could contribute. Within the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) Consortium, we meta-analysed the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and methylation at over 450,000 sites in newborn blood DNA, across 19 cohorts (9,340 mother-newborn pairs). We attempted to infer causality by comparing the effects of maternal versus paternal BMI and incorporating genetic variation...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992292/macroh2a1-1-cooperates-with-ezh2-to-promote-adipogenesis-by-regulating-wnt-signaling
#4
Danyang Wan, Chengyu Liu, Y Sun, Wenjun Wang, Kun Huang, Ling Zheng
White adipocytes play important roles in many physiological processes, including energy storage, endocrine signaling, and inflammatory responses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of adipocyte formation (adipogenesis) provides insights into therapeutic approaches against obesity and its related diseases. Many transcriptional factors and epigenetic enzymes are known to regulate adipogenesis; however, whether histone variants play a role in this process is unknown. Here we found that macroH2A1.1 (mH2A1.1), a variant of histone H2A, was upregulated during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and in the white adipose tissue of obese mice...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987628/nutrient-regulation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation
#5
Valentine S Moullé, Julien Ghislain, Vincent Poitout
Excess consumption of energy-dense foods combined with a sedentary lifestyle is driving an obesity epidemic. Although obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance, most individuals meet the insulin demand by increasing their functional β-cell mass. Those who eventually develop type 2 diabetes are distinguished by a failure in this compensatory process. Although a causal role of insulin resistance in compensatory β-cell responses has received considerable experimental support, precisely how the β cell senses changes in the metabolic environment is still unknown...
October 4, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985395/nonhuman-primates-and-translational-research-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Laura A Cox, Michael Olivier, Kimberly Spradling-Reeves, Genesio M Karere, Anthony G Comuzzie, John L VandeBerg
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Human epidemiological studies provide challenges for understanding mechanisms that regulate initiation and progression of CVD due to variation in lifestyle, diet, and other environmental factors. Studies describing metabolic and physiologic aspects of CVD, and those investigating genetic and epigenetic mechanisms influencing CVD initiation and progression, have been conducted in multiple Old World nonhuman primate (NHP) species...
August 28, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984844/maternal-obesity-heritably-perturbs-offspring-metabolism-for-three-generations-without-serial-programming
#7
S A Eaton, A J Aiken, P E Young, J W K Ho, J E Cropley, C M Suter
Maternal obesity can program offspring metabolism across multiple generations. It is not known whether multigenerational effects reflect true inheritance of the induced phenotype, or are due to serial propagation of the phenotype through repeated exposure to a compromised gestational milieu. Here we sought to distinguish these possibilities, using the A(vy) mouse model of maternal obesity. In this model, F1 sons of obese dams display a predisposition to hepatic insulin resistance which remains latent unless the offspring are challenged with a Western diet...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983453/remote-sensing-between-liver-and-intestine-importance-of-microbial-metabolites
#8
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971462/interactome-of-obesity-obesidome-genetic-obesity-stress-induced-obesity-pathogenic-obesity-interaction
#9
Styliani A Geronikolou, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Dennis Cokkinos, George Chrousos
Obesity is a chronic disease of increasing prevalence reaching epidemic proportions. Genetic defects as well as epigenetic effects contribute to the obesity phenotype. Investigating gene (e.g. MC4R defects)-environment (behavior, infectious agents, stress) interactions is a relative new field of great research interest. In this study, we have made an effort to create an interactome (henceforth referred to as "obesidome"), where extrinsic stressors response, intrinsic predisposition, immunity response to inflammation and autonomous nervous system implications are integrated...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971315/prader-willi-syndrome-a-common-epigenetic-cause-of-syndromic-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Neerja Gupta, Vandana Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966808/aging-metabolism-and-cancer-development-from-peto-s-paradox-to-the-warburg-effect
#11
REVIEW
Tia R Tidwell, Kjetil Søreide, Hanne R Hagland
Medical advances made over the last century have increased our lifespan, but age-related diseases are a fundamental health burden worldwide. Aging is therefore a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative diseases, all increasing in prevalence. However, huge inter-individual variations in aging and disease risk exist, which cannot be explained by chronological age, but rather physiological age decline initiated even at young age due to lifestyle. At the heart of this lies the metabolic system and how this is regulated in each individual...
October 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959056/irs1-dna-promoter-methylation-and-expression-in-human-adipose-tissue-are-related-to-fat-distribution-and-metabolic-traits
#12
Kerstin Rohde, Matthias Klös, Lydia Hopp, Xuanshi Liu, Maria Keller, Michael Stumvoll, Arne Dietrich, Michael R Schön, Daniel Gärtner, Tobias Lohmann, Miriam Dreßler, Peter Kovacs, Hans Binder, Matthias Blüher, Yvonne Böttcher
The SNP variant rs2943650 near IRS1 gene locus was previously associated with decreased body fat and IRS1 gene expression as well as an adverse metabolic profile in humans. Here, we hypothesize that these effects may be mediated by an interplay with epigenetic alterations. We measured IRS1 promoter DNA methylation and mRNA expression in paired human subcutaneous and omental visceral adipose tissue samples (SAT and OVAT) from 146 and 41 individuals, respectively. Genotyping of rs2943650 was performed in all individuals (N = 146)...
September 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953805/linking-the-psychosocial-aetiology-and-neurobiology-of-unipolar-depression
#13
Lucia Coulter, Mina Ibrahimi, Ravi Patel, Mark Agius
Psychosocial factors are an important contributor to the aetiology of unipolar depression. This paper reviews the evidence for the contribution of different psychosocial factors, and provides an overview of the proposed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between psychosocial factors and depression. Implicated psychosocial factors fall into three interrelated groups: life events, socioeconomic status, and social support. The life events most strongly linked with depression are bereavement, disability or medical illness, and childhood maltreatment...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950165/epigenetic-programming-early-life-nutrition-and-the-risk-of-metabolic-disease
#14
REVIEW
Tomasz Block, Assam El-Osta
Time separates the past from the present, during this period memory are formed - written in code and decoded to be read while other memories are erased - but when it comes to the epigenome some memories are harder to forget than others. Recent studies show chemical information is written in the context of the epigenome and codified on histone and non-histone proteins to regulate nuclear processes such as gene transcription. The genome is also subject to modification in the form of 5-methylcytosine, which has been implicated in metabolic memory...
September 5, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947922/diabetes-medication-associates-with-dna-methylation-of-metformin-transporter-genes-in-the-human-liver
#15
Sonia García-Calzón, Alexander Perfilyev, Ville Männistö, Vanessa D de Mello, Emma Nilsson, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Given that metformin is the most common pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes, understanding the function of this drug is of great importance. Hepatic metformin transporters are responsible for the pharmacologic action of metformin. However, epigenetics in genes encoding metformin transporters has not been fully elucidated. We examined the DNA methylation of these genes in the liver of subjects with type 2 diabetes and tested whether epigenetic alterations associate with diabetes medication, i...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938471/low-vitamin-b12-in-pregnancy-is-associated-with-adipose-derived-circulating-mirs-targeting-ppar%C3%AE-and-insulin-resistance
#16
Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Manu Vatish, Mohammad Tauqeer Alam, Sascha Ott, Sudhesh Kumar, Ponnusamy Saravanan
Context: Low vitamin B12 (B12) during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal obesity, insulin resistance(IR) and gestational diabetes(GDM). B12 is a key co-factor in 1-carbon metabolism. Objective: We hypothesize that B12 plays a role in epigenetic regulation by altering circulating miRNAs(miRs) during adipocyte differentiation and results in an adverse metabolic phenotype. Design, settings and main-outcome measure: Human pre-adipocyte cell-line(Chub-S7) were differentiated in various B12 concentrations: Control(500nM), LowB12(0...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932075/role-of-tissue-microenvironment-resident-adipocytes-in-colon-cancer
#17
EDITORIAL
Maria Tabuso, Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam, Raghu Adya, Ramesh P Arasaradnam
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multifactorial disease characterized by several genetic and epigenetic alterations occurring in epithelial cells. It is increasingly recognized that tumour progression is also regulated by tumour microenvironment (TME). The bidirectional cross-talk between tumour resident adipocytes and cancer cells within TME has been proposed as active contributor to carcinogenesis. Tumour resident adipocytes exhibit an activated phenotype characterized by increased secretion of pro-tumorigenic factors (angiogenic/inflammatory/immune) which contribute to cancer cell proliferation, invasion, neoangiogenesis, evasion of immune surveillance and therapy resistance...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923201/determinants-of-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-disordered-sleep-and-obesity
#18
Chandra L Jackson
Racial/ethnic minorities experience a disproportionate risk of both suboptimal sleep and obesity, and the relationship between sleep and obesity may differ by race/ethnicity for modifiable and non-modifiable reasons. Because many people of color have historically lived and continue to largely live in disadvantaged, obesogenic physical and social environments, these greater adverse exposures likely negatively affect sleep, resulting in physiological dysregulation. Physiological dysregulation may, in turn, lead to increased obesity risk and subsequent health consequences, which are likely more influential than potential genetic differences in race, a social construct...
October 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923095/genetic-and-epigenetic-studies-of-adiposity-and-cardiometabolic-disease
#19
REVIEW
Michael V Holmes, Sara L Pulit, Cecilia M Lindgren
Over 300 million adults are obese, but little is known about the impact of obesity on cardiovascular health. We discuss recent genetic and epigenetic studies of adiposity that indicate a causal role for general and central adiposity in cardiometabolic disease, and highlight potential mechanisms including insulin resistance and gene expression.
September 18, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921259/epigenetic-effects-of-the-pregnancy-mediterranean-diet-adherence-on-the-offspring-metabolic-syndrome-markers
#20
REVIEW
David Lorite Mingot, Eva Gesteiro, Sara Bastida, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a multifactorial and not yet fully clarified origin. Insulin resistance is a key element that connects all the accepted components of MS (obesity, dyslipemia, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia). There is strong evidence that epigenetic changes during fetal development are key factors in the development of MS. These changes are induced by maternal nutrition, among different factors, affecting the intrauterine environment. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of MS in adults...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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