Read by QxMD icon Read

Inflammation obesity epigenetics

Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations is a hallmark of cancer genomes, including those in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Particularly, in human HCC, epigenetic changes are more frequently observed than genetic changes in a variety of cancer-related genes, suggesting a potential role for epigenetic alterations during hepatocarcinogenesis. Several environmental factors, such as inflammation, obesity, and steatosis, are reported to affect the epigenetic status in hepatocytes, which could play a role in HCC development...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Helena C Cesar, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
A high-fat diet is the main environmental cue that has been studied in the hypothalamus since the discovery of its connection with hypothalamic inflammation. Current evidence shows hypothalamic inflammation as a likely mechanism for the dysregulation on the homeostatic control of energy balance, which leads to metabolic alterations and obesity. Although this mechanism seems to be reversible when set during adulthood, we argue whether dietary fatty acids, during critical periods of development, could affect hypothalamic function permanently and set an increased susceptibility to obesity...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Muhammad Jaffar Khan, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Christine Ann Edwards, M Guftar Shaikh
The aetiology of obesity has been attributed to several factors (environmental, dietary, lifestyle, host, and genetic factors); however none of these fully explain the increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide. Gut microbiota located at the interface of host and environment in the gut are a new area of research being explored to explain the excess accumulation of energy in obese individuals and may be a potential target for therapeutic manipulation to reduce host energy storage. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the role of gut microbiota in the aetiology of obesity such as short chain fatty acid production, stimulation of hormones, chronic low-grade inflammation, lipoprotein and bile acid metabolism, and increased endocannabinoid receptor system tone...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Zujaja-Tul-Noor Hamid Mehmood, Dimitrios Papandreou
Vitamin D related research continues to expand and theorise regarding its involvement in obesity, as both hypovitaminosis D and obesity strike in pandemic proportions. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune system through Vitamin D Receptors (VDR), which are transcription factors located abundantly in the body. Due to this characteristic, it is potentially linked to obesity, which is a state of inflammation involving the release of cytokines from adipose tissue, and exerting stress on other organs in a state of positive energy balance...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Charlotte Ling, Tina Rönn
Epigenetic variation in human adipose tissue has been linked to type 2 diabetes and its related risk factors including age and obesity. Insulin resistance, a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes, may also be associated with altered DNA methylation in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Furthermore, linking epigenetic variation in target tissues to similar changes in blood cells may identify new blood-based biomarkers. In this issue of Diabetologia, Arner et al studied the transcriptome and methylome in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue of 80 obese women who were either insulin-sensitive or -resistant (DOI 10...
November 2016: Diabetologia
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mariagrazia Granata, Evangelia Skarmoutsou, Chiara Trovato, Giulio A Rossi, Maria Clorinda Mazzarino, Fabio D'Amico
Obesity, type 1 diabetes, and psoriasis are wide-ranging health problems. Genetics, epigenetics, and environmental factors together with immune disturbances are involved in these diseases. The white adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ, secreting a wide variety of soluble mediators called adipokines that have a central role in the relationship between adipose tissue and immune system. Inflammatory cytokines, including the IL-23/IL-17 and IL-18 axes, and microRNAs are involved in many processes, including immunity and inflammation, thus having a major role in the onset of these three diseases...
September 17, 2016: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
Mohamed Ahmed, Menno P J de Winther, Jan Van den Bossche
The alarming rise of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) has put a tremendous strain on global healthcare systems. Over the past decade extensive research has focused on the role of macrophages as key mediators of inflammation in T2D. The inflammatory environment in the obese adipose tissue and pancreatic β-cell islets creates and perpetuates imbalanced inflammatory macrophage activation. Consequences of this chronic low-grade inflammation include insulin resistance in the adipose tissue and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction...
September 3, 2016: Immunobiology
Dequina A Nicholas, Guillaume Andrieu, Katherine J Strissel, Barbara S Nikolajczyk, Gerald V Denis
Chronic inflammation drives pathologies associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may explain increased risk and mortality of breast cancer with T2D reported in the epidemiology literature. Therapeutic approaches to target inflammation in both T2D and cancer have so far fallen short of the expected improvements in disease pathogenesis or outcomes. The targeting of epigenetic regulators of cytokine transcription and cytokine signaling offers one promising, untapped approach to treating diseases driven by inflammation...
August 4, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Sukanya Raghuraman, Ida Donkin, Soetkin Versteyhe, Romain Barrès, David Simar
Recent research developments have shed light on the risk factors contributing to metabolic complications, implicating both genetic and environmental factors, potentially integrated by epigenetic mechanisms. Distinct epigenetic changes in immune cells are frequently observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and these are associated with alterations in the phenotype, function, and trafficking patterns of these cells. The first step in the development of effective therapeutic strategies is the identification of distinct epigenetic signatures associated with metabolic disorders...
July 18, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Heno F Lopes, Maria Lúcia Corrêa-Giannella, Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Brent M Egan
The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Yongzhong Zhao, Christian V Forst, Camil E Sayegh, I-Ming Wang, Xia Yang, Bin Zhang
It has been well-recognized that inflammation alongside tissue repair and damage maintaining tissue homeostasis determines the initiation and progression of complex diseases. Albeit with the accomplishment of having captured the most critical inflammation-involved molecules, genetic susceptibilities, epigenetic factors, and environmental factors, our schemata on the role of inflammation in complex diseases remain largely patchy, in part due to the success of reductionism in terms of research methodology per se...
July 19, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Nandini Vijayakanthi, John M Greally, Deepa Rastogi
The burden of obesity-related asthma among children, particularly among ethnic minorities, necessitates an improved understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms. Although obesity is an independent risk factor for asthma, not all obese children develop asthma. Several recent studies have elucidated mechanisms, including the role of diet, sedentary lifestyle, mechanical fat load, and adiposity-mediated inflammation that may underlie the obese asthma pathophysiology. Here, we review these recent studies and emerging scientific evidence that suggest metabolic dysregulation may play a role in pediatric obesity-related asthma...
May 2016: Pediatrics
Kenichi Matsushita
BACKGROUND: Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is the term used to describe a complex disorder of the heart and kidneys, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ initiates and perpetuates disease in the other. CRS is recognized as an important clinical condition that is increasingly becoming a major public health problem due to the high associated morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS: This review discusses current understanding of the pathogenetic pathways involved in CRS and future therapeutic implications of such pathways for patients...
May 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Erwin Lemche, Oleg S Chaban, Alexandra V Lemche
Impact of environmental stress upon pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been substantiated by epidemiological, psychophysiological, and endocrinological studies. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of causative roles of nutritional factors, sympathomedullo-adrenal (SMA) and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axes, and adipose tissue chronic low-grade inflammation processes in MetS. Disturbances in the neuroendocrine systems for leptin, melanocortin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein systems have been found resulting directly in MetS-like conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
S L Prescott, K Allen, K Armstrong, C Collins, H Dickinson, K Gardiner, F Jacka, C Jasoni, T Moore, K M Moritz, B Muhlhausler, W Siero, K Sim, R Nanan, R Saffery, G Singh, M H Vickers, J M Craig
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research...
April 27, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Linda A Ban, Nicholas A Shackel, Susan V McLennan
In recent years, the global burden of obesity and diabetes has seen a parallel rise in other metabolic complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition, once thought to be a benign accumulation of hepatic fat, is now recognized as a serious and prevalent disorder that is conducive to inflammation and fibrosis. Despite the rising incidence of NAFLD, there is currently no reliable method for its diagnosis or staging besides the highly invasive tissue biopsy. This limitation has resulted in the study of novel circulating markers as potential candidates, one of the most popular being extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Barbara Tolusso, Stefano Alivernini, Maria Rita Gigante, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Elisa Gremese
Adipose tissue is an active organ playing a role not only in metabolism but also in immune and inflammatory processes, releasing several pro-inflammatory mediators. This can explain the possible association between obesity and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its role in the progression of the disease. Adipose and synovial tissues share common histological features of local inflammation in terms of activation of target tissues infiltrating cells (i.e. myeloid cells). Among the so-called adipocytokines, PEDF and Chemerin orchestrate the cellular cross-talk between adipose and myeloid cells, being possible biomarkers to monitor the effect of weight loss or the decrease of adipose tissue in patients with RA...
July 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Emily L Rossi, Rebecca E de Angel, Laura W Bowers, Subreen A Khatib, Laura A Smith, Eric Van Buren, Priya Bhardwaj, Dilip Giri, Marcos R Estecio, Melissa A Troester, Brionna Y Hair, Erin L Kirk, Ting Gong, Jianjun Shen, Andrew J Dannenberg, Stephen D Hursting
Using a murine model of basal-like breast cancer, we tested the hypothesis that chronic obesity, an established breast cancer risk and progression factor in women, induces mammary gland epigenetic reprogramming and increases mammary tumor growth. Moreover, we assessed whether the obesity-induced epigenetic and protumor effects are reversed by weight normalization. Ovariectomized female C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet or diet-induced obesity (DIO) regimen for 17 weeks, resulting in a normal weight or obese phenotype, respectively...
May 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"