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Inflammation obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548560/microalgal-oil-from-schizochytrium-sp-prevents-hfd-induced-abdominal-fat-accumulation-in-mice
#1
Jinhui Yu, Yong Ma, Jie Sun, Liyuan Ran, Youwei Li, Ning Wang, Tao Yu, Wenting Gao, Wenbin Jia, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Yuping Bi, Yingjie Wu
OBJECTIVE: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are proved to be effective in obesity reduction. Microalgal oil (MO) is an important alternative source of n-3 PUFAs that effectively alleviates obesity. The aim of the present study was to explore the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil from Schizochytrium sp. (SMO) and to compare the effects of 2 SMOs (SMO1 and SMO2) with different levels of purity of n-3 PUFAs on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548286/obesity-gets-on-your-renal-nerves
#2
EDITORIAL
Boye L Jensen
In the present issue of Acta Physiologica(1) , Khan et al. in their article "Improvement in baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in obese Sprague-Dawley rats following immunosuppression" confirm that obesity-related hypertension involves resetting of the arterial baroreceptor to a state of less sensitivity and relate this mechanistically to inflammation-induced altered renal afferent nerve activity (1) . Pharmocological treatment with the calcineurin phosphatase inhibitor-type immunosuppressant tacrolimus attenuated inflammation, reversed, paradoxically, the hypertension and restored baroreceptor sensitivity similar to the effect of renal denervation...
May 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545587/type-2-diabetes-and-obesity-induce-similar-transcriptional-reprogramming-in-human-myocytes
#3
Leif Väremo, Tora Ida Henriksen, Camilla Scheele, Christa Broholm, Maria Pedersen, Mathias Uhlén, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is one of the primary tissues involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The close association between obesity and T2D makes it difficult to isolate specific effects attributed to the disease alone. Therefore, here we set out to identify and characterize intrinsic properties of myocytes, associated independently with T2D or obesity. METHODS: We generated and analyzed RNA-seq data from primary differentiated myotubes from 24 human subjects, using a factorial design (healthy/T2D and non-obese/obese), to determine the influence of each specific factor on genome-wide transcription...
May 25, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545035/novel-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-mhy553-alleviates-hepatic-steatosis-by-increasing-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-decreasing-inflammation-during-aging
#4
Seong Min Kim, Bonggi Lee, Hye Jin An, Dae Hyun Kim, Kyung Chul Park, Sang-Gyun Noh, Ki Wung Chung, Eun Kyeong Lee, Kyung Mok Kim, Do Hyun Kim, Su Jeong Kim, Pusoon Chun, Ho Jeong Lee, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung
Hepatic steatosis is frequently observed in obese and aged individuals. Because hepatic steatosis is closely associated with metabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and inflammation, numerous efforts have been made to develop compounds that ameliorate it. Here, a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist, 4-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)benzene-1,3-diol (MHY553) was developed, and investigated its beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis using young and old Sprague-Dawley rats and HepG2 cells...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544797/immune-mediated-inflammation-as-a-driver-of-obesity-and-comorbid-conditions
#5
Barbara Strasser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544689/class-ii-obese-and-healthy-pregnant-controls-exhibit-indistinguishable-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-immune-responses-to-caesarian-section
#6
Caroline Graham, Mullein Thorleifson, William P Stefura, Duane J Funk, Kent T HayGlass
INTRODUCTION: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with meta-inflammation and an increased likelihood of clinical complications. Surgery results in intense, acute inflammatory responses in any individual. Because obese individuals exhibit constitutive inflammatory responses and high rates of Caesarian section, it is important to understand the impact of surgery in such populations. Whether more pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and/or counterbalancing changes in anti-inflammatory immune modulators occurs is unknown...
May 25, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544542/conditional-macrophage-depletion-increases-inflammation-and-does-not-inhibit-the-development-of-osteoarthritis-in-obese-mafia-mice
#7
Chia-Lung Wu, Jenna McNeill, Kelsey Goon, Dianne Little, Kelly Kimmerling, Janet Huebner, Virginia Kraus, Farshid Guilak
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages are believed to play a critical role in the inflammation associated with the development of osteoarthritis (OA) in obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate whether short-term, systemic depletion of macrophages would mitigate OA following injury in obese mice. METHODS: CSF-1R-GFP(+) Macrophage Fas-Induced Apoptosis (MaFIA) transgenic mice that allow conditional depletion of macrophages were placed on a high-fat diet and underwent surgery to induce knee OA...
May 23, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544341/synthesized-enone-fatty-acids-resembling-metabolites-from-gut-microbiota-suppress-macrophage-mediated-inflammation-in-adipocytes
#8
Ha-Eun Yang, Yongjia Li, Akira Nishimura, Huei-Fen Jheng, Ana Yuliana, Ryuji Kitano-Ohue, Wataru Nomura, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Chu-Sook Kim, Rina Yu, Nahoko Kitamura, Si-Bum Park, Shigenobu Kishino, Jun Ogawa, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
SCOPE: Recent reports indicate that gut microbiota and their metabolite may regulate inflammatory conditions, including the chronic inflammation of obese adipose tissues, in the host. In this study, we investigated whether specific synthesized fatty acids, identical to the metabolites generated by gut microbiota, act as anti-inflammatory factors in inflammation-induced obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We first used lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages to examine the anti-inflammatory effect of fatty acids synthesized to resemble representative polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites from gut microbiota...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543872/pai-1-gain-of-function-genotype-factors-increasing-pai-1-levels-and-airway-obstruction-the-gala-ii-cohort
#9
Michael G Sherenian, Seong H Cho, Albert Levin, Jin-Young Min, Sam S Oh, Donglei Hu, Joshua Galanter, Saunak Sen, Scott Huntsman, Celeste Eng, Jose R Rodriguez-Santana, Denise Serebrisky, Pedro C Avila, Ravi Kalhan, Lewis J Smith, Luisa N Borrell, Max A Seibold, L Keoki Williams, Esteban G Burchard, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: PAI-1 gain of function variants promote airway fibrosis, and are associated with asthma and with worse lung function in subjects with asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if the association of a gain-of-function polymorphism in Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) with airway obstruction is modified by asthma status, and whether any genotype effect persists after accounting for common exposures that increase PAI-1 level. METHODS: We studied 2070 Latino children (8-21y) with genotypic and pulmonary function data from the GALA II cohort...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541489/respiratory-effects-and-systemic-stress-response-following-acute-acrolein-inhalation-in-rats
#10
Samantha J Snow, Marie A McGee, Andres Henriquez, Judy E Richards, Mette C Schladweiler, Allen D Ledbetter, Urmila P Kodavanti
Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically-impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a non-obese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4h/day for 1 or 2 days...
May 24, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540690/microrna-regulatory-networks-as-biomarkers-in-obesity-the-emerging-role
#11
Lihua Zhang, Daniel Miller, Qiuping Yang, Bin Wu
Even though it is a pandemic health problem worldwide, the pathogenesis of obesity is poorly understood. Recently, emerging studies verified that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in complicated metabolic processes including adipocyte differentiation, fat cell formation (adipogenesis), obesity-related insulin resistance and inflammation. Many regulatory networks have been identified in murine adipose tissue, but those in human adipose tissue are not as well known. In addition, miRNAs have been detected in circulation, and thus may be usable as diagnostic indicators...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539825/effects-of-c-reactive-protein-on-the-expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-and-their-inhibitors-via-fc%C3%AE-receptors-on-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#12
Kumiko Nakai, Hideki Tanaka, Kazuhiro Yamanaka, Yumi Takahashi, Fumiko Murakami, Rieko Matsuike, Jumpei Sekino, Natsuko Tanabe, Toyoko Morita, Yoji Yamazaki, Takayuki Kawato, Masao Maeno
The association between obesity and inflammation is well documented in epidemiological studies. Proteolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is involved in adipose tissue enlargement, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) collectively cleave all ECM proteins. Here, we examined the effects of C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, on the expression of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which are natural inhibitors of MMPs, in adipocyte-differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. We analyzed the expression of Fcγ receptor (FcγR) IIb and FcγRIII, which are candidates for CRP receptors, and the effects of anti-CD16/CD32 antibodies, which can act as FcγRII and FcγRIII blockers on CRP-induced alteration of MMP and TIMP expression...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539291/-beneficial-effect-of-periodontal-therapy-on-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-metabolism-in-obese-rats-with-periodontitis
#13
Qiao-Xue Chai, Su-Lan Zhong, Jia Ni, Lei Chen, Lei Zhou, Jin-Cai Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of periodontal therapy in controlling periodontitis and on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in obese rats with periodontitis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into normal group (group C), obese group (group O), periodontitis combined with obesity group (group P) and periodontal treatment group (group T). The obese rats in groups P and T were subjected to ligation of the maxillary second molar with silk thread to induce experimental periodontitis, and the rats in group T received periodontal therapy after the ligation...
May 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539091/in-silico-identification-of-potential-drug-compound-against-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-by-virtual-screening-and-toxicity-studies-for-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#14
Smrita Singh, Aparajita Mohanty
Diabetic Nephropathy is a serious complication of Diabetes Mellitus. Current therapeutic strategies of Diabetic Nephropathy are based on control of modifiable risks like hypertension, glucose levels, and dyslipidemia. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is implicated in several metabolic syndromes including Diabetic Nephropathy, besides obesity, insulin insensitivity, dislipidemia, inflammation and hypertension. In the present study, virtual screening of 617 compounds from two different public databases was done against PPAR- γ with an objective to find a possible lead compound...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538228/glycemic-control-in-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#15
Wilfred Ip, Mark G Kirchhof
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease that manifests as scaly erythematous plaques as a consequence of keratinocyte hyperproliferation and inflammation. It is commonly associated with diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. While there are numerous approved treatment options available, they have limitations including availability, toxicities such as immunosuppression, and high cost. There is increasing evidence to suggest that several hypoglycemic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones and biguanides, exert beneficial effects in psoriasis...
May 25, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537431/reduction-of-leukocyte-derived-h2s-linked-to-abnormal-glycolipid-metabolism-in-hypertensive-subjects
#16
Xiaonan Sun, Yongzeng Chen, Qiang Zeng, Xianyong Huang, Junyan Cai
We deduced that leukocyte-derived H2S would also play a pivotal role regarding nutrition homeostasis in hypertensive subjects. Plasma was obtained from patients with hypertension (n  =  151) as well as control (n  =  41). Leukocyte-derived H2S speed was determined, and biochemical indices of glucose and lipid metabolism were measured. Western blot analyses of CSE were also performed. Inflammation factors were measured. Leukocyte-derived H2S is produced at a significantly lower rate in overweight or obese patients (p < 0...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537058/unusual-suspects-in-the-development-of-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-nk-cells-inkt-cells-and-ilcs
#17
REVIEW
Beatriz Dal Santo Francisco Bonamichi, Jongsoon Lee
The notion that obesity-induced inflammation mediates the development of insulin resistance in animal models and humans has been gaining strong support. It has also been shown that immune cells in local tissues, in particular in visceral adipose tissue, play a major role in the regulation of obesity-induced inflammation. Specifically, obesity increases the numbers and activation of proinflammatory immune cells, including M1 macrophages, neutrophils, Th1 CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells, while simultaneously suppressing anti-inflammatory cells such as M2 macrophages, CD4 regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, and eosinophils...
May 22, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536285/gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#18
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
Metabolic endotoxemia originating from dysbiotic gut microbiota has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the chronic low-grade inflammation (CLGI) responsible for the development of obesity. Capsaicin (CAP) is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers and has potent anti-obesity functions, yet the mechanisms linking this effect to gut microbiota remain obscure. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with CAP exhibit lower levels of metabolic endotoxemia and CLGI associated with lower body weight gain...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536108/inflammatory-stress-promotes-the-development-of-obesity-related-chronic-kidney-disease-via-cd36-in-mice
#19
Ping Yang, Yayun Xiao, Xuan Luo, Yunfei Zhao, Lei Zhao, Yan Wang, Tingting Wu, Li Wei, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Ectopic fat located in the kidney has emerged as a novel cause of obesity-related chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether inflammatory stress promotes ectopic lipid deposition in the kidney and causes renal injury in obese mice and whether the pathological process is mediated by the fatty acid translocase CD36. HFD feeding alone resulted in obesity, hyperlipidemia and slight renal lipid accumulation in mice, which nevertheless had normal kidney function. HFD-fed mice with chronic inflammation had severe renal steatosis and obvious glomerular and tubular damage, which was accompanied by increased CD36 expression...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535046/inhibitory-effect-of-piceatannol-on-tnf-%C3%AE-mediated-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#20
Yanfang Li, Puyu Yang, Qimeng Chang, Jing Wang, Jie Liu, Yuan Lv, Thomas T Y Wang, Boyan Gao, Yaqiong Zhang, Liangli Lucy Yu
Piceatannol, a bioactive component in grapes and blueberry, was examined for its potential in decreasing the inflammatory activities in adipocytes using a co-cultured adipocytes and macrophages system, and suppressing TNF-α mediated inflammation and the related insulin resistance using a 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. Piceatannol treatment significantly reduced the release of inflammatory cytokines of TNF-α and MCP-1 in the co-cultured system and inhibited TNF-α induced expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 at both mRNA and protein levels in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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