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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671258/atrial-overexpression-of-microrna-27b-attenuates-angiotensin-ii-induced-atrial-fibrosis-and-fibrillation-by-targeting-alk5
#1
Yanshan Wang, Heng Cai, Hongmei Li, Zhisheng Gao, Kunqing Song
Atrial fibrosis influences atrial fibrillation (AF) development by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)/Smad pathway. Although microRNAs are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, information regarding the functional role of microRNAs in atrial dysfunction is limited. In the present study, we found that microRNA-27b (miR-27b) was the dominant member of miR-27 family expressed in left atrium. Moreover, the expression of miR-27b was significantly reduced after angiotensin II (AngII) infusion...
April 18, 2018: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627157/tgfb1-modulates-in-vitro-secretory-activity-and-viability-of-equine-luteal-cells
#2
António Galvão, Karolina Wolodko, Maria Rosa Rebordão, Dariusz Skarzynski, Graça Ferreira-Dias
In the present report we describe the involvement of transforming growth factor B1 (TGF) in functional regression and structural luteolysis in the mare. Firstly, TGF and its receptors activin-like kinase (ALK) 5 and TGF receptor 2 were identified in corpus luteum (CL) steroidogenic, endothelial and fibroblast-like cells. Also, TGF and ALK5 protein expression were shown to be increased in Mid-, and Late-CL (p < 0.05). Subsequently, using an in vitro model with Mid-CL cells, we studied the role of TGF on secretory activity and cell viability...
April 4, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587293/effects-of-mir-375-bmpr2-as-a-key-factor-downstream-of-bmp15-gdf9-on-the-smad1-5-8-and-smad2-3-signaling-pathways
#3
Chang Liu, Bao Yuan, Hongyan Chen, Mingqiang Xu, Xulei Sun, JiaJun Xu, Yan Gao, Chengzhen Chen, Hao Jiang, Jiabao Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), which are secreted by oocytes, are important regulators of follicular growth and development and ovarian function. These two factors can regulate the proliferation and apoptosis of cumulus cells via modulation of the Smad signaling pathway. Studies have shown that BMP15 and GDF9 can affect the level of miR-375, whereas the target gene of miR-375 is BMPR2, the type II receptor of BMP15 and GDF9...
March 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515105/galunisertib-suppresses-the-staminal-phenotype-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-modulating-cd44-expression
#4
Bhavna Rani, Andrea Malfettone, Francesco Dituri, Jitka Soukupova, Luigi Lupo, Serena Mancarella, Isabel Fabregat, Gianluigi Giannelli
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) niche in the tumor microenvironment is responsible for cancer recurrence and therapy failure. To better understand its molecular and biological involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, one can design more effective therapies and tailored then to individual patients. While sorafenib is currently the only approved drug for first-line treatment of advanced stage HCC, its role in modulating the CSC niche is estimated to be small. By contrast, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β pathway seems to influence the CSC and thus may impact hallmarks of HCC, such as liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and tumor progression...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514186/cc-401-promotes-%C3%AE-cell-replication-via-pleiotropic-consequences-of-dyrk1a-b-inhibition
#5
Yassan Abdolazimi, Sooyeon Lee, Haixia Xu, Paul Allegretti, Timothy M Horton, Benjamin Yeh, Hannah P Moeller, Robert J Nichols, David McCutcheon, Aryaman Shalizi, Mark Smith, Neali A Armstrong, Justin P Annes
Pharmacologic expansion of endogenous β-cells is a promising therapeutic strategy for diabetes. To elucidate the molecular pathways that control β-cell growth we screened ∼2,400 bioactive compounds for rat β-cell replication-modulating activity. Numerous hit compounds impaired or promoted rat β-cell replication, including CC-401, an advanced clinical candidate previously characterized as a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor. Surprisingly, CC-401 induced rodent (in vitro and in vivo) and human (in vitro) β-cell replication via dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRK1A/B) inhibition...
March 5, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506626/tgf%C3%AE-1-mediated-expression-and-alternative-splicing-of-fibronectin-extra-domain-a-in-human-podocyte-culture
#6
Tarunkumar Hemraj Madne, Mark Edward Carl Dockrell
Alternative splicing is a fundamental phenomenon to build protein diversity in health and diseases. Extra Domain A+ Fibronectin (EDA+Fn) is an alternatively spliced form of fibronectin protein present in the extra cellular matrix (ECM) in renal fibrosis. Podocytes are spectacular cell type and play a key role in filtration and synthesise ECM proteins in renal physiology and pathology. TGFβ1 is a strong stimulator of ECM proteins in renal injury. In this study, we have investigated alternative splicing of EDA+ Fn in human podocytes in response to TGFβ1...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499695/mekk1-jnk-and-smad3-mediate-cxcl12-stimulated-connective-tissue-growth-factor-expression-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#7
Chien-Huang Lin, Chung-Huang Shih, Yu-Chang Lin, You-Lan Yang, Bing-Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, the interaction of CXCL12 and CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) plays a critical role in lung fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) overexpression underlies the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Our previous report showed that the Rac1-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and activator protein (AP)-1 pathways are involved in CXCL12-generated CTGF expression in human lung fibroblasts (WI-38)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462303/snail-mediates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-down-regulation-of-pentraxin-3-expression-in-human-granulosa-cells
#8
Hui Li, Hsun-Ming Chang, Zhendan Shi, Peter C K Leung
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a critical role in regulating follicular development and its dysregulation has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of ovulation dysfunction. SNAIL is a well-known transcriptional repressor that mediates TGF-β1-induced cellular functions. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a key enzyme for the assembly and stabilization of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix, which is essential for cumulus expansion during the periovulatory stage. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles of TGF-β1 and SNAIL in the regulation of PTX3 expression and to examine the underlying mechanism...
February 16, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456135/pericyte-alk5-timp3-axis-contributes-to-endothelial-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-brain
#9
Jui M Dave, Teodelinda Mirabella, Scott D Weatherbee, Daniel M Greif
The murine embryonic blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes (PCs), and basement membrane. Although PCs are critical for inducing vascular stability, signaling pathways in PCs that regulate EC morphogenesis during BBB development remain unexplored. Herein, we find that murine embryos lacking the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor activin receptor-like kinase 5 (Alk5) in brain PCs (mutants) develop gross germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH)...
February 8, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416020/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-promotes-human-trophoblast-cell-invasion-by-upregulating-n-cadherin-via-non-canonical-smad2-3-signaling
#10
Hong-Jin Zhao, Christian Klausen, Yan Li, Hua Zhu, Yan-Ling Wang, Peter C K Leung
BMP2 expression is spatiotemporally correlated with embryo implantation and is crucial for endometrial decidualization and fertility in mice. BMP2 has been reported to increase the mesenchymal adhesion molecule N-cadherin and enhance cell invasion in cancer cells; moreover, studies suggest that N-cadherin promotes placental trophoblast invasion. However, whether BMP2 can promote trophoblast cell invasion during placentation remains unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BMP2 on human trophoblast cell invasion and the involvement of N-cadherin and SMAD signaling...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405089/correction-to-cassidy-et-al-disposition-and-metabolism-of-14c-galunisertib-a-tgf-bri-kinase-alk5-inhibitor-following-oral-administration-in-healthy-subjects-and-mechanistic-prediction-of-the-effect-of-itraconazole-on-galunisertib-pharmacokinetics
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279601/isolation-and-culture-of-primary-mouse-retinal-pigment-epithelial-rpe-cells-with-rho-kinase-and-tgf%C3%AE-r-1-alk5-inhibitor
#12
Junhui Shen, Jianfeng He, Fang Wang
BACKGROUND Primary RPE cells could be a reliable model for representing in vivo status of RPE compared with cell lines. We present a protocol for in vitro isolation and culture of primary RPE cells from C57BL mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used C57BL mice ages 7 days to 4 months. The RPE layer was separated from the neural retina layer by digestion with 2% Dispase for 45 min and scraped off from the choroid after 25-min incubation in 37°C. Collected RPE sheets were gently pipetted up into smaller sheets. RPE sheets were transferred into well plates and cultured in vitro for 2 weeks...
December 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261154/the-role-of-par2-in-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-erk-activation-and-cell-motility
#13
Hendrik Ungefroren, David Witte, Christian Fiedler, Thomas Gädeken, Roland Kaufmann, Hendrik Lehnert, Frank Gieseler, Bernhard H Rauch
BACKGROUND: Recently, the expression of proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been shown to be essential for activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5)/SMAD-mediated signaling and cell migration by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. However, it is not known whether activation of non-SMAD TGF-β signaling (e.g., RAS-RAF-MEK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling) is required for cell migration and whether it is also dependent on PAR2. METHODS: RNA interference was used to deplete cells of PAR2, followed by xCELLigence technology to measure cell migration, phospho-immunoblotting to assess ERK1/2 activation, and co-immunoprecipitation to detect a PAR2-ALK5 physical interaction...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235674/loss-of-cyld-promotes-cell-invasion-via-alk5-stabilization-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Satoru Shinriki, Hirofumi Jono, Manabu Maeshiro, Takuya Nakamura, Jianying Guo, Jian-Dong Li, Mitsuharu Ueda, Ryoji Yoshida, Masanori Shinohara, Hideki Nakayama, Hirotaka Matsui, Yukio Ando
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a very poor prognosis because of its highly invasive nature, and the 5-year survival rate has not changed appreciably for the past 30 years. Although cylindromatosis (CYLD), a deubiquitinating enzyme, is thought to be a potent tumour suppressor, its biological and clinical significance in OSCC is largely unknown. This study aimed to clarify the roles of CYLD in OSCC progression. Our immunohistochemical analyses revealed significantly reduced CYLD expression in invasive areas in OSCC tissues, whereas CYLD expression was conserved in normal epithelium and carcinoma in situ...
March 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229918/negative-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-mkk6-p38-and-mek-erk-signalling-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-rac1b
#15
David Witte, Hannah Otterbein, Maria Förster, Klaudia Giehl, Robert Zeiser, Hendrik Lehnert, Hendrik Ungefroren
Prompted by earlier findings that the Rac1-related isoform Rac1b inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced canonical Smad signalling, we studied here whether Rac1b also impacts TGF-β1-dependent non-Smad signalling such as the MKK6-p38 and MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Transient depletion of Rac1b protein in pancreatic cancer cells by RNA interference increased the extent and duration of TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in a Smad4-independent manner...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191563/tgf-%C3%AE-1-p53-signaling-in-renal-fibrogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Stephen P Higgins, Yi Tang, Craig E Higgins, Badar Mian, Wenzheng Zhang, Ralf-Peter Czekay, Rohan Samarakoon, David J Conti, Paul J Higgins
Fibrotic disorders of the renal, pulmonary, cardiac, and hepatic systems are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective therapies to prevent or curtail the advancement to organ failure, however, remain a major clinical challenge. Chronic kidney disease, in particular, constitutes an increasing medical burden affecting >15% of the US population. Regardless of etiology (diabetes, hypertension, ischemia, acute injury, urologic obstruction), persistently elevated TGF-β1 levels are causatively linked to the activation of profibrotic signaling networks and disease progression...
March 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190781/roles-of-cd34-cells-and-alk5-signaling-in-the-reconstruction-of-seminiferous-tubule-like-structures-in-3-d-re-aggregate-culture-of-dissociated-cells-from-neonatal-mouse-testes
#17
Shin-Ichi Abe, Kazuko Abe, Jidong Zhang, Tomoaki Harada, Go Mizumoto, Hiroki Oshikawa, Haruhiko Akiyama, Kenji Shimamura
Tissue reconstruction in vitro can provide, if successful, a refined and simple system to analyze the underlying mechanisms that drive the morphogenesis and maintain the ordered structure. We have recently succeeded in reconstruction of seminiferous cord-like and tubule-like structures using 3-D re-aggregate culture of dissociated testicular cells. In testis formation, endothelial cells that migrated from mesonephroi to embryonic gonads have been shown to be critical for development of testis cords, but how endothelial cells contribute to testis cord formation remains unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113082/tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-pathway-mediates-t-2-toxin-induced-decrease-of-type-ii-collagen-in-cultured-rat-chondrocytes
#18
Yang Li, Ning Zou, Jing Wang, Ke-Wei Wang, Fu-Yuan Li, Fu-Xun Chen, Bing-Yu Sun, Dian-Jun Sun
T-2 toxin can cause damage to the articular cartilage, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. By employing the culture of rat chondrocytes, we investigated the effect of the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway on the damage to chondrocytes induced by T-2 toxin. It was found that T-2 toxin could reduce cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic cells when compared with the control group. After the addition of the T-2 toxin, the production of type II collagen was reduced at mRNA and protein levels, while the levels of TGF-β1, Smad3, ALK5, and MMP13 were upregulated...
November 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064324/2d-qsar-study-molecular-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation-studies-of-interaction-mechanism-between-inhibitors-and-transforming-growth-factor-beta-receptori-alk5
#19
Meng-Nan Jiang, Xiao-Ping Zhou, Dong-Ru Sun, Huan Gao, Qing-Chuan Zheng, Hong-Xing Zhang, Di Liang
Transforming growth factor type 1 receptor (ALK5) is kinase associated with a wide variety of pathological processes, and inhibition of ALK5 is a good strategy to treat many kinds of cancer and fibrotic diseases. Recently a series of compounds have been synthesized as ALK5 inhibitors. However, the study of their selectivity against other potential targets remains elusive. In this research, adataset of ALK5 inhibitors were collected and studied based on the combination of 2D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969055/mir-338-3p-inhibits-the-invasion-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-downregulation-of-alk5
#20
Xiaoqian Zhang, Chunxia Wang, Hui Li, Xiaobin Niu, Xinwei Liu, Dongxu Pei, Xiaolan Guo, Xiaona Xu, Yongwei Li
BACKGROUND: The current study aims to elucidate the role of miRNA-338-3p (miR-338-3p) in the invasion of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-338-3p in human RCC cell lines with high metastatic potential (Caki-1) and low metastatic potential (786-O), respectively. The Caki-1 and 786-O cells were transfected with miR-338-3p mimic or inhibitor. Wound healing assay, Transwell assay and western blotting were performed to analyze the invasive ability and expression of activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) in the RCC cell lines...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
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