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Diabetes polyphenols

Zia Uddin, Yeong Hun Song, Mahboob Ullah, Zuopeng Li, Jeong Yoon Kim, Ki Hun Park
Diabetes mellitus is one of a major worldwide concerns, regulated by either defects in secretion or action of insulin, or both. Insulin signaling down-regulation has been related with over activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, which has been a promising target for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Herein, activity guided separation of methanol extract (95%) of Dodonaea viscosa aerial parts afforded nine ( 1 - 9 ) polyphenolic compounds, all of them were identified through spectroscopic data including 2D NMR and HREIMS...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Siyabulela S B N Ntuli, Wentzel C A Gelderblom, David R Katerere
BACKGROUND: Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br is endemic to Southern Africa where it has been traditionally used for cancer and diabetes. In recent times it has been marketed for its reputed (but not proven) anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-HIV properties. Little is known about the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential of extracts and common marker compounds of Sutherlandia frutescens. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the putative efficacy and possible long-term adverse effects of using this herb...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hayley A Young, David Benton
As the influence of diet on health may take place over a period of decades, there is a need for biomarkers that help to identify those aspects of nutrition that have either a positive or a negative influence. The evidence is considered that heart-rate variability (HRV) (the time differences between one beat and the next) can be used to indicate the potential health benefits of food items. Reduced HRV is associated with the development of numerous conditions for example, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, obesity and psychiatric disorders...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Carine Smith
The modern lifestyle is characterised by various factors that cause accelerating ageing by the upregulation of oxidative stress and inflammation-two processes that are inextricably linked in an endless circle of self-propagation. Inflammation in particular is commonly accepted as aetiological factor in many chronic disease states, such as obesity, diabetes and depression. In terms of disease prevention or treatment, interventions aimed at changing dietary and/or exercise habits have had limited success in practise, mostly due to poor long-term compliance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Zuo Peng Li, Hyeong-Hwan Lee, Zia Uddin, Yeong Hun Song, Ki Hun Park
Four new caged xanthones (1-4) and two known compounds (5, 6) were isolated from the roots of Cratoxylum cochinchinense, a polyphenol rich plant, collected in China. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were characterized by obtaining their detailed spectroscopic data. In particular, compounds 1 and 6 were fully identified by X-ray crystallographic data. The isolated compounds (1-6) were evaluated against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which plays an important role in diabetes, obesity, and cancer...
March 7, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Ganiyu Oboh, Adedayo O Ademiluyi, Odunayo M Agunloye, Ayokunle Olubode Ademosun, Bolaji Grace Ogunsakin
Spices are used in soup preparation in many homes and serve as ingredients in the preparation of several traditional delicacies endowed with natural antioxidants such as polyphenols. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of garlic, white onion, and purple onion on angiotensin-converting enzyme, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase activity in vitro and determine their antioxidant properties via various antioxidant assays such as OH* , Fe2+ chelation, and 2, 2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging assays...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Dorota Różańska, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Anthocyanins are food compounds which belong to polyphenols and can mainly be found in dark fruits (e.g., blueberries, black currants, cranberries) and vegetables (e.g., red cabbage, radish, eggplant). The results of large research have shown that these compounds play an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In rodent studies and in studies with isolated omental adipocytes, it was observed that anthocyanins regulated the carbohydrate metabolism in the body due to the upregulation of GLUT4 (insulinregulated glucose transporter) translocation, increased activation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in adipose tissue and skeletal muscles as well as increased secretion of adiponectin and leptin...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
A C Bennett, A Van Camp, V López, C Smith
The link between obesity-induced systemic inflammation and decreased insulin signalling is well-known. It is also known that peripherally produced inflammatory cytokines can cross the blood-brain barrier, resulting in the release of neurotoxins that can ultimately lead to the demise of central nervous system integrity. A high-mesembrine Sceletium tortuosum extract was recently shown to possess cytoprotective and mild anti-inflammatory properties in monocytes and to target specific p450 enzymes to reduce adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Rahul V Patel, Bhupendra M Mistry, Riyaz Syed, Anuj K Rathi, Young-Soo Keum
Flavonoids are allocated among various vegetations and in foodstuffs; consequently, they represent an inevitable part of the diet. Historical and epidemiological proof recommend that diet plans loaded with flavonoids such as quercetin have positive health benefits, especially on the heart. Flavonoids have been proven to have potential action towards hypertension, inflammation, diabetes and vascular disease. Their results on LDL lowering, platelet aggregation and vasodilatation recommend an ability to expel the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaque formation...
March 5, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Kamila Kasprzak, Tomasz Oniszczuk, Agnieszka Wójtowicz, Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Marta Olech, Renata Nowak, Renata Polak, Anna Oniszczuk
Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica )-a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
This study investigated the impact of a polyphenol-rich seaweed extract on postprandial glycaemia in healthy adults, and, as a secondary outcome, the influence of ethnicity on these outcomes. Thirty-eight volunteers (26 non-Asian, 12 Asian) aged 19 to 56 years participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised cross-over trial. Participants each consumed a low (500 mg), and high (2000 mg) dose of the polyphenol-rich brown seaweed ( Fucus vesiculosus ) extract, as well as a cellulose placebo (2000 mg), 30 min prior to 50 g of available carbohydrate from white bread...
February 27, 2018: Nutrients
Małgorzata Zakłos-Szyda, Nina Pawlik
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a chronic diet-related disease which due to many dangerous complications has become a prominent health problem of the world. The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro activity of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica L., family Rosaceae, JQ) fruit polyphenolic extract as modulator of carbohydrates metabolism. The research was designed to investigate the effect of JQ polyphenolic extract on glucose metabolism in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line cultured under normal non-metabolically changed and hyperglycemic conditions...
March 1, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Nobutomo Ikarashi, Takahiro Toda, Yusuke Hatakeyama, Yoshiki Kusunoki, Risako Kon, Nanaho Mizukami, Miho Kaneko, Sosuke Ogawa, Kiyoshi Sugiyama
We have previously demonstrated that acacia polyphenol (AP) exerts strong anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and anti-atopic dermatitis effects. In the present study, we investigated the anti-hypertensive effects of AP. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with hypertension and control Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were used. WKY and SHR were fed AP-containing food or AP-free food (control group) ad libitum for 4 weeks, and their blood pressures were measured. After AP administration, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower in the SHR group than in the control group...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mohamed Eddouks, Morad Hebi
INTRODUCTION: Anvillea radiata Coss. &Durieu (Asteraceae) is an endemic plant from North Africa (Morocco and Algeria).This plant has many traditional uses including treatment of obesity and diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY: the study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of Anvillea radiata (A. radiata) leaves on both normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats treated at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for fifteen days. In addition, a preliminary pytochemical screening for various components was realized...
February 22, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Yong-Deok Jeon, Sa-Haeng Kang, Kwang-Hyun Moon, Jeong-Ho Lee, Dae-Geun Kim, Wook Kim, Jong-Sung Kim, Byung-Yong Ahn, Jong-Sik Jin
The number of diabetic patients worldwide is increasing, and complications such as stroke and cardiovascular disease are becoming a serious cause of death. Diabetes mellitus is classified into two types according to the etiopathogenic mechanism and insulin dependence. Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is caused by damage and destruction of pancreatic β cells that produce insulin. It is a disease that is characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Aronia berry has been used as a medicinal food in Europe...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Avinaash Subramaniam, Michelle Landstrom, Alice Luu, K C Hayes
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental interactions. No single animal model has so far mirrored all the characteristics or complications of diabetes in humans. Since this disease represents a chronic nutritional insult based on a diet bearing a high glycemic load, the ideal model should recapitulate the underlying dietary issues. Most rodent models have three shortcomings: (1) they are genetically or chemically modified to produce diabetes; (2) unlike humans, most require high-fat feeding; (3) and they take too long to develop diabetes...
February 18, 2018: Nutrients
Xiao-Fang Hu, Qiang Zhang, Pan-Pan Zhang, Li-Juan Sun, Ji-Chao Liang, Susan L Morris-Natschke, Yong Chen, Kuo-Hsiung Lee
The aims of the present study were to assess the anti-diabetic effects of Physalis alkekengi L. (PA) in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells and HepG2-GFP-CYP2E1 (E47) cells and in a pre-diabetic rat model, as well as to identify the active chemical constituents. The in vitro results showed that PA has a strong anti-diabetic capacity to relieve oxidative stress and inhibit α-glucosidase activity. Mechanistic analysis also showed that ethyl acetate extracts of aerial parts and fruit of PA (PAG-EA and PAF-EA) enhanced glucose transporter 4 expression and function as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity by inhibiting the expression of cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) mRNA and protein...
February 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
H Toker, H Balci Yuce, A Lektemur Alpan, F Gevrek, M Elmastas
OBJECTIVE: Grape seed proanthocyanidine extract (GSPE) is a strong antioxidant derived from the grape seeds (Vitis vinifera, Terral J.F.) and has a polyphenolic structure with a wide range of biological activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on alveolar bone loss and histopathological changes in rats with diabetes mellitus and ligature-induced periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty rats were divided into 6 study groups. Control (C, 6 rats) group, periodontitis (P, 6 rats) group, diabetes (D, 6 rats) group, diabetes and periodontitis (D+P, 6 rats) group, diabetes, periodontitis and 100 mg/kg/day GSPE (GSPE-100, 8 rats), and diabetes, periodontitis and 200 mg/kg/day GSPE (GSPE-200, 8 rats) group...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Sheng Zheng, Qianyun Feng, Jing Cheng, Jia Zheng
A growing body of evidence has clearly demonstrated that maternal nutrition can strongly determine the susceptibility to the development of metabolic diseases in offspring. With the increasing prevalence of maternal overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus, it yields enormous burden for individual and public health. Interventions during pregnancy have been proven to be challenging, with limited efficacy and low compliance. Resveratrol, as a natural polyphenolic compound, has a wide-range of beneficial properties, including potent anti-obesogenic, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-diabetic effects...
February 5, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Sajjad Lalegani, Hassan Ahmadi Gavlighi, Mohammad Hossein Azizi, Roghayeh Amini Sarteshnizi
Phenolic compounds as agro-industrial by-products have been associated with health benefits since they exhibit high antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, polyphenol-rich extract from pistachio green hull (PGH) was evaluated for antioxidant activity and its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The effect of PGH extract powder on in vitro starch digestibility was also evaluated. The results showed that PGH had stronger antioxidant activity than Trolox...
March 2018: Food Research International
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