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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637104/-treatment-options-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Won Kim
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has sharply increased over the past several decades in Korea. In most cases of NAFLD, metabolic stress and cellular apoptosis are often driven by metabolic abnormality, eventually leading to inflammation and fibrosis . Along with a dramatic surge in the obesity epidemic, 10-20% of NAFLD patients ultimately progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a precursor to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as multi-organ systemic diseases...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637102/-the-progression-of-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
REVIEW
Moon Young Kim
Understanding the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its fibrosis progression is still evolving. Nonetheless, current evidence suggests that mechanisms involved are very complex parallel processes with multiple metabolic factors. Lipotoxicity related with excess saturated free fatty acids, obesity, and insulin resistance acts as the central driver of cellular injury via oxidative stress. Hepatocyte apoptosis and/or senescence are also contribute to the activation of inflammasome via various intra- and inter-cellular signaling mechanisms that lead to fibrosis...
June 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635909/-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-concurrent-with-metabolic-syndrome-pathophysiological-and-clinical-features
#3
A V Budnevsky, E S Ovsyannikov, N B Labzhania
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) still remains a serious public health problem, which is a common cause of disability and death in the able-bodied population. Furthermore, the number of patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) is steadily increasing worldwide. Recently, there is also an increase in the number of patients with COPD concurrent with MS, which is a mutually confounding risk factor for concomitant cardiovascular disease and adversely affects prognosis in these patients. Systemic subclinical inflammation is a common link between COPD and the components of MS...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634267/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-role-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-vasculature
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
Since the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was cloned 30 years ago, it has become clear that MR is expressed in extra-renal tissues, including the cardiovascular system, where it is expressed in all cells of the vasculature. Understanding the role of MR in the vasculature has been of particular interest as clinical trials show that MR antagonism improves cardiovascular outcomes out of proportion to changes in blood pressure. The last 30 years of research have demonstrated that MR is a functional hormone-activated transcription factor in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633871/high-fat-diet-induced-plasma-protein-and-liver-changes-in-obese-rats-can-be-attenuated-by-melatonin-supplementation
#5
Prapimpun Wongchitrat, Paul Klosen, Supitcha Pannengpetch, Kuntida Kitidee, Piyarat Govitrapong, Chartchalerm Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya
Obesity triggers changes in protein expression in various organs that might participate in the pathogenesis of obesity. Melatonin has been reported to prevent or attenuate such pathological protein changes in several chronic diseases. However, such melatonin effects on plasma proteins have not yet been studied in an obesity model. Using a proteomic approach, we investigated the effect of melatonin on plasma protein profiles after rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We hypothesized that melatonin would attenuate abnormal protein expression in obese rats...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633482/markers-of-adipogenesis-but-not-inflammation-in-adipose-tissue-are-independently-related-to-insulin-sensitivity
#6
Natalia Matulewicz, Magdalena Stefanowicz, Agnieszka Nikolajuk, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska
Context: In obesity, adipose tissue (AT) undergoes dynamic remodeling, including an alternations in adipogenesis, AT-resident cell content, angiogenesis and turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Studies on AT in humans have been carried out mostly on people with severe metabolic abnormalities, like type 2 diabetes or morbid obesity. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate subcutaneous AT gene expression of markers of adipogenesis, ECM remodeling and inflammation in young, healthy, overweight or obese subjects...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632493/interplay-between-papp-a-inflammation-and-adiposity-in-patients-with-angiographically-proven-acute-coronary-syndrome-acs
#7
Khageshwar Mahato, Moushumi Lodh, Ashok Parida, Ashok Kr Ahirwar, Rashmi Rasi Datta, Binita Goswami
Introduction Studies conducted in the recent past have demonstrated the role of inflammation, obesity and dysfunctional insulin signaling as contributing factors in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, pharmacological interventions targeting a single pathway have not proven useful in the long run. This indicates that a synergism occurs between the various risk factors and hence calls for a combinatorial approach. This study was planned to study the interplay, if any, between pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), inflammation and adiposity in patients with ACS...
June 21, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631923/influence-of-ingesting-a-flavonoid-rich-supplement-on-the-metabolome-and-concentration-of-urine-phenolics-in-overweight-obese-women
#8
David C Nieman, Sivapriya Ramamoorthy, Colin D Kay, Courtney L Goodman, Christopher R Capps, Zach L Shue, Nicole Heyl, Mary H Grace
This study evaluated the effect of ingesting a flavonoid-rich supplement (329 mg/d) on total urine phenolics and shifts in plasma metabolites in overweight/obese female adults using untargeted metabolomics procedures. Participants (N=103, 18-65 y, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) were randomized to flavonoid (F) or placebo (P) groups for 12 weeks, with blood and 24-h urine samples collected pre-study, 4- and 12-weeks in a parallel design. Supplements were prepared as chewable tablets, and included vitamin C, wild bilberry fruit extract, green tea leaf extract, quercetin, caffeine, and omega 3 fatty acids...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630461/antrodia-cinnamomea-reduces-obesity-and-modulates-the-gut-microbiota-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#9
C-J Chang, C-C Lu, C-S Lin, J Martel, Y-F Ko, D M Ojcius, T-R Wu, Y-H Tsai, T-S Yeh, J-J Lu, H-C Lai, J D Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, disrupted intestinal barrier and chronic inflammation. Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide, anti-obesity treatments that are safe, effective and widely available would be beneficial. We examined whether the medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea may reduce obesity in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD for eight weeks to induce obesity and chronic inflammation...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630460/oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-is-impaired-in-leukocytes-from-metabolically-unhealthy-vs-healthy-obese-individuals
#10
C Bañuls, S Rovira-Llopis, S Lopez-Domenech, N Diaz-Morales, A Blas-Garcia, S Veses, C Morillas, V M Victor, M Rocha, A Hernandez-Mijares
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to obesity, but the influence of metabolic disturbances on these parameters and their relationship with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is unknown. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate whether metabolic profile influences ER and oxidative stress in an obese population with/without comorbidities. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 113 obese patients were enrolled in the study; 29 were metabolically healthy (MHO), 53 were metabolically abnormal (MAO), and 31 had type 2 diabetes (MADO)...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#11
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629326/cardiac-tissue-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-after-vitamin-d-administrations-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#12
Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Ghazaleh Nameni, Ghazaleh Hajiluian, Mehran Mesgari-Abbasi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with numerous metabolic and inflammatory disorders. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D administration on the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the cardiac tissue of high-fat diet induced obese rats. METHODS: In the beginning of the study, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal diet (ND) and high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks; then each group subdivided into two groups including: ND, ND + vitamin D, HFD and HFD + vitamin D...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629187/suppression-of-ghrelin-exacerbates-hfcs-induced-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#13
Xiaojun Ma, Ligen Lin, Jing Yue, Chia-Shan Wu, Cathy A Guo, Ruitao Wang, Kai-Jiang Yu, Sridevi Devaraj, Peter Murano, Zheng Chen, Yuxiang Sun
High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is widely used as sweetener in processed foods and soft drinks in the United States, largely substituting sucrose (SUC). The orexigenic hormone ghrelin promotes obesity and insulin resistance; ghrelin responds differently to HFCS and SUC ingestion. Here we investigated the roles of ghrelin in HFCS- and SUC-induced adiposity and insulin resistance. To mimic soft drinks, 10-week-old male wild-type (WT) and ghrelin knockout (Ghrelin(-/-)) mice were subjected to ad lib. regular chow diet supplemented with either water (RD), 8% HFCS (HFCS), or 10% sucrose (SUC)...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628401/dietary-red-and-processed-meat-intake-and-markers-of-adiposity-and-inflammation-the-multiethnic-cohort-study
#14
Weiwen Chai, Yukiko Morimoto, Robert V Cooney, Adrian A Franke, Yurii B Shvetsov, Loïc Le Marchand, Christopher A Haiman, Laurence N Kolonel, Marc T Goodman, Gertraud Maskarinec
OBJECTIVE: The potential influence of dietary factors on inflammation is important for cancer prevention. Utilizing data from control participants (312 men, 911 women) in 2 nested case-control studies of cancer within the Multiethnic Cohort, we examined the associations of red and processed meat intake with serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 and the mediator effect of body mass index (BMI) on the above associations (if present)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627418/alterations-in-neuronal-control-of-body-weight-and-anxiety-behavior-by-glutathione-peroxidase-4-deficiency
#15
Sonja C Schriever, Annemarie Zimprich, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Peter Baumann, Florian Giesert, Valentina Klaus, Dhiraj G Kabra, Ulrich Hafen, Artem Romanov, Matthias H Tschöp, Wolfgang Wurst, Marcus Conrad, Sabine M Hölter, Daniela Vogt Weisenhorn, Paul T Pfluger
Elevated levels of oxidative stress and neuronal inflammation in the hypothalamus or ventral midbrain, respectively, represent common denominators for obesity and Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, little is known about defense mechanisms that protect neurons in these regions from oxidative damage. Here, we aimed to assess whether murine Gpx4, a crucial antioxidant enzyme that protects neurons from membrane damage and ferroptosis, is critical for the protection from neuronal inflammation in two distinct pathophysiologic diseases, namely metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity or PD...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625150/update-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-cholecystokinin-and-cholecystokinin-1-receptor-on-the-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#16
Helen H Wang, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important neuro-intestinal peptide hormone produced by the enteroendocrine I-cells in the upper part of small intestine. Protein- and fat-enriched food plays an important role in triggering CCK secretion from the intestine. Carbohydrates stimulate only small amounts of CCK release. The CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) is largely localized in the gallbladder, sphincter of Oddi, pancreas, small intestine, gastric mucosa, and pyloric sphincter, where it is responsible for CCK to regulate multiple digestive processes including gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, small intestinal transit, and gastric emptying...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625137/chemokine-like-receptor-1-cmklr-1-receptor-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-management-of-chemerin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-cancer
#17
Sangeetha Perumalsamy, Nurul Ain Aqilah Mohd Zin, Riyanto Teguh Widodo, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad, Shireene Ratna Db Vethakkan, Hasniza Zaman Huri
BACKGROUND: Chemerin is an adipokine that induces insulin resistance by the mechanism of inflammation in adipose tissue but these are still unclear. A high level of chemerin in humans is considered as a marker of inflammation in insulin resistance and obesity as well as in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the role of chemerin in insulin resistance progression, chemerin as one of the novel adipokines is proposed to be involved in high cancer risk and mortality. AIM: The aim of this paper was to review the role of CMKLR-1 receptor and the potential therapeutic target in the management of chemerin induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer...
June 15, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625088/mitochondrial-content-and-hepcidin-are-increased-in-obese-pregnant-mothers
#18
G M Anelli, M Cardellicchio, C Novielli, P Antonazzo, M I Mazzocco, I Cetin, C Mandò
OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity is characterized by systemic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress (OxS) with the contribution of fetal sex dimorphism. We recently described increased mitochondrial content (mtDNA) in placentas of obese pregnancies. Here we quantify mtDNA and hepcidin as indexes of OxS and systemic inflammation in the obese maternal circulation. METHODS: Forty-one pregnant women were enrolled at elective Caesarean section: 16 were normal-weight [NW] and 25 were obese (OB)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625037/tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-among-overfat-indonesian-adolescents
#19
Dian Caturini Sulistyoningrum, Rina Susilowati, Emy Huriyati, Ni Putu Diah Witari, Harry Freitag Luglio, Madarina Julia
BACKGROUND: Overfatness (overweight and obesity) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and insulin resistance. Chronic inflammation may play a role in mediating these associations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between plasma tumour necrosis factor-α and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among overweight and obese adolescents. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This study was an observational analysis with a cross-sectional design for high school students in Yogyakarta, Indonesia...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625035/programming-of-infant-neurodevelopment-by-maternal-obesity-potential-role-of-maternal-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#20
Mira Dewi, Susan E Carlson, Kathleen M Gustafson, Debra K Sullivan, Jo A Wick, Holly R Hull
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies show that maternal obesity is associated with impaired offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. The mechanism underlying the association is unclear. However, there is evidence to suggest a role for intra-uterine exposure to inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). We aimed to determine if maternal IR and inflammation were associated to fetal neurodevelopment as indicated by fetal heart rate variability (HRV), an index of fetal cardiac autonomic nervous system development...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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