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Epigenetics polyphenols

Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) retains a leadership as a major cause of human death worldwide. Although a substantial progress was attained in the development of cardioprotective and vasculoprotective drugs, a search for new efficient therapeutic strategies and promising targets is under way. Modulation of epigenetic CVD mechanisms through administration epigenetically active agents is one of such new approaches. Epigenetic mechanisms involve heritable changes in gene expression that are not linked to the alteration of DNA sequence...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Zoey Harris, Micah G Donovan, Gisele Morais Branco, Kirsten H Limesand, Randy Burd
Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase - a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables, and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Alessandra Ferraresi, Suratchanee Phadngam, Federica Morani, Alessandra Galetto, Oscar Alabiso, Giovanna Chiorino, Ciro Isidoro
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by cancer associated fibroblasts, has been linked to the invasive and metastatic behavior of ovarian cancer cells. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol with the potential to inhibit cancer cell migration. Here we show that Resveratrol and IL-6 affect in an opposite manner the expression of RNA messengers and of microRNAs involved in cell locomotion and extracellular matrix remodeling associated with the invasive properties of ovarian cancer cells...
October 27, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Fiorella Casamenti, Massimo Stefani
Clinical trials and population studies indicate the healthy virtues of the Mediterranean diet and its main lipid component, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Olive leaves and EVOO contain many phenolics effective against several aging and lifestyle-related diseases, including neurodegeneration, both in animal models and in humans. Recent research has shown that such protection stems from several effects, including (i.) the interference with the aggregation of peptides/proteins found in amyloid diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases; (ii...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Zhiying Huang, Qiuju Huang, Liyan Ji, Ying Wang, Xiaoxiao Qi, Liang Liu, Zhongqiu Liu, Linlin Lu
Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modification, and other patterns. These processes are associated with carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Thus, epigenetic modification-related enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), histone demethylases (HDMTs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), and histone deacetylases (HDACs), as well as some related proteins, including methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBPs) and DNMT1-associated protein (DMAP 1), are considered as potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Inhae Kang, Teresa Buckner, Neil F Shay, Liwei Gu, Soonkyu Chung
Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and nuts, including berries, pomegranates, grapes, and walnuts. EA has been investigated extensively because of its antiproliferative action in some cancers, along with its anti-inflammatory effects. A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of EA is effective in attenuating obesity and ameliorating obesity-mediated metabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Consuelo Arias, Tomás Zambrano, Dulcineia S P Abdalla, Luis A Salazar
The hyaline cartilage is an avascular, aneural and alymphatic tissue with a limited ability to repair itself. When the cartilage is exposed to some kind of injury, it usually triggers osteoarthritis (OA), a prevalent and degenerative joint disease closely related to aging. OA is both complex and multifactorial, and is the most common form of arthritis, being positioned as a major cause of pain and dysfunction in the world. In addition, high OA prevalence can greatly affect work capacity, making this disease a significant social problem, therefore, its prevention and treatment becomes a priority...
July 20, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Yuanyuan Li, Phillip Buckhaults, Xiangqin Cui, Trygve O Tollefsbol
AIM: Aberrant epigenetic events are important contributors to the pathogenesis of different types of cancers and dietary botanicals with epigenetic properties can influence early cancer development leading to cancer prevention effects. We sought to investigate potential combinatorial effects of bioactive dietary components including green tea polyphenols (GTPs) and broccoli sprouts (BSp) on neutralizing epigenetic aberrations during breast tumorigenesis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The combinatorial effects were evaluated in a breast cancer transformation cellular system and breast cancer mouse xenografts...
August 2016: Epigenomics
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Fahimeh Shahabipour, Sepideh Khatibi, Thomas P Johnston, Matteo Pirro, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin is a natural dietary polyphenol for which anti-tumor effects have been documented. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of curcumin, along with its immunomodulatory, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic properties, are often referred to as the main mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects. At the molecular level, inhibition of NF-kB, Akt/PI3K, and MAPK pathways and enhancement of p53 are among the most important anticancer alterations induced by curcumin. Recent evidence has suggested that epigenetic alterations are also involved in the anti-tumor properties of curcumin...
July 23, 2016: Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology
Martyna Wojtala, Luciano Pirola, Aneta Balcerczyk
Rather than being a passive barrier between circulating blood and smooth muscle cells and the underlying tissues, the endothelium is a fundamental functional component of the vasculature, and could be viewed as the largest human endocrine gland/organ, secreting multiple pro-/antiangiogenic factors, cytokines and low-molecular-weight mediators controlling the vascular tone. The location of endothelium, at the interface between the circulation and the tissues, makes this epithelial layer particularly exposed to physical and chemical cues coming from the bloodstream...
June 29, 2016: BioFactors
Mary S Lopez, Robert J Dempsey, Raghu Vemuganti
The health benefits of the plant-derived polyphenol resveratrol were established in multiple disease systems. Notably, pre-treatment with resveratrol was shown to be neuroprotective in several models of cerebral ischemia. Mechanisms of resveratrol-mediated neuroprotection have been explored in the context of canonical resveratrol targets, but epigenetic and non-coding RNA processes have not yet been evaluated. Resveratrol was shown to alter microRNAs in cancer and cardiac ischemia. Previous studies also showed that ischemic preconditioning that induces ischemic tolerance significantly alters cerebral microRNA levels, particularly those that target neuroprotective pathways...
September 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Yuting Liu, Yunli Tong, Xia Yang, Fangyuan Li, Liang Zheng, Wenqin Liu, Jinjun Wu, Rilan Ou, Guiyu Zhang, Ming Hu, Zhongqiu Liu, Linlin Lu
Histone modifications play critical roles in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for almost 85% of all diagnosed lung cancers. Magnolol and polyphenol mixture (PM) derived from Magnolia officinalis exhibited remarkable antitumor activities in lung cancer. However, the epigenetic effects and molecular mechanisms of magnolol and PM in NSCLC have yet to be reported. In this study, the epigenetic effects of magnolol and PM in NSCLC were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results revealed that magnolol and PM significantly suppressed the expression levels and function of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs)...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Giuseppe Derosa, Pamela Maffioli, Maciej Banach, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin is a bioactive polyphenol occurring in the rhizomes of Curcuma longa. It is well-reputed for its chemopreventive and anticancer properties; however, recent evidence has revealed numerous biological and pharmacological effects of curcumin that are relevant to the treatment of non-cancer diseases. Mechanistically, curcumin exerts its pharmacological effects through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms via interaction with different signaling molecules and transcription factors. In addition, epigenetic modulators such as microRNAs (miRs) have emerged as novel targets of curcumin...
August 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Jay Morris, Vondina R Moseley, April B Cabang, Katie Coleman, Wei Wei, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Michael J Wargovich
Silencing of regulatory genes through hypermethylation of CpG islands is an important mechanism in tumorigenesis. In colon cancer, RXRα, an important dimerization partner with other nuclear transcription factors, is silenced through this mechanism. We previously found that colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice had diminished levels of RXRα protein and expression levels of this gene were restored by treatment with a green tea intervention, due to reduced promoter methylation of RXRα. We hypothesized that CIMP+ cell lines, which epigenetically silence key regulatory genes would also evidence silencing of RXRα and EGCG treatment would restore its expression...
June 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Alessandra Bosutti, Fabrizio Zanconati, Gabriele Grassi, Barbara Dapas, Sabina Passamonti, Bruna Scaggiante
The control of cancer onset and progression is recognized to benefit from specific molecular targeting. MiRNAs are increasingly being implicated in prostate cancer, and the evidence suggests they are possible targets for molecular therapy and diagnosis. In cancer cells, growing attention has been dedicated to novel molecular mechanisms linking the epigenetic scenario to miRNA dysregulation. Currently, the rising evidence shows that nutritional and natural agents, the so-called nutraceuticals, could modulate miRNAs expression, and, as a consequence, might influence cellular responses in health or diseases conditions, including cancer...
April 24, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
F Martel, M Guedes, E Keating
One of the cancer molecular hallmarks is a deviant energetic metabolism, known as the Warburg effect, whereby the rate of glucose uptake is significantly increased and a high rate of glycolysis and lactic acid production occurs even when oxygen is present-"aerobic lactatogenesis". Accordingly, GLUT1 and MCT1, which are the main glucose and lactate transporters in cancer cells, respectively, have been proposed as oncogenes and are currently seen as potential therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Polyphenols, commonly contained in fruits and vegetables, have long been associated with a protective role against cancer...
May 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Yu-Chao Chang, Cheng-Wei Lin, Cheng-Chia Yu, Bing-Yen Wang, Yu-Hao Huang, Yang-Chih Hsieh, Yu-Liang Kuo, Wen-Wei Chang
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition of the oral mucosa without specific therapeutic drugs. We previously demonstrated that the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) plays a pathogenic role in the induction of the myofibroblast activity of buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) and contributes to the pathogenesis of OSF. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid with anti-fibrosis activity in various tissues and has the capability to inhibit ZEB1 in oral cancer cells. We examined the effect of resveratrol on the myofibroblast activity of human primary fibrotic BMFs (fBMFs) derived from OSF tissues...
March 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Jennifer L Jacobi, Bo Yang, Xu Li, Anna K Menze, Sara M Laurentz, Elsa M Janle, Mario G Ferruzzi, George P McCabe, Clint Chapple, Ann L Kirchmaier
The plant secondary metabolite and common food additive dihydrocoumarin (DHC) is an inhibitor of the Sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases. Sirtuins are key regulators of epigenetic processes that maintain silent chromatin in yeast and have been linked to gene expression, metabolism, apoptosis, tumorogenesis and age-related processes in multiple organisms, including humans. Here we report that exposure to the polyphenol DHC led to defects in several Sirtuin-regulated processes in budding yeast including the establishment and maintenance of Sir2p-dependent silencing by causing disassembly of silent chromatin, Hst1p-dependent repression of meiotic-specific genes during the mitotic cell cycle...
2016: PloS One
Dandan Liu, Jordan T Perkins, Bernhard Hennig
Anti-inflammatory polyphenols, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have been shown to protect against the toxicity of environmental pollutants. It is well known that bioactive food compounds such as polyphenols may exert their protection by modulating inflammatory pathways regulated through nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling. EGCG has been reported to inhibit NF-κB activation. We hypothesize that EGCG can protect against polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced endothelial inflammation in part through epigenetic regulation of NF-κB-regulated inflammatory genes...
February 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Dona Sinha, Nivedita Sarkar, Jaydip Biswas, Anupam Bishayee
Globally, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women. The major unresolved problems with metastatic breast cancer is recurrence after receiving objective response to chemotherapy, drug-induced side effects of first line chemotherapy and delayed response to second line of treatment. Unfortunately, very few options are available as third line treatment. It is clear that under such circumstances there is an urgent need for new and effective drugs. Phytochemicals are among the most promising chemopreventive treatment options for the management of cancer...
January 13, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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