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Obesity polyphenols

John J B Anderson, David C Nieman
The Mediterranean diet is upheld in the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines as an example of an eating pattern that promotes good health, a healthy body weight, and disease prevention throughout the lifespan. The Mediterranean eating pattern is based on a variety of unprocessed plant foods including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds that are high in polyphenols. The majority of polyphenols arrive in the colon where bacteria degrade them into smaller phenolics that can be translocated via the portal vein to the liver...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
August 8, 2016: Nutrition
Antonio Colantuono, Rosalia Ferracane, Paola Vitaglione
Obesity is an urgent social problem and new functional foods providing polyphenols and dietary fibers (DF) may be promising tools to modulate oxidative stress, inflammation and energy homeostasis. Pomegranate peels (PPe) are an agro-industrial by-product containing polyphenols such as ellagitannins (ETs), gallic acid (GA), ellagic acid (EA) and its derivatives (EAs), as well as DF. In this study, PPe enriched cookies (PPeC) were developed, and the bioaccessibility as well as the ability of their polyphenols to exert antioxidant activity along the Gastro-intestinal Tract (GiT) and to modulate digestive enzymes were evaluated in vitro...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Stefano Vendrame, Cristian Del Bo', Salvatore Ciappellano, Patrizia Riso, Dorothy Klimis-Zacas
Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population...
September 30, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Hiroko Inoue, Atsuhiro Kishimoto, Ryoko Ushikoshi-Nakayama, Ayaka Hasaka, Ayako Takahashi, Koufuchi Ryo, Takashi Muramatsu, Fumio Ide, Kenji Mishima, Ichiro Saito
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol produced by plants in response to environmental stress. This compound has been shown to have pharmacological effects against a wide range of diseases including neurological, hepatic, cardiovascular and autoimmune conditions. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, in which loss of lacrimal and salivary gland function occurs, has been studied as an animal model for Sjögren's syndrome. In this study, we confirmed that administration of resveratrol results in increased secretion of saliva in NOD mice...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Rahul Sarma, Sima Kumari, Ramakrishnan Elancheran, Meetali Deori, Rajlakshmi Devi
Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae) is a plant found available in Northeast (NE) region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Inhae Kang, Teresa Buckner, Neil F Shay, Liwei Gu, Soonkyu Chung
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, including berries, pomegranates, grapes, and walnuts. EA has been investigated extensively because of its antiproliferative action in some cancers, along with its anti-inflammatory effects. A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of EA is effective in attenuating obesity and ameliorating obesity-mediated metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Eun-Young Hwang, Mi-Hee Yu, Yeon-Seop Jung, Sam-Pin Lee, Jin Han Shon, Syng-Ook Lee
In the present study, we hypothesized that defatted safflower seed which is known to be rich in polyphenols might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders, and therefore the anti-adipogenic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract from defatted safflower (Cathamus tinctorius L.) seeds (CSE) were investigated both in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice fed a high-fat diet. CSE inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreased expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, SREBP1c and PPARγ, and their target genes...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Shannon L Glisan, Caroline Ryan, Andrew P Neilson, Joshua D Lambert
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) consumption has been associated with health beneficial effects. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a comorbidity of obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a polyphenol-rich cranberry extract (CBE) on hepatic inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese C57BL/6J mice. Following dietary treatment with 0.8% CBE for 10 weeks, we observed no change in body weight or visceral fat mass in CBE-supplemented mice compared to HF-fed control mice. We did observe a significant decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase (31%) and histological severity of NAFLD (33% decrease in area of involvement, 29% decrease in lipid droplet size) compared to HF-fed controls...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Nannan Zhang, Zhongchi Li, Kang Xu, Yanying Wang, Zhao Wang
Obesity-related renal diseases have been a worldwide issue. Effective strategy that prevents high fat-diet induced renal damage is of great significance. Resveratrol, a natural plant polyphenol, is famous for its antioxidant activity, cardioprotective effects and anticancer properties. However whether resveratrol can play a role in the treatment of renal diseases is unknown. In this study, we added resveratrol in normal glucose or high glucose medium and provide evidences that resveratrol protects against high-glucose triggered oxidative stress and cell senescence...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Seung Hwan Hwang, Shin Hwa Kwon, Zhiqiang Wang, Tae Hyun Kim, Young-Hee Kang, Jae-Yong Lee, Soon Sung Lim
BACKGROUND: Protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues (such as liver, muscle, and adipose tissue) has a key role in the regulation of insulin signaling and pathway activation, making protein tyrosine phosphatase a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity and response surface methodology (RSM) is an effective statistical technique for optimizing complex processes using a multi-variant approach. METHODS: In this study, Zea mays L...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hui-Xi Bian, Ze-Yu Wu, Bin Bao, Jing Cai, Xin Wang, Ying Jiang, Jian Liu, Wei Qu
CONTEXT: Obesity can be ameliorated by some natural products such as polyphenol, flavones and saponin. As a typical medicinal plant, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) (bitter melon, BM) contains these natural chemicals and reduces diet-induced obesity in mice. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the metabolic effects of dietary BM supplement, investigates a global metabolic profile and determines associated perturbations in metabolic pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with low-fat diet (LFD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD supplemented with 5% BM based on 37...
August 19, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Carmen Infante-Garcia, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Yolanda Marin-Zambrana, Maria Teresa Fernandez-Ponce, Lourdes Casas, Casimiro Mantell, Monica Garcia-Alloza
Epidemiological studies reveal that metabolic disorders, and specifically type 2 diabetes (T2D), are relevant risk factors to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), the most common causes of dementia. Due to the limited success of available treatments, AD patients are in a tremendous need of new therapeutic options. Natural polyphenols, and concretely Mangifera indica Linn extract (MGF), have been reported to have antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. We have analyzed the role of MGF in central complications associated with T2D, after long-term treatment of db/db mice with MGF...
August 18, 2016: Brain Pathology
Wasundara Fernando, Melanie R Power Coombs, David W Hoskin, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
Docosahexaenoic acid-acylated phloridzin (PZ-DHA), a novel polyphenol fatty acid ester derivative, was synthesized through a regioselective acylation reaction with the aim of increasing the bioactivity of phloridzin (PZ) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, PZ-DHA's cytotoxic activity was explored using in vitro and in vivo models of mammary carcinoma. PZ-DHA was selectively cytotoxic for mammary carcinoma (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, 4T1, MCF-7 and T-47D) cells compared to non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC and MCF-10A) and fibroblasts by MTS assay and Annexin-V-FLUOS/propidium iodide staining...
October 2016: Carcinogenesis
Bruna Sampaio Roberto, Gabriela Alves Macedo, Juliana Alves Macedo, Isabela Mateus Martins, Vânia Mayumi Nakajima, J William Allwood, Derek Stewart, Gordon J McDougall
The aim of this work was to assess the effect of immobilized-tannase treatment on black, green, white and mate tea components and on their bioactivities relevant to obesity. Tannase treatment caused predictable changes in polyphenol composition with substantial reduction in galloylated catechins in green, white and black tea. Mate tea, which is rich in chlorogenic acids, was much less affected by tannase treatment although some degradation of caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives was noted. The original tea samples were effective in inhibiting digestive enzymes in vitro...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Ting Luo, Omar Miranda-Garcia, Allysa Adamson, Jill Hamilton-Reeves, Debra K Sullivan, Jason M Kinchen, Neil F Shay
BACKGROUND: Although a reductionist approach has sought to understand the roles of individual nutrients and biochemicals in foods, it has become apparent that there can be differences when studying food components in isolation or within the natural matrix of a whole food. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the ability of whole-food intake to modulate the development of obesity and other metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high-fat (HF), Western-style obesogenic diet...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Ewa Białecka-Florjańczyk, Agata Urszula Fabiszewska, Jolanta Krzyczkowska, Alina Kuryłowicz
Lipases are enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of ester bonds of triglycerides ranging among biocatalysts of considerable physiological significance and industrial potential. Better understanding of the catalytic functions and achieving the possibility to control the biocatalysis process, in particular exploring some activators and inhibitors of lipases, seems to be crucial in the context of novel applications. The lipase activity is a function of interfacial composition: the enzyme can be there activated as well as denaturated or deactivated and the interface is an appropriate site for modulating lipolysis...
June 30, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Francisco Les, Simon Deleruyelle, Laure-Estelle Cassagnes, Jean A Boutin, Balázs Balogh, José M Arbones-Mainar, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Françoise Nepveu, Pascale Mauriège, Christian Carpéné
Piceatannol is a hydroxylated derivative of resveratrol. While both dietary polyphenols coexist in edible plants and fruits, and share equivalent concentrations in several wines, the influence of piceatannol on adiposity has been less studied than that of resveratrol. Though resveratrol is now recognized to limit fat deposition in various obesity models, the benefit of its dietary supplementation remains under debate regarding human obesity treatment or prevention. The research for more potent resveratrol analogs is therefore still undergoing...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Jessica L Fry, Leona Al Sayah, Robert M Weisbrod, Isabelle Van Roy, Xiang Weng, Richard A Cohen, Markus M Bachschmid, Francesca Seta
Arterial stiffness, a major cardiovascular risk factor, develops within 2 months in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet, serving as a model of human metabolic syndrome, and it is associated with activation of proinflammatory and oxidant pathways in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Sirtuin-1 (SirT1) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase regulated by the cellular metabolic status. Our goal was to study the effects of VSM SirT1 on arterial stiffness in the context of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Overnight fasting acutely decreased arterial stiffness, measured in vivo by pulse wave velocity, in mice fed HFHS for 2 or 8 months, but not in mice lacking SirT1 in VSM (SMKO)...
September 2016: Hypertension
Baldeep Chani, Veena Puri, Ranbir Chander Sobti, Sanjeev Puri
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a major component of green tea polyphenols having a potent anti-oxidant potential. Besides inhibiting the growth of many cancer cell types and inducing proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes, it has been shown to promote reduction of body fat. The fact that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cells of mesodermal lineages, such as fat and bone, it is, thus, possible that EGCG may directly be involved in affecting fat metabolism through its effect on mesenchymal stem cells...
2016: Journal of Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine
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