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Obesity epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666451/exploring-the-extent-and-scope-of-epigenetic-inheritance
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth J Radford
Environmental factors, particularly during early life, are important for the later metabolic health of the individual. In our obesogenic environment, it is of major socio-economic importance to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to the risk of metabolic ill health. Increasing evidence from a variety of model organisms suggests that non-genetically determined phenotypes, including metabolic effects such as glucose intolerance and obesity, can be passed between generations, which encourages us to revisit heredity...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663393/maternal-obesity-reprograms-offspring-s-executive-brain-centers-in-a-sex-specific-manner-an-editorial-for-perinatal-high-fat-diet-and-early-life-methyl-donor-supplementation-alter-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-brain-on-doi-10-1111-jnc-14319
#2
EDITORIAL
Kaja Plucińska, Steven W Barger
This editorial highlights an article by McKee and colleagues in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors report epigenetic changes linked to one-carbon metabolism in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of murine offspring from dams fed high-fat diet to mimic maternal obesity. The group found that high-fat diet feeding in utero increases weight gain in offspring and dynamically alters DNA methylation in the PFC of male but not female brains. These epigenetic marks were associated with a shift in brain one-carbon metabolism (folate and methionine) intermediates and were normalized by early-life methyl-donor supplementation in a sex-specific manner...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645315/cell-and-molecular-mechanisms-behind-diet-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Yenniffer Ávalos, Bredford Kerr, Manuel Maliqueo, Mauricio Dorfman
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation in the hypothalamus, a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Current studies have revealed the involvement of different cell types as well as cell and molecular mechanisms that contribute to diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation (DIHI) and DIO. Since the discovery that high-fat diet and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) increase the expression of hypothalamic cytokines prior to weight gain, research has focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these changes, and what the role of inflammation in the obesity pathogenesis...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643945/epigenome-wide-association-study-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-african-american-adults
#4
Tomi Akinyemiju, Anh N Do, Amit Patki, Stella Aslibekyan, Degui Zhi, Bertha Hidalgo, Hemant K Tiwari, Devin Absher, Xin Geng, Donna K Arnett, Marguerite R Irvin
Background: The high prevalence of obesity among US adults has resulted in significant increases in associated metabolic disorders such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Together, these disorders constitute metabolic syndrome, a clinically defined condition highly prevalent among African-Americans. Identifying epigenetic alterations associated with metabolic syndrome may provide additional information regarding etiology beyond current evidence from genome-wide association studies...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626983/hematopoietic-changes-in-the-offspring-induced-by-maternal-overweight-effect-on-placenta-and-fetal-liver-populations
#5
Luana Leirós, Juliana Barbosa Torreão Dáu, Daphne Pinheiro, Ana Carolina Stumbo Machado, Alessandra Alves Thole, Erika Afonso Costa Cortez, Laís de Carvalho, Simone Nunes de Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow cells (BMC) from obese adult mice display an increased apoptosis rate over proliferation. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) form all blood cells and are important BMC used in cell therapy. Because it is known that prenatal development can be affected by adverse metabolic epigenetic programming from the maternal organism, this work aimed to investigate the effects of maternal overweight on placenta and fetal liver hematopoietic niches. METHODS: Overweight was induced in female mice by overfeeding during lactation...
April 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626501/birth-weight-predicts-aging-trajectory-a-hypothesis
#6
REVIEW
Alexander M Vaiserman
Increasing evidence suggests that risk for age-related disease and longevity can be programmed early in life. In human populations, convincing evidence has been accumulated indicating that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) resulting in low birth weight (<2.5 kg) followed by postnatal catch-up growth is associated with various aspects of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Fetal macrosomia (birth weight >4.5 kg), by contrast, is associated with high risk of non-diabetic obesity and cancers in later life...
April 4, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621669/omega-3-fatty-acids-in-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-mechanistic-update
#7
REVIEW
Kembra Albracht-Schulte, Nishan Sudheera Kalupahana, Latha Ramalingam, Shu Wang, Shaikh Mizanoor Rahman, Jacalyn Robert-McComb, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Strategies to reduce obesity have become public health priorities as the prevalence of obesity has risen in the United States and around the world. While the anti-inflammatory and hypotriglyceridemic properties of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are well known, their antiobesity effects and efficacy against metabolic syndrome, especially in humans, are still under debate. In animal models, evidence consistently suggests a role for n-3 PUFAs in reducing fat mass, particularly in the retroperitoneal and epididymal regions...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618598/routine-assessment-and-promotion-of-physical-activity-in-healthcare-settings-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#8
REVIEW
Felipe Lobelo, Deborah Rohm Young, Robert Sallis, Michael D Garber, Sandra A Billinger, John Duperly, Adrian Hutber, Russell R Pate, Randal J Thomas, Michael E Widlansky, Michael V McConnell, Elizabeth A Joy
Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent major health risk factors, with 8 in 10 US adults not meeting aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines, and is associated with a high burden of cardiovascular disease. Improving and maintaining recommended levels of physical activity leads to reductions in metabolic, hemodynamic, functional, body composition, and epigenetic risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Physical activity also has a significant role, in many cases comparable or superior to drug interventions, in the prevention and management of >40 conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, depression, Alzheimer disease, and arthritis...
April 4, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609545/relationship-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-noncoding-rnas-with-hypertension-a-case-control-study
#9
Shiying Chen, Rong Chen, Tingxing Zhang, Shaowei Lin, Zhou Chen, Bi Zhao, Huangyuan Li, Siying Wu
BACKGROUND: The present study sought to explore the relationship of common cardiovascular disease risk factors and noncoding RNAs with essential hypertension (EH). METHODS: A total of 402 EH patients and 402 gender- and age-frequency matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Each participant received a questionnaire survey, physical examination and laboratory tests. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to assess relative expression levels of six noncoding RNAs (NR_027032, NR_034083, NR_104181, miR-126, miR-143 and miR-145) in peripheral blood leucocytes...
April 2, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605715/a-computational-biology-approach-of-a-genome-wide-screen-connected-mirnas-to-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
Pascal Gottmann, Meriem Ouni, Sophie Sausenthaler, Julian Roos, Laura Stirm, Markus Jähnert, Anne Kamitz, Nicole Hallahan, Wenke Jonas, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Harald Staiger, Matthias Blüher, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Heike Vogel, Annette Schürmann
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) arise from the interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to combine bioinformatics and functional studies to identify miRNAs that contribute to obesity and T2D. METHODS: A computational framework (miR-QTL-Scan) was applied by combining QTL, miRNA prediction, and transcriptomics in order to enhance the power for the discovery of miRNAs as regulative elements. Expression of several miRNAs was analyzed in human adipose tissue and blood cells and miR-31 was manipulated in a human fat cell line...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603098/dna-methylation-of-genes-regulating-appetite-and-prediction-of-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery-in-obese-individuals
#11
F Coppedè, M Seghieri, A Stoccoro, E Santini, L Giannini, C Rossi, L Migliore, A Solini
PURPOSE: Epigenetic traits are influenced by clinical variables; interaction between DNA methylation (DNAmeth) and bariatric surgery-induced weight loss has been scarcely explored. We investigated whether DNAmeth of genes encoding for molecules/hormones regulating appetite, food intake or obesity could predict successful weight outcome following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Forty-five obese individuals with no known comorbidities were stratified accordingly to weight decrease one-year after RYGB (excess weight loss, EWL ≥ 50%: good responders, GR; EWL < 50%: worse responders, WR)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598821/association-between-the-dna-methylations-of-pomc-mc4r-and-hnf4a-and-metabolic-profiles-in-the-blood-of-children-aged-7-9-years
#12
Eun Jin Kwon, Young-Ah You, Bohyun Park, Eun Hee Ha, Hae Soon Kim, Hyesook Park, Young Ju Kim
BACKGROUND: Proopiomelanocortin (POMC), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) are closely associated with weight gain and metabolic traits. In a previous study, we demonstrated associations between the methylations of POMC, MC4R, and HNF4A and metabolic profiles at birth. However, little is known about these associations in obese children. To evaluate the clinical utility of epigenetic biomarkers, we investigated to determine whether an association exists between the methylations of POMC, MC4R, and HNF4A and metabolic profiles in blood of normal weight and overweight and obese children...
March 29, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594113/interplay-of-inflammatory-mediators-with-epigenetics-and-cartilage-modifications-in-osteoarthritis
#13
REVIEW
Swarna Raman, Una FitzGerald, J Mary Murphy
Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative disease of diarthrodial joints, is influenced by mechanical and inflammatory factors with aging, obesity, chronic injuries, and secondary diseases thought to be major factors driving the process of articular cartilage degeneration. Chondrocytes, the cellular component of cartilage, reside in an avascular environment and normally have limited potential to replicate. However, extrinsic factors such as injury to the joint or intrinsic alterations to the chondrocytes themselves can lead to an altered phenotype and development of OA...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589384/pathophysiology-of-type-2-diabetes-in-koreans
#14
REVIEW
Soo Heon Kwak, Kyong Soo Park
The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is characterized by variable degrees of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. Both genetic and environmental factors serve as etiologic factors. Recent genetic studies have identified at least 83 variants associated with diabetes. A significant number of these loci are thought to be involved in insulin secretion, either through β-cell development or β-cell dysfunction. Environmental factors have changed rapidly during the past half century, and the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes can be attributed to these changes...
March 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570038/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-epigenetics-is-related-to-adiposity-dyslipidemia-and-insulin-resistance
#15
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Jose I Riezu-Boj, Fermin I Milagro, Maria J Moreno-Aliaga, J Alfredo Martinez
Unresolved ER stress is involved in the onset and progression of several obesity-related metabolic disorders, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Different epigenetic modifications may regulate ER stress response and consequently disease risks. These epigenetic phenomena encompass DNA and histone methylation patterns in ER stress genes and downstream signaling molecules, as well as microRNA expression. Our results suggest potential associations of methylation signatures at ER regulatory genes in white blood cells with an abdominal/central obesity marker (waist circumference), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance...
March 23, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569621/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-definition-aetiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine and metabolic disorders in premenopausal women. Heterogeneous by nature, PCOS is defined by a combination of signs and symptoms of androgen excess and ovarian dysfunction in the absence of other specific diagnoses. The aetiology of this syndrome remains largely unknown, but mounting evidence suggests that PCOS might be a complex multigenic disorder with strong epigenetic and environmental influences, including diet and lifestyle factors. PCOS is frequently associated with abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors...
March 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565738/maternal-androgen-excess-and-obesity-induce-sexually-dimorphic-anxiety-like-behavior-in-the-offspring
#17
Maria Manti, Romina Fornes, Xiaojuan Qi, Elin Folmerz, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Thais de Castro Barbosa, Manuel Maliqueo, Anna Benrick, Elisabet Stener-Victorin
Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition associated with hyperandrogenism, is suggested to increase anxiety-like behavior in the offspring. Because PCOS is closely linked to obesity, we investigated the impact of an adverse hormonal or metabolic maternal environment and offspring obesity on anxiety in the offspring. The obese PCOS phenotype was induced by chronic high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) consumption together with prenatal dihydrotestosterone exposure in mouse dams. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in adult offspring with the elevated-plus maze and open-field tests...
March 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554203/molecular-aging-of-human-liver-an-epigenetic-transcriptomic-signature
#18
Maria Giulia Bacalini, Claudio Franceschi, Davide Gentilini, Francesco Ravaioli, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Daniel Remondini, Chiara Pirazzini, Cristina Giuliani, Elena Marasco, Noémie Gensous, Anna Maria Di Blasio, Ewa Ellis, Roberto Gramignoli, Gastone Castellani, Miriam Capri, Stephen Strom, Christine Nardini, Matteo Cescon, Gian Luca Grazi, Paolo Garagnani
The feasibility of liver transplantation from old healthy donors suggests that this organ is able to preserve its functionality during aging. To explore the biological basis of this phenomenon, we characterized the epigenetic profile of liver biopsies collected from 45 healthy liver donors ranging from 13 to 90 years old using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. The analysis indicates that a large remodeling in DNA methylation patterns occurs, with 8823 age-associated differentially methylated CpG probes...
March 15, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547390/the-origin-and-purpose-of-layers-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-pigs-and-man
#19
REVIEW
Gary J Hausman
Adipose tissue exists in many locations or depots that differ from one another based on numerous and various characteristics. The unique "layered" anatomical feature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in man and the pig is reviewed and discussed. The origin of fetal pig adipose tissue subcutaneous layers is reviewed before the onset of adipogenesis and after the overt adipogenesis. Furthermore, the distinguishing characteristics of developing outer SAT layer (OSQ) and middle SAT layer (MSQ) in pigs are reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546342/not-every-sperm-is-sacred-a-perspective-on-male-infertility
#20
Robert John Aitken
This article is a personal perspective on male infertility, a condition that is not only extremely prevalent but also a major reason for couples to resort to assisted reproductive technology. The introduction of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as a form of facilitated fertilization had a revolutionary impact on our capacity to treat cases of male infertility associated with severely-compromised semen quality. However, the widespread use of this technique is also thought to pose risks in terms of the incidence of miscarriage, the health and wellbeing of the offspring and perpetuation of the infertile phenotype into future generations...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
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