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pre-anesthetic evaluation

Torben Esser, Gerburg Keilhoff, Uwe Ebmeyer
OBJECTIVE: Our asphyxia cardiac arrest (ACA) rat model is well established. The original model was designed in the 1990(th) using halothane and nitrous oxide for pre-insult anesthesia. Because of its hepato-toxicity and its potential to induce severe liver failures, halothane is no longer used in clinical anesthesia for several years. In order to minimize the health risk for our laboratory staff as well as to keep the experimental settings of our model on a clinically oriented basis we decided to replace halothane by sevoflurane...
October 7, 2016: Brain Research
Hannah L Radabaugh, Lauren J Carlson, Darik A O'Neil, Megan J LaPorte, Christina M Monaco, Jeffrey P Cheng, Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Naima Lajud, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Environmental enrichment (EE) promotes behavioral recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the chronic rehabilitation provided in the laboratory is not analogous to the clinic where physiotherapy is typically limited. Moreover, females make up approximately 40% of the clinical TBI population, yet they are seldom studied in brain trauma. Hence, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that abbreviated EE would confer neurobehavioral, cognitive, and histological benefits in brain injured female rats...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Siamak Salavatian, Eric Beaumont, Jean-Philippe Longpré, John Andrew Armour, Alain Vinet, Vincent Jacquemet, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal nerve stimulation (MNS) reproducibly evokes atrial fibrillation (AF) by excessive and heterogeneous activation of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons. This study evaluated whether pre-emptive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) impacts MNS-induced evoked changes in IC neural network activity to thereby alter susceptibility to AF. METHODS: IC neuronal activity in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was directly recorded in anesthetized canines (n=8) using a linear microelectrode array concomitant with right atrial electrical activity in response to: 1) epicardial touch or great vessel occlusion vs (2) stellate or vagal stimulation...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Sung-Eun Kim, Il-Gyu Ko, Chang-Ju Kim, Jun-Young Chung, Jae-Woo Yi, Jeong-Hyun Choi, Myung-Soo Jang, Jin-Hee Han
Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a selective α2 adrenergic agonist, is an anesthetic and sedative agent, and is reported to exert neuroprotective effects after hypoxic ischemia. However, there are few studies on the electrophysiological effect of DEX in hippocampal slices under ischemic conditions. The effects of DEX on field potential in hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were evaluated. Hippocampal slices were prepared from rats, and the evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded using the MED 64 system...
September 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Lígia N M Ribeiro, Michelle Franz-Montan, Márcia C Breitkreitz, Ana C S Alcântara, Simone R Castro, Viviane A Guilherme, Raquel M Barbosa, Eneida de Paula
In dental practice, local anesthesia causes pain, fear, and stress, and is frequently the reason that patients abandon treatment. Topical anesthetics are applied in order to minimize the discomfort caused by needle insertion and injection, and to reduce the symptoms of superficial trauma at the oral mucosa, but there are still no efficient commercially available formulations. Factorial design is a multivariate data analysis procedure that can be used to optimize the manufacturing processes of lipid nanocarriers, providing valuable information and minimizing development time...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Supinya Tiviraj, Bencharatana Yokubol, Somchai Amornyotin
OBJECTIVE: The study is aimed to develop and assess the quality of an evaluation form used to evaluate the nurse anesthetic trainees' skills in undertaking a pre-use check of an anesthetic machine. MATERIAL AND METHOD: An evaluation form comprising 25 items was developed, informed by the guidelines published by national anesthesiologist societies and refined to reflect the anesthetic machine used in our institution. The item-checking included the cylinder supplies and medical gas pipelines, vaporizer back bar, ventilator anesthetic breathing system, scavenging system and emergency back-up equipment...
May 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Somchai Amornyotin, Sukanya Jirachaipitak, Surasawadee Wangnamtip
BACKGROUND: Esophageal stent placement is a minimally invasive procedure for treatment of esophageal strictures that cannot be treated with surgical procedure. It requires some forms of anesthesia. This procedure could be performed in the operating room and in the endoscopy unit. OBJECTIVE: The study is aimed to report and evaluate the choices and techniques, drugs used and complications of anesthesia in the patients undergoing esophageal stent placement procedure in an endoscopy unit outside the operating room in a developing country...
May 2016: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Andreas Polycarpou, László Hricisák, András Iring, Daniel Safar, Éva Ruisanchez, Béla Horváth, Péter Sándor, Zoltán Benyó
Cerebral circulation is secured by feed-forward and feed-back control pathways to maintain and eventually reestablish the optimal oxygen and nutrient supply of neurons in case of disturbances of the cardiovascular system. Using the high temporal and spatial resolution of laser-speckle imaging we aimed to analyze the pattern of cerebrocortical blood flow (CoBF) changes after unilateral (left) carotid artery occlusion (CAO) in anesthetized mice to evaluate the contribution of macrovascular (circle of Willis) vs...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
L Michael Kershen, Nicholas C Nacey, James T Patrie, Michael G Fox
PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy and short-term efficacy of fluoroscopy-guided steroid/anesthetic injections for symptomatic pars interarticularis (pars) defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following IRB approval, all fluoroscopically guided pars injections from a single institution (6/2010 to 3/2016) were retrospectively and independently reviewed by two MSK radiologists. The radiologists evaluated the fluoroscopic images to determine if all of the pars injections associated with each procedure were intra-pars (n = 57 procedures; 106 pars injections), peri-pars (n = 3 procedures; three pars injected), or a combination of intra-pars and peri-pars (n = 6 procedures; 12 pars injected)...
October 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Shoko Nakano, Junko Nakahira, Toshiyuki Sawai, Yosuke Kuzukawa, Junichi Ishio, Toshiaki Minami
BACKGROUND: Intravascular fluid shifts, mechanical ventilation and inhalational anesthetic drugs may contribute to intraoperative lung injury. This prospective observational study measured the changes in respiratory impedance resulting from inhalational anesthesia and mechanical ventilation in adults undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumors. The components of respiratory impedance (resistance and reactance) were measured using the forced oscillation technique (FOT). METHODS: Respiratory resistance at 5 Hz (R5) and 20 Hz (R20), respiratory reactance at 5 Hz (X5), resonant frequency (Fres) and area of low reactance (ALX) were measured before and immediately after surgery in 30 adults...
2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Ilker Coven, Ezher H Dayısoylu
BACKGROUND: The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) may be involved in persistent idiopathic facial pain and unilateral headaches. The role of SPG blockade via intra oral route in the management of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is worthy of study. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patient records included patients with atypical TN (type 2) that persisted in spite of conservative treatment for at least 2 years, and an average pain intensity from the craniofacial region visual analogue scale (VAS) before examination...
2016: SpringerPlus
Tokihiro Yamamoto, Michael S Kent, Erik R Wisner, Lynelle R Johnson, Joshua A Stern, Lihong Qi, Yukio Fujita, John M Boone
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) that selectively avoids irradiating highly functional lung regions may reduce pulmonary toxicity, which is substantial in lung cancer RT. Single-energy computed tomography (CT) pulmonary perfusion imaging has several advantages (e.g., higher resolution) over other modalities and has great potential for widespread clinical implementation, particularly in RT. The purpose of this study was to establish proof-of-principle for single-energy CT perfusion imaging. METHODS: Single-energy CT perfusion imaging is based on the following: (1) acquisition of end-inspiratory breath-hold CT scans before and after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agents, (2) deformable image registration (DIR) for spatial mapping of those two CT image data sets, and (3) subtraction of the precontrast image data set from the postcontrast image data set, yielding a map of regional Hounsfield unit (HU) enhancement, a surrogate for regional perfusion...
July 2016: Medical Physics
Nynke S van den Berg, Tessa Buckle, Gijs H KleinJan, Henk G van der Poel, Fijs W B van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: During (robot-assisted) sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedures, intraoperative fluorescence imaging can be used to enhance radioguided SN excision. For this combined pre- and intraoperative SN identification was realized using the hybrid SN tracer, indocyanine green-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid. Combining this dedicated SN tracer with a lymphangiographic tracer such as fluorescein may further enhance the accuracy of SN biopsy. OBJECTIVE: Clinical evaluation of a multispectral fluorescence guided surgery approach using the dedicated SN tracer ICG(99m)Tc-nanocolloid, the lymphangiographic tracer fluorescein, and a commercially available fluorescence laparoscope...
June 23, 2016: European Urology
Diego Sarotti, Roberto Rabozzi, Paolo Franci
The aim of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to compare the total number of anesthetic interventions (TNAI) performed by the anesthetist to treat cardiovascular depression or arousal/movement episodes in dogs receiving intrathecal and general anesthesia (GA), maintained using propofol-based TIVA (group P) or isoflurane (group I). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) before (T0) and 12 min after intrathecal anesthesia (T1) and intraoperative vasoactive consumption were also compared. The TNAI to deepen the anesthetic plane or to treat hemodynamic depression in the pre-surgical and intra-surgical period was calculated in forty-two client-owned dogs randomly assigned to group P or I...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
R Wolf, E Morinello, G Kestler, B Käsmann-Kellner, M Bischoff, T Hager, J Schöpe, L H J Eberhart
BACKGROUND: Following strabismus surgery, patients frequently develop variable degrees of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). These symptoms cause discomfort and result in serious complications such as intramuscular bleeding and subconjunctival hemorrhage. In children long lasting PONV can lead to and electrolyte imbalance and dehydration. A prolonged course of recovery is the consequence. For the hospital, PONV can also involve negative economic impacts because of a damaged public reputation of the institution...
July 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Valerie Plant, Ashley Limkemann, Loren Liebrecht, Charles Blocher, Paula Ferrada, Michel Aboutanos, Martin J Mangino
INTRODUCTION: Polyethylene glycol-20k (PEG-20k) is highly effective for low volume resuscitation (LVR) by increasing tolerance to the low volume state. In our rodent shock model, PEG-20k increased survival and expanded the "golden hour" 16-fold compared to saline. The molecular mechanism is largely attributed to normalizations in cell and tissue fluid shifts after low flow ischemia resulting in efficient microvascular exchange. The objective of this study was to evaluate PEG-20k as a low volume resuscitation solution for hemorrhagic shock in a pre-clinical model...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
I Yildiz, H Bayır, I Saglam, M Sereflican, M Bilgi, V Yurttas, A Demirhan, U Y Tekelioglu, H Kocoglu
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the effects of desflurane 6%, on olfactory memory. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective clinical study performed with 40 patients aged 18-60 who had elective surgery and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-III. The Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was used for evaluating patients' olfactory memories before and after the surgery. Patients received standard general anesthesia protocol and routine monitoring...
May 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jin Joo, Hyunjung Koh, Kusang Lee, Jaemin Lee
Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) during surgery is a risk factor for postoperative ophthalmological complications. We assessed the efficacy of systemically infused dexmedetomidine in preventing the increase in IOP caused by a steep Trendelenburg position, and evaluated the influence of underlying hypertension on IOP during surgery. Sixty patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery in a steep Trendelenburg position were included. Patients in the dexmedetomidine group received a 1.0 µg/kg IV loading dose of dexmedetomidine before anesthesia, followed by an infusion of 0...
June 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Stanley Antolak, Christopher Antolak, Lisa Lendway
BACKGROUND: Pudendal neuropathy is a tunnel syndrome characterized by pelvic pain and may include bowel, bladder, or sexual dysfunction or a combination of these. One treatment method, pudendal nerve perineural injections (PNPIs), uses infiltration of bupivacaine and corticosteroid around the nerve to provide symptom relief. Bupivacaine also anesthetizes the skin in the receptive field of the nerve that is injected. Bupivacaine offers rapid pain relief for several hours while corticosteroid provides delayed pain control often lasting 3 to 5 weeks...
May 2016: Pain Physician
Vitaliy Marchenko, Hidehiko Koizumi, Bryan Mosher, Naohiro Koshiya, Mohammad F Tariq, Tatiana G Bezdudnaya, Ruli Zhang, Yaroslav I Molkov, Ilya A Rybak, Jeffrey C Smith
The pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) and Bötzinger (BötC) complexes are the brainstem compartments containing interneurons considered to be critically involved in generating respiratory rhythm and motor pattern in mammals. Current models postulate that both generation of the rhythm and coordination of the inspiratory-expiratory pattern involve inhibitory synaptic interactions within and between these regions. Both regions contain glycinergic and GABAergic neurons, and rhythmically active neurons in these regions receive appropriately coordinated phasic inhibition necessary for generation of the normal three-phase respiratory pattern...
March 2016: ENeuro
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