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Inflammation obesity epigenetics

Saori Kataoka, Toshio Norikura, Shin Sato
Maternal malnutrition is known to increase the risk of obesity in offspring. We investigated whether green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation affects obesity-related fibrosis and inflammation in the kidney of high-fat-diet-fed adult offspring of protein-restricted-diet-fed dams during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant Wistar rats received diets containing 20% (normal-protein, NP) or 8% (low-protein, LP) casein, and they received 0%-, 0.12%- or 0.24%-GTE-containing LP diets (LP/LP, LP/LGT and LP/HGT, respectively) during lactation...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Alan Leviton, Stephen R Hooper, Scott J Hunter, Megan N Scott, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. METHODS: We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis...
December 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Chihiro Iwaya, Hidetoshi Kitajima, Ken Yamamoto, Yasutaka Maeda, Noriyuki Sonoda, Hiroki Shibata, Toyoshi Inoguchi
Krüppel-Like Factor 14 (KLF14) gene, which appears to be a master regulator of gene expression on the adipose tissue and have previously been associated with BMI and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) by large GWAS studies. In order to find predictive biomarkers for the development of T2D, it is necessary to take into account changes in the epigenome affected by environmental factors. This study focused on aging and obesity, which are T2D risk factor, and examines epigenetic changes and inflammatory changes. Thus we investigated DNA methylation change at Klf14 promoter region of different organs using mice for comparing aging and weight...
February 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Salvatore De Rosa, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Antonio Brunetti, Ciro Indolfi, Daniela P Foti
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common metabolic disorder predisposing to diabetic cardiomyopathy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which could lead to heart failure through a variety of mechanisms, including myocardial infarction and chronic pressure overload. Pathogenetic mechanisms, mainly linked to hyperglycemia and chronic sustained hyperinsulinemia, include changes in metabolic profiles, intracellular signaling pathways, energy production, redox status, increased susceptibility to ischemia, and extracellular matrix remodeling...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
M Zaiou, H El Amri, A Bakillah
Obesity is a growing health problem commonly associated with numerous metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. The burden of obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases are believed to arise through complex interplay between genetics and epigenetics predisposition, nutrition, environment, and lifestyle. However, the molecular basis and the repertoire of obesity-affecting factors are still unknown. Emerging evidence is connecting microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation with adipogenesis and obesity...
February 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Amita Bansal, Cetewayo Rashid, Frances Xin, Changhong Li, Erzsebet Polyak, Anna Duemler, Tom van der Meer, Martha Stefaniak, Sana Wajid, Nicolai Doliba, Marisa S Bartolomei, Rebecca A Simmons
BACKGROUND: Exposure to the environmental endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and associated with the increased risk of diabetes and obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We recently demonstrated that perinatal BPA exposure is associated with higher body fat, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced insulin secretion in first- (F1) and second-generation (F2) C57BL/6J male mice offspring. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the multigenerational effects of maternal bisphenol A exposure on mouse pancreatic islets...
September 27, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
Keila Lopes Mendes, Deborah de Farias Lelis, Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos
The regulation of chronic inflammation has received considerable research attention in recent years because of its contribution to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Thus, strategies that inhibit the inflammatory state may be beneficial in improving the pathophysiology of several inflammation-related disorders. Sirtuins are a family of histone deacetylases that contain seven enzymatic activities in mammals (SIRT1-SIRT7) and function to suppress gene transcription by epigenetic mechanisms...
December 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Paul Petrus, Lucia Bialesova, Antonio Checa, Alastair Kerr, Shama Naz, Jesper Bäckdahl, Ana Gracia, Sofia Toft, Karin Dahlman-Wright, Per Hedén, Ingrid Dahlman, Craig E Wheelock, Peter Arner, Niklas Mejhert, Hui Gao, Mikael Rydén
Context: Insulin resistance (IR) is promoted by a chronic low-grade inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT). The latter may be regulated through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA-methylation. The one carbon cycle (1CC) is a central metabolic process governing DNA-methylation. Objective: To identify adipocyte-expressed 1CC genes linked to WAT inflammation, IR and their causal role. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Outpatient academic clinic...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gabriella Garruti, Agostino Di Ciaula, Helen H Wang, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
Obesity is rapidly increasing and has reached epidemic features worldwide. It´s linked to insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation and common pathogenic pathways with a number of comorbidities (including cancer), leading to high mortality rates. Besides change of lifestyles (diet and physical exercise) and pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery is able to rapidly improve several metabolic and morphologic features associated with excessive fat storage, and currently represents an in vivo model to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and obesity-related complications...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
C A Gonzalez-Correa, E Mulett-Vásquez, D A Miranda, C H Gonzalez-Correa, P A Gómez-Buitrago
The hypothesis being advanced in this paper is that there is a new medical paradigm emerging from the biomedical research carried out in this century, mainly due to the explosion of the so called "omics" and associated techniques. The main idea is that there is a common pathway from wellbeing and health to chronic disease ("chronopathy") and even to death, which comprises following steps: 1) unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and permanent exposition to xenobiotics and all kinds of noxious stimuli;→2) intestinal dysbiosis;→3) alteration of the intestinal mucus layer (especially that of the colon);→4) disruption of the endothelial tight junctions;→5) metabolic endotoxemia+bacterial translocation;→6) inflammation;→7) exacerbation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and consequent maladaptation and malfunctioning of the colon;→8) epigenetic manifestations;→9) "chronopathy" and premature death...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Styliani A Geronikolou, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Dennis Cokkinos, George Chrousos
Obesity is a chronic disease of increasing prevalence reaching epidemic proportions. Genetic defects as well as epigenetic effects contribute to the obesity phenotype. Investigating gene (e.g. MC4R defects)-environment (behavior, infectious agents, stress) interactions is a relative new field of great research interest. In this study, we have made an effort to create an interactome (henceforth referred to as "obesidome"), where extrinsic stressors response, intrinsic predisposition, immunity response to inflammation and autonomous nervous system implications are integrated...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tomasz J Guzik, Francesco Cosentino
SIGNIFICANCE: A strong relationship between hyperglycemia, impaired insulin pathway, and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is linked to oxidative stress and inflammation. Immunometabolic pathways link these pathogenic processes and pose important potential therapeutic targets. Recent Advances: The link between immunity and metabolism is bidirectional and includes the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as T2D, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension and the role of metabolic factors in regulation of immune cell functions...
October 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
John D Short, Sina Tavakoli, Huynh Nga Nguyen, Ana Carrera, Chelbee Farnen, Laura A Cox, Reto Asmis
Monocytes and the recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages into sites of inflammation play a key role in atherogenesis and other chronic inflammatory diseases linked to cardiometabolic syndrome and obesity. Previous studies from our group have shown that metabolic stress promotes monocyte priming, i.e., enhanced adhesion and accelerated chemotaxis of monocytes in response to chemokines, both in vitro and in dyslipidemic LDLR(-/-) mice. We also showed that metabolic stress-induced monocyte dysfunction is, at least to a large extent caused by the S-glutathionylation, inactivation, and subsequent degradation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Christopher G Bell
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of the epigenome-the chemical modifications and packaging of the genome that can influence or indicate its activity-enables molecular insight into cell type-specific machinery. It can, therefore, reveal the pathophysiological mechanisms at work in disease. Detected changes can also represent physiological responses to adverse environmental exposures, thus enabling the epigenetic mark of DNA methylation to act as an epidemiological biomarker, even in surrogate tissue...
September 2017: Obesity
Jacqueline Kerr, Cheryl Anderson, Scott M Lippman
The lifestyle factors of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and diet are increasingly being studied for their associations with cancer. Physical activity is inversely associated with and sedentary behaviour is positively (and independently) associated with an increased risk of more than ten types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (and advanced adenomas), endometrial cancers, and breast cancer. The most consistent dietary risk factor for premalignant and invasive breast cancer is alcohol, whether consumed during early or late adult life, even at low levels...
August 2017: Lancet Oncology
Christopher M Mulligan, Jacob E Friedman
Transmission of metabolic diseases from mother to child is multifactorial and includes genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences. Evidence in rodents, humans and non-human primates support the scientific premise that exposure to maternal obesity or high-fat diet during pregnancy creates a long-lasting metabolic signature on the infant innate immune system and the juvenile microbiota, which predisposes the offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. In neonates, gastrointestinal microbes introduced through the mother are noted for their ability to serve as direct inducers/regulators of the infant immune system...
October 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
Yue Liu, Zhide Ding
Obesity, defined as excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, is a metabolic disorder resulting from behavioral, environmental and heritable causes. Such malfunction increases the risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis and cancer. Meanwhile, the negative impact of obesity on male reproduction is gradually being recognized. According to clinical investigations and animal experiments, obesity is correlated with reductions in sperm concentration and motility, increases in sperm DNA damage and changes in reproductive hormonal levels...
July 26, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Gretchen Kopec, Prem S Shekhawat, Maroun J Mhanna
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is when fetuses and newborn infants have not reached their true growth potential as genetically defined. Fetuses with IUGR develop in a less than ideal environment that leads to epigenetic changes and marks infants' metabolism for the rest of their lives. Epigenetic changes affect insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and lead to insulin resistance and ultimately to a metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of illnesses that raise one's risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and ischemic heart disease, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Marlene Remely, Franziska Ferk, Sonja Sterneder, Tahereh Setayesh, Tatjana Kepcija, Sylvia Roth, Rahil Noorizadeh, Martina Greunz, Irene Rebhan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Siegfried Knasmüller, Alexander Haslberger
Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, increased ROS production and DNA damage. Supplementation with antioxidants might ameliorate DNA damage and support epigenetic regulation of DNA repair. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high-fat (HFD) or a control diet (CD) with and without vitamin E supplementation (4.5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) for four months. DNA damage, DNA promoter methylation and gene expression of Dnmt1 and a DNA repair gene (MLH1) were assayed in liver and colon. The HFD resulted in organ specific changes in DNA damage, the epigenetically important Dnmt1 gene, and the DNA repair gene MLH1...
June 14, 2017: Nutrients
Edward J Filardo
Mechanisms of carcinogenesis by estrogen center on its mitogenic and genotoxic potential on tumor target cells. These models suggest that estrogen receptor (ER) signaling promotes expansion of the transformed population and that subsequent accumulation of somatic mutations that drive cancer progression occur via metabolic activation of cathecol estrogens or by epigenetic mechanisms. Recent findings that GPER is linked to obesity, vascular pathology and immunosuppression, key events in the development of metabolic syndrome and intra-tissular estrogen synthesis, provides an alternate view of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis...
February 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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