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Tumour microenvironment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909339/cancer-cell-motility-lessons-from-migration-in-confined-spaces
#1
Colin D Paul, Panagiotis Mistriotis, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo...
December 2, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900099/effect-of-cytostatic-proline-rich-polypeptide-1-on-tumor-suppressors-of-inflammation-pathway-signaling-in-chondrosarcoma
#2
Karina Galoian, Shihua Luo, Amir Qureshi, Parthik Patel, Rachel Price, Ashlyn S Morse, Gor Chailyan, Silva Abrahamyan, H T Temple
Cytokines produced in the tumour microenvironment exert an important role in cancer pathogenesis and in the inhibition of disease progression. Cancer of the cartilage is termed metastatic chondrosarcoma; however, the signaling events resulting in mesenchymal cell transformation to sarcoma have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to characterize the cytokine expression profile in the human JJ012 chondrosarcoma cell line, as well as the effect of cytostatic proline-rich polypeptide-1 (PRP-1). Western blot experiments demonstrated that the levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) were upregulated in chondrocytes compared with chondrosarcoma cells...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897411/skeletal-muscle-density-is-an-independent-predictor-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-outcomes-treated-with-rituximab-based-chemoimmunotherapy
#3
Michael P Chu, Jessica Lieffers, Sunita Ghosh, Andrew Belch, Neil S Chua, Amelie Fontaine, Randeep Sangha, Robert A Turner, Vickie E Baracos, Michael B Sawyer
BACKGROUND: While much cancer research focuses on tumours and their microenvironment, malignancies cause widespread physiologic changes. Cancer and treatment-related sarcopenia, measured with quantitative imaging or as a decrease in overall body mass, are indicative of poor prognosis in elderly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) may be a better prognostic marker. SMD, a measure of muscle radiation attenuation on CT imaging, is more prognostic than sarcopenia or International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores in follicular lymphoma and multiple solid organ malignancies...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891654/the-relationship-between-oestrogen-receptor-alpha-phosphorylation-and-the-tumour-microenvironment-in-patients-with-primary-operable-ductal-breast-cancer
#4
Kelvin K W Cheng, Ashley Dickson, Fadia J A Gujam, Donald C McMillan, Joanne Edwards
AIMS: Although the role of phosphorylation of oestrogen receptor (ER) at serines 118 (p-S118) and 167 (p-S167) have been studied, the relationship between p-S118, p-S167 and the tumour microenvironment in ER-positive primary operable ductal breast cancers have not been investigated. The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the relationship between p-S118/p-S167 and the tumour microenvironment and (2) the effect of p-S118/167 on survival and recurrence in ER-positive primary operable ductal breast cancers...
November 28, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887958/bottom-up-synthesis-of-carbon-nanoparticles-with-higher-doxorubicin-efficacy
#5
Samer Bayda, Mohamad Hadla, Stefano Palazzolo, Vinit Kumar, Isabella Caligiuri, Emmanuele Ambrosi, Enrico Pontoglio, Marco Agostini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Alvise Benedetti, Pietro Riello, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Giuseppe Corona, Giuseppe Toffoli, Flavio Rizzolio
Nanomedicine requires intelligent and non-toxic nanomaterials for real clinical applications. Carbon materials possess interesting properties but with some limitations due to toxic effects. Interest in carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) is increasing because they are considered green materials with tunable optical properties, overcoming the problem of toxicity associated with quantum dots or nanocrystals, and can be utilized as smart drug delivery systems. Using black tea as a raw material, we synthesized CNPs with a narrow size distribution, tunable optical properties covering visible to deep red absorption, non-toxicity and easy synthesis for large-scale production...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886180/microrna-regulation-of-endothelial-trex1-reprograms-the-tumour-microenvironment
#6
RaeAnna Wilson, Cristina Espinosa-Diez, Nathan Kanner, Namita Chatterjee, Rebecca Ruhl, Christina Hipfinger, Sunil J Advani, Jie Li, Omar F Khan, Aleksandra Franovic, Sara M Weis, Sushil Kumar, Lisa M Coussens, Daniel G Anderson, Clark C Chen, David A Cheresh, Sudarshan Anand
Rather than targeting tumour cells directly, elements of the tumour microenvironment can be modulated to sensitize tumours to the effects of therapy. Here we report a unique mechanism by which ectopic microRNA-103 can manipulate tumour-associated endothelial cells to enhance tumour cell death. Using gain-and-loss of function approaches, we show that miR-103 exacerbates DNA damage and inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Local, systemic or vascular-targeted delivery of miR-103 in tumour-bearing mice decreased angiogenesis and tumour growth...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885265/the-disparate-origins-of-ovarian-cancers-pathogenesis-and-prevention-strategies
#7
Anthony N Karnezis, Kathleen R Cho, C Blake Gilks, Celeste Leigh Pearce, David G Huntsman
Ovarian cancer is the fifth cause of cancer-related death in women and comprises a histologically and genetically broad range of tumours, including those of epithelial, sex cord-stromal and germ cell origin. Recent evidence indicates that high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and endometrioid carcinoma primarily arise from tissues that are not normally present in the ovary. These histogenetic pathways are informing risk-reduction strategies for the prevention of ovarian and ovary-associated cancers and have highlighted the importance of the seemingly unique ovarian microenvironment...
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883931/disassembly-of-amphiphilic-small-molecular-prodrug-with-fluorescence-switch-induced-by-ph-and-folic-acid-receptors-for-targeted-delivery-and-controlled-release
#8
Zhigang Xu, Xiaoxiao Shi, Meili Hou, Peng Xue, Yong-E Gao, Shiying Liu, Yuejun Kang
We develop a new type of pH-responsive amphiphilic small molecular prodrug by conjugating folic acid with anti-tumour doxorubicin via a hydrazone bond. This prodrug is featured by high and precise drug loading (55.4wt%), which can self-assemble into micellar nanoparticles in neutral environment while disassemble in the presence of tumour cells expressing folic acid receptors or the acidic tumoral endosomal environment. The prodrug nanoparticles can effectively improve anticancer efficacy due to the features of pH-triggered drug release and targeted delivery...
November 17, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882929/soluble-il-33-receptor-sst2-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-malignant-growth-by-modifying-the-tumour-microenvironment
#9
Miho Akimoto, Riruke Maruyama, Hiroyuki Takamaru, Takahiro Ochiya, Keizo Takenaga
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) was recently shown to be involved in the inflammatory tumour microenvironment and the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We report here that the expression level of sST2, a soluble form of the IL-33 receptor (ST2L), is inversely associated with the malignant growth of CRC. sST2 is downregulated in high-metastatic cells compared with low-metastatic human and mouse CRC cells. Knockdown of sST2 in low-metastatic cells enhances tumour growth, metastasis and tumour angiogenesis, whereas its overexpression in high-metastatic cells suppresses these processes...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876525/il-6-roles-molecular-pathway-and-clinical-implication-in-pancreatic-cancer-a-systemic-review
#10
REVIEW
Vlad-Vasile Pop, Andrada Seicean, Iulia Lupan, Gabriel Samasca, Claudia-Cristina Burz
Pancreatic cancer has attracted a great deal of attention owing to the poor outcome, increasing prevalence in the last years and delay diagnosis. Known as a complex disease, it involves genetic mutations, changes in tumour microenvironment and inflammatory component dominated by interleukin-6 and its activated pathways, like Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Translation3, Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase and Androgen receptor. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a central role in oncogenesis, cancer progression, invasiveness, microenvironment changes, treatment resistance, prognosis and associated co morbidities like cachexia and depression...
November 19, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876461/neutrophil-infiltration-mediated-by-cxcl5-accumulation-in-the-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-microenvironment-a-mechanism-by-which-tumour-cells-escape-immune-surveillance
#11
Duo Zhang, Jian Zhou, Di Tang, Lin Zhou, Liang Chou, Kuang-Yen Chou, Lei Tao, Li-Ming Lu
The CXCL5 chemokine is important for neutrophil accumulation in tumour tissues. In this report, we attempted to clarify whether and how infiltrating tumour-associated neutrophils (TANs) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) affect the proliferation and activation of T cells. We examined chemokine expression by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and performed an immunohistochemical analysis of LSCC microarrays. The relationship between CXCL5 and CD66b (a neutrophil marker) was investigated by immunofluorescence staining...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872688/functional-roles-for-exosomal-micrornas-in-the-tumour-microenvironment
#12
REVIEW
Emma Bell, Molly A Taylor
Extracellular microRNAs are released from cells both passively and actively. The presence of these microRNAs in the tumour microenvironment (TME) can significantly impact on the plasticity of cancer cells leading to the promotion of metastatic and angiogenic processes. These extracellular microRNAs can act not only on other cancer cells, but also cells present in the TME, such as immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and others acting to subvert the host immune system and drive tumour progression. In this review we highlight the current understanding of both the mechanisms by which microRNAs are released from tumour cells and the downstream functional effects that extracellular microRNAs have on recipient cells...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871988/sonoporation-with-acoustic-cluster-therapy-act%C3%A2-induces-transient-tumour-volume-reduction-in-a-subcutaneous-xenograft-model-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#13
Spiros Kotopoulis, Endre Stigen, Mihaela Popa, Mireia Mayoral Safont, Andrew Healey, Svein Kvåle, Per Sontum, Bjørn Tore Gjertsen, Odd Helge Gilja, Emmet McCormack
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the deadliest cancers with survival averaging only 3months if untreated following diagnosis. A major limitation in effectively treating PDAC using conventional and targeted chemotherapeutic agents, is inadequate drug delivery to the target location, predominantly due to a poorly vascularised, desmoplastic tumour microenvironment. Ultrasound in combination with ultrasound contrast agents, i.e., microbubbles, that flow through the vasculature and capillaries can be used to disrupt such mechanical barriers, potentially allowing for a greater therapeutic efficacy...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868139/clinical-genetic-and-innate-immunity-characteristics-of-melanoma-in-organ-transplant-recipients
#14
Anabelle Brocard, Anne-Chantal Knol, Céline Bossard, Marc G Denis, Gaëlle Quéreux, Mélanie Saint-Jean, Lucie Peuvrel, Amir Khammari, Gilles Blancho, Jacques Dantal, Brigitte Dréno
The aims of this study were to determine the clinical and histological characteristics of melanoma in transplant recipients, the mutation profile (BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT genes), and the immune tolerance of the tumour microenvironment by immunohistochemical study of the expression of IDO, PD1, PD-L1, CD8 and FoxP3. The study population comprised patients who had undergone a renal transplant in Nantes University Hospital who developed post-transplantation melanoma. Twenty cases of melanoma out of 4,663 transplant recipients were studied...
November 10, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864114/lipopolysaccharide-promotes-tumorigenicity-of-hepatic-progenitor-cells-by-promoting-proliferation-and-blocking-normal-differentiation
#15
Xiao-Yong Li, Xue Yang, Qiu-Dong Zhao, Zhi-Peng Han, Lei Liang, Xiao-Rong Pan, Jing-Ni Zhu, Rong Li, Meng-Chao Wu, Li-Xin Wei
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are bipotential stem cells that can differentiate into mature hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells (BECs). They are thought to be involved in repair of liver injury and the incidence of hepatic carcinoma. Their physiology is closely associated with the microenvironment where they reside. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an important component of the hepatic pathological microenvironment, is stored in the liver and affects many types of cells in various hepatosis. HPCs may also be influenced by LPS...
November 15, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864070/friend-or-foe-the-tumour-microenvironment-dilemma-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Tommaso Colangelo, Giovanna Polcaro, Livio Muccillo, Giovanna D'Agostino, Valeria Rosato, Pamela Ziccardi, Angelo Lupo, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Lina Sabatino, Vittorio Colantuoni
The network of bidirectional homotypic and heterotypic interactions established among parenchymal tumour cells and surrounding mesenchymal stromal cells generates the tumour microenvironment (TME). These intricate crosstalks elicit both beneficial and adverse effects on tumour initiation and progression unbalancing the signals and responses from the neighbouring cells. Here, we highlight the structure, activities and evolution of TME cells considering a novel colorectal cancer (CRC) classification based on differential stromal composition and gene expression profiles...
November 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853134/near-infrared-uncaging-or-photosensitizing-dictated-by-oxygen-tension
#17
Erin D Anderson, Alexander P Gorka, Martin J Schnermann
Existing strategies that use tissue-penetrant near-infrared light for the targeted treatment of cancer typically rely on the local generation of reactive oxygen species. This approach can be impeded by hypoxia, which frequently occurs in tumour microenvironments. Here we demonstrate that axially unsymmetrical silicon phthalocyanines uncage small molecules preferentially in a low-oxygen environment, while efficiently generating reactive oxygen species in normoxic conditions. Mechanistic studies of the uncaging reaction implicate a photoredox pathway involving photoinduced electron transfer to generate a key radical anion intermediate...
November 17, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852622/resetting-cancer-stem-cell-regulatory-nodes-upon-myc-inhibition
#18
Silvia Galardi, Mauro Savino, Fiorella Scagnoli, Serena Pellegatta, Federica Pisati, Federico Zambelli, Barbara Illi, Daniela Annibali, Sara Beji, Elisa Orecchini, Maria Adele Alberelli, Clara Apicella, Rosaria Anna Fontanella, Alessandro Michienzi, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Maria Giulia Farace, Giulio Pavesi, Silvia Anna Ciafrè, Sergio Nasi
MYC deregulation is common in human cancer and has a role in sustaining the aggressive cancer stem cell populations. MYC mediates a broad transcriptional response controlling normal biological programmes, but its activity is not clearly understood. We address MYC function in cancer stem cells through the inducible expression of Omomyc-a MYC-derived polypeptide interfering with MYC activity-taking as model the most lethal brain tumour, glioblastoma. Omomyc bridles the key cancer stemlike cell features and affects the tumour microenvironment, inhibiting angiogenesis...
December 2016: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834947/tumour-microenvironment-obesity-promotes-prostate-cancer-invasion
#19
Gemma K Alderton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830764/neuroblastoma
#20
Katherine K Matthay, John M Maris, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Akira Nakagawara, Crystal L Mackall, Lisa Diller, William A Weiss
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour occurring in childhood and has a diverse clinical presentation and course depending on the tumour biology. Unique features of these neuroendocrine tumours are the early age of onset, the high frequency of metastatic disease at diagnosis and the tendency for spontaneous regression of tumours in infancy. The most malignant tumours have amplification of the MYCN oncogene (encoding a transcription factor), which is usually associated with poor survival, even in localized disease...
November 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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