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Inflammation obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933362/male-infertility-the-effect-of-natural-antioxidants-and-phytocompounds-on-seminal-oxidative-stress
#1
REVIEW
Malik Adewoyin, Muhammad Ibrahim, Ramli Roszaman, Muhammad Lokman Md Isa, Nur Aizura Mat Alewi, Ainin Azwani Abdul Rafa, Mohd Nur Nasyriq Anuar
Defective sperm function has been identified as the most common cause of infertility. The objective of this study was to review recent findings on the effects of various antioxidants on male fertility. High amounts of poly unsaturated fatty acid are found in the mammalian spermatozoa membranes, thereby making them susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Although, free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play major roles in reproduction, they are strongly associated with oxidative stress. Furthermore, factors such as obesity, inflammation, pollutants and cigarette smoking are negatively correlated with spermatogenesis...
March 1, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933290/nutraceuticals-and-repurposed-drugs-of-phytochemical-origin-in-prevention-and-interception-of-chronic-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#2
Adriana Albini, Barbara Bassani, Denisa Baci, Katiuscia Dallaglio, Matteo Gallazzi, Paola Corradino, Antonino Bruno, Douglas M Noonan
Chronic, degenerative diseases are often characterized by inflammation and aberrant angiogenesis. For many of these pathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, current therapies have limited efficacy, thus the validation of novel (chemo)preventive and interceptive approaches, of new or repurposed agents, alone or in combination with registered drugs, are urgently required. Phytochemicals (triterpenoids, flavonoids, retinoids) and their derivatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin) as well as biguanides (metformin and phenformin) originally developed from phytochemical backbones, are multi-target agents showing anti-angiogenic and anti-anti-inflammatory proprieties...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933066/multiple-sclerosis-implications-of-obesity-in-neuroinflammation
#3
Ana Margarida Novo, Sónia Batista
Since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue as a metabolically active organ, several evidences on the possible link between obesity and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been gathered. Obesity in early life, mainly during adolescence, has been proposed as a relevant risk factor for late MS development. Moreover, once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increase disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress. Despite the fact that clinical data are not yet conclusive, many biochemical links have been recently disclosed...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933065/cerebrovascular-disease-consequences-of-obesity-induced-endothelial-dysfunction
#4
Liliana Letra, Cristina Sena
Despite the well-known global impact of overweight and obesity in the incidence of cerebrovascular disease, many aspects of this association are still inconsistently defined. In this chapter we aim to present a critical review on the links between obesity and both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and discuss its influence on functional outcomes, survival, and current treatments to acute and chronic stroke. The role of cerebrovascular endothelial function and respective modulation is also described as well as its laboratory and clinical assessment...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933062/hypothalamic-dysfunction-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders
#5
Sara Carmo-Silva, Cláudia Cavadas
The hypothalamus is the brain region responsible for the maintenance of energetic homeostasis. The regulation of this process arises from the ability of the hypothalamus to orchestrate complex physiological responses such as food intake and energy expenditure, circadian rhythm, stress response, and fertility. Metabolic alterations such as obesity can compromise these hypothalamic regulatory functions. Alterations in circadian rhythm, stress response, and fertility further contribute to aggravate the metabolic dysfunction of obesity and contribute to the development of chronic disorders such as depression and infertility...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933050/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-mediates-inflammation-and-tissue-injury-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#6
REVIEW
Giacomo Garibotto, Annalisa Carta, Daniela Picciotto, Francesca Viazzi, Daniela Verzola
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of receptors of the innate immune system which detect pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns in order to initiate an inflammatory response. TLR2 and TLR4 downward signaling causes the production of proinflammatory cytokines that can induce insulin resistance and cardiovascular damage in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the production and persistence of inflammation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932870/ablation-of-kallikrein-7-klk7-in-adipose-tissue-ameliorates-metabolic-consequences-of-high%C3%A2-fat-diet-induced-obesity-by-counteracting-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vivo
#7
Konstanze Zieger, Juliane Weiner, Anne Kunath, Martin Gericke, Kerstin Krause, Matthias Kern, Michael Stumvoll, Nora Klöting, Matthias Blüher, John T Heiker
Vaspin is an adipokine which improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obesity. Kallikrein 7 (KLK7) is the first known protease target inhibited by vaspin and a potential target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of KLK7 in adipose tissue may beneficially affect glucose metabolism and adipose tissue function. Therefore, we have inactivated the Klk7 gene in adipose tissue using conditional gene-targeting strategies in mice. Klk7-deficient mice (ATKlk7 (-/-)) exhibited less weight gain, predominant expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue and improved whole body insulin sensitivity under a high fat diet (HFD)...
September 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931850/effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-gut-permeability-inflammation-markers-and-fecal-microbiota-in-obese-women
#8
Beate Ott, Thomas Skurk, Ljiljana Hastreiter, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Sandra Fischer, Janine Büttner, Teresa Kellerer, Thomas Clavel, Michael Rychlik, Dirk Haller, Hans Hauner
Recent findings suggest an association between obesity, loss of gut barrier function and changes in microbiota profiles. Our primary objective was to examine the effect of caloric restriction and subsequent weight reduction on gut permeability in obese women. The impact on inflammatory markers and fecal microbiota was also investigated. The 4-week very-low calorie diet (VLCD, 800 kcal/day) induced a mean weight loss of 6.9 ± 1.9 kg accompanied by a reduction in HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance), fasting plasma glucose and insulin, plasma leptin, and leptin gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931072/high-prevalence-of-non-dipping-blood-pressure-and-vascular-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-south-africans-on-antiretrovirals
#9
M S Borkum, J M Heckmann, K Manning, J A Dave, N S Levitt, B L Rayner, N Wearne
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of tissue inflammation and accelerated vascular aging ('inflamm-aging'). Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms such as non-dipping may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in HIV infected individuals. However, little data exists on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and measures of vascular stiffness in the black African HIV infected population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of otherwise well, HIV infected outpatients on ART for >5 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930526/inflammatory-biomarkers-of-coronary-heart-disease
#10
Hongyu Li, Kai Sun, Ruiping Zhao, Jiang Hu, Zhiru Hao, Fei Wang, Yaojun Lu, Fu Liu, Yong Zhang
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. CHD is characterized by formation of arterial plaques which are mainly comprised of lipids, calcium and inflammatory cells. These plaques narrow the lumen of coronary arteries leading to episodic or persistent angina. Rupture of these plaques leads to the formation of thrombus, which as a result of cessation of blood flow, causes myocardial infarct and death. CHD is exacerbated by risk factors including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930194/developmental-programming-of-obesity-and-liver-metabolism-by-maternal-perinatal-nutrition-involves-the-melanocortin-system
#11
Paul Cordero, Jiawei Li, Vi Nguyen, Joaquim Pombo, Nuria Maicas, Marco Novelli, Paul D Taylor, Anne-Maj Samuelsson, Manlio Vinciguerra, Jude A Oben
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt), control knockout (C_KO), obese wild type (Ob_wt), and obese knockout (Ob_KO)...
September 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929907/management-of-obesity-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#12
M H Shojaei, S M Alaviniaa, B C Craven
CONTEXT: Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals. METHODS: This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929308/influence-of-obesity-on-experimental-periodontitis-in-rats-histopathological-histometric-and-immunohistochemical-study
#13
Elizangela Partata Zuza, Valdir Gouveia Garcia, Letícia Helena Theodoro, Edilson Ervolino, Luiz Fernando Veloso Favero, Mariéllen Longo, Fernando Salimon Ribeiro, Alex Tadeu Martins, Luís Carlos Spolidorio, José Antônio Sampaio Zuanon, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa de Toledo, Juliana Rico Pires
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the influence of obesity on the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the HL group (n = 24) was fed high-fat animal food to induce obesity, and the NL group (n = 24) was fed normolipidic animal food. Obesity was induced within a period of 120 days, and the induction of experimental periodontitis (EP) was subsequently performed for 30 days...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927908/the-impact-of-the-standard-american-diet-in-rats-effects-on-behavior-physiology-and-recovery-from-inflammatory-injury
#14
Stacie K Totsch, Tammie L Quinn, Larissa J Strath, Laura J McMeekin, Rita M Cowell, Barbara A Gower, Robert E Sorge
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is a significant health concern in the Western world and the presence of comorbid conditions suggests an interaction. The overlapping distributions of chronic pain populations and obesity suggests that an interaction may exist. Poor quality diet (high carbohydrates, saturated fats, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids) can lead to increased adiposity which can activate immune cells independent of the activating effect of the diet components themselves. This dual action can contribute to chronic inflammation that may alter susceptibility to chronic pain and prolong recovery from injury...
September 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927249/gut-microbiota-obesity-and-metabolic-disorders
#15
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Rosa DI Sarno, Valentina Giorgio, Luca Miele
Obesity, diabetes and metabolic disorders represent hugely significant problems concerning the health in Western countries and the study of gut microbiota in metabolic pathologies is part of this framework. Diet effects on intestinal microbial composition and its role in pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for both obesity and systemic, hepatic and adipose tissue inflammation, represent at the moment one of this mostpromising topic in gastroenterology research. Gut health safety is essential, but it needs to be further explored in order to understand and interrupt the pathogenetic mechanisms, which support a large number of diseases...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#16
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925408/liver-volume-and-hepatic-adiposity-in-childhood-relations-to-body-growth-and-visceral-fat
#17
R Malpique, J Bassols, A López-Bermejo, M Diaz, F Villarroya, J Pavia, A Congo, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The sequence of prenatal growth restraint and postnatal catch-up growth may lead to hepato-visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation before the onset of puberty. In prepubertal children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA), we assessed potential relationships between the aforementioned sequence and liver volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 86 children (41 AGA and 45 SGA with catch-up growth; age (mean±s...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925407/foxc2-coordinates-inflammation-and-browning-of-white-adipose-by-leptin-stat3-prdm16-signal-in-mice
#18
L Gan, Z Liu, F Feng, T Wu, D Luo, C Hu, C Sun
AIMS: The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between forkhead box C2 protein (Foxc2) and leptin under adipose inflammatory response. METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model was conducted. Data from wild-type and ob/ob mice were used to compare the alternative role of leptin on Foxc2-mediated inflammation and browning. Transcriptional regulation and protein-protein interaction were analyzed by bioinformatics and proved by chromatin immunoprecipitation and co-immunoprecipitation experiment...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923829/estrogen-deprivation-aggravates-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-gk-rats
#19
Nattayaporn Apaijai, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Jitjiroj Ittichaichareon, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Nateetip Krishnamra, Ratchaneevan Aeimlapa, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and estrogen deprivation have been shown to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and adverse cardiac remodeling.  However, the role of estrogen deprivation on adverse cardiac remodeling in non-obese T2DM rats has not been clearly elucidated.  We hypothesized that estrogen-deprivation aggravates adverse cardiac remodeling in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.  Wild-type (WT) and GK rats at the age of 9 months old were divided into 2 subgroups to have either a sham operation (WTS, GKS) or a bilateral ovariectomy (WTO, GKO) (n=6/subgroup)...
September 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923170/prebiotics-in-the-management-of-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Sarah O'Connor, Sarah Chouinard-Castonguay, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers...
October 2017: Maturitas
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