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Coagulation pathways

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133761/reduction-on-off-responses-of-electroretinogram-in-monkeys-with-long-term-high-intraocular-pressure
#1
Ke-Gao Liu, Xiao-Yan Peng, Zheng Zhang, Hua Sun, Di-Ya Yang, Ning-Li Wang
BACKGROUND: There are ON- and OFF-pathways in the normal vertebrate retina. Short- and long-flash electroretinogram (ERG) are suitable methods to observe the function of ON- and OFF-pathways in vivo, respectively. It is clear that high intraocular pressure (IOP) might cause dysfunction of cone-dominated photopic negative response (PhNR) in monkeys with high IOP in ON-pathway. However, whether cone-dominated OFF-responses are also affected is less known. The aim of this study was to observe photopic OFF-responses of ERG in monkeys with high IOP...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131431/synthesis-of-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-glycoclusters-a-robust-route-to-novel-anticoagulant-agents
#2
Xiao Zhang, Wang Yao, Xiaojiang Xu, Huifang Sun, Jinhua Zhao, Xiangbao Meng, Mingyi Wu, Zhongjun Li
Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS) is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan with excellent anticoagulant activity. Studies show that FuCS and its depolymerized fragments exhibit different anticoagulant mechanism from heparin derivatives, with decreased risks of adverse effects and bleeding. However, further exploitation has been hindered by the scarcity of structurally defined oligosaccharides. Herein we report a facile method to synthesize the repeating trisaccharide unit of FuCS based on the degradation of chondroitin sulfate polymers...
November 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126301/coagulation-testing-in-the-core-laboratory
#3
William E Winter, Sherri D Flax, Neil S Harris
Primary hemostasis begins with endothelial injury. VWF, produced by endothelial cells, binds to platelets and links them to subendothelial collagen. Platelet-derived ADP and thromboxane activate non-adhered platelets via their GPIIb/IIIa receptors, allowing these platelets to participate in platelet aggregation. Secondary hemostasis is initiated with the binding of factor VII to extravascular tissue factor (TF). Factors II, VII, IX and X are vitamin K-dependent factors. The role of vitamin K is to assist in the addition of gamma carboxylate groups to glutamic acids in the "GLA" domains of these factors...
November 8, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117574/an-astrocyte-derived-extracellular-matrix-coating-reduces-astrogliosis-surrounding-chronically-implanted-microelectrode-arrays-in-rat-cortex
#4
Robert S Oakes, Michael D Polei, John L Skousen, Patrick A Tresco
Available evidence suggests that the magnitude of the foreign body response (FBR) to implants placed in cortical brain tissue is affected by the extent of vasculature damage following device insertion and the magnitude of the ensuing macrophage response. Since the extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a natural hemostatic and immunomodulatory agent, we examined the ability of an FDA-approved neurosurgical hemostatic coating and an ECM coating derived from primary rat astrocytes to reduce the FBR surrounding a penetrating microelectrode array chronically implanted in rat cortex...
October 29, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115584/apolipoprotein-c-iii-in-the-high-density-lipoprotein-proteome-of-cerebral-lacunar-infarction-patients-impairs-its-anti-inflammatory-function
#5
Pu Lv, Mingming Zhao, Yuanyuan Liu, Haiqiang Jin, Wei Cui, Chenghe Fan, Yuming Teng, Lemin Zheng, Yining Huang
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) proteomic study has identified substantial changes associated with various disease states. In the current study, the HDL proteomes in patients with cerebral lacunar infarction (LACI) and control subjects were investigated. A total of 12 LACI patients without evident large vessel occlusions and 12 controls were enrolled in the study. The HDL fraction from each sample was isolated from the plasma by ultracentrifugation. The protemics of the HDL were investigated using nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112156/effects-of-lonomia-obliqua-venom-on-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-contribution-of-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species
#6
João Alfredo Moraes, Genilson Rodrigues, Vany Nascimento-Silva, Mariana Renovato-Martins, Markus Berger, Jorge Almeida Guimarães, Christina Barja-Fidalgo
Envenomation caused by human contact with the caterpillar Lonomia is characterized by deleterious effects on coagulation and patency of blood vessels. The cellular effects induced by Lonomia obliqua venom highlights its capacity to activate endothelial cells, leading to a proinflammatory phenotype. Having more knowledge about the mechanisms involved in envenomation may contribute to better treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effects of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristle extract (LOCBE) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
November 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111325/inhibition-of-tissue-factor-signaling-in-breast-tumour-xenografts-induces-widespread-changes-in-the-microrna-expression-profile
#7
Esterina D'Asti, G Mark Anderson, Janusz Rak
Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane receptor for coagulation factor VII/VIIa that is frequently overexpressed by cancer cells. The TF/VIIa complex acts as the main initiator of the clotting cascade in blood and a trigger of intracellular signaling that changes gene expression and the cellular phenotype. However, pathways mediating these changes are still poorly characterized and especially the impact of TF signals on regulatory microRNA (miR) networks in cancer remains unknown. We show that the monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralises the signaling (but not coagulant) function of human TF (CNTO 2559) inhibits progression of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts in mice and prolongs animal survival...
October 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108964/familial-early-onset-deep-venous-thrombosis-associated-with-a-novel-hrg-mutation
#8
Junfu Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Qingfu Zeng, Weimin Zhou, Qing Cao, Wei Zhou
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) remains a serious clinical problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Some DVT cases are caused by inherited thrombophilia derived from genetic aberrations and several disease-causing genes have been identified so far. Among them, HRG is an uncommon one with limited related reports. Here, we reported on a family with early-onset DVT where acquired risky conditions were excluded. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel heterozygous single base pair substitution in exon 2 of HRG gene resulting in a conserved residue replacement of the protein (c...
November 3, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103804/fibrinogen-activates-bmp-signaling-in-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-and-inhibits-remyelination-after-vascular-damage
#9
Mark A Petersen, Jae Kyu Ryu, Kae-Jiun Chang, Ainhoa Etxeberria, Sophia Bardehle, Andrew S Mendiola, Wanjiru Kamau-Devers, Stephen P J Fancy, Andrea Thor, Eric A Bushong, Bernat Baeza-Raja, Catriona A Syme, Michael D Wu, Pamela E Rios Coronado, Anke Meyer-Franke, Stephanie Yahn, Lauriane Pous, Jae K Lee, Christian Schachtrup, Hans Lassmann, Eric J Huang, May H Han, Martina Absinta, Daniel S Reich, Mark H Ellisman, David H Rowitch, Jonah R Chan, Katerina Akassoglou
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption alters the composition of the brain microenvironment by allowing blood proteins into the CNS. However, whether blood-derived molecules serve as extrinsic inhibitors of remyelination is unknown. Here we show that the coagulation factor fibrinogen activates the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and suppresses remyelination. Fibrinogen induces phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8 and inhibits OPC differentiation into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) while promoting an astrocytic fate in vitro...
October 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103803/cd39-and-cd73-activity-are-protective-in-a-mouse-model-of-antiphospholipid-antibody-induced-miscarriages
#10
Anushka N Samudra, Karen M Dwyer, Carly Selan, Susanna Freddi, Lisa Murray-Segal, Mandana Nikpour, Michael J Hickey, Karlheinz Peter, Simon C Robson, Maithili Sashindranath, Peter J Cowan, Harshal H Nandurkar
OBJECTIVE: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder of young adults associated with devastating pregnancy complications (recurrent miscarriages, preeclampsia and low birth weight) and vascular complications including thrombosis. The key components implicated in pathogenesis of APS are the complement cascade and tissue factor (TF) activity causing inflammation and coagulation. Purinergic signalling involving catabolism of ATP to adenosine by cell-surface enzymes CD39 and CD73 has anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096301/selective-binding-behavior-of-humic-acid-removal-by-aluminum-coagulation
#11
Pengkang Jin, Jina Song, Lei Yang, Xin Jin, Xiaochang C Wang
The reactivity characteristics of humic acid (HA) with aluminium coagulants at different pH values was investigated. It revealed that the linear complexation reaction occurred between aluminum and humic acid at pH < 7, and the reaction rate increased as the pH increased from 2 to 6. While at pH = 7, most of the dosed aluminum existed in the form of free aluminum and remained unreacted in the presence of HA until the concentration reached to trigger Al(OH)3(s) formation. Differentiating the change of functional groups of HA by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectra analysis, it elucidated that there was a selective complexation between HA and Al with lower Al dosage at pH 5, which was probably due to coordination of the activated functional groups onto aluminium...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091803/impacts-of-coagulation-flocculation-treatment-on-the-size-distribution-and-bioavailability-of-trace-metals-cu-pb-ni-zn-in-municipal-wastewater
#12
Andrew J Hargreaves, Peter Vale, Jonathan Whelan, Luca Alibardi, Carlos Constantino, Gabriela Dotro, Elise Cartmell, Pablo Campo
This study investigated the impact of coagulation-flocculation treatment on metal form and bioavailability in municipal wastewater. Real humus effluent samples were separated into particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved fractions before and after treatment with either ferric chloride (FeCl3) or the biopolymer Floculan. Results revealed that both reagents effectively (≥48%) eliminated Cu, Pb and Zn from the particulate fraction and removed Cu and Zn from the colloidal fraction in conjunction with colloidal organic carbon (COC)...
October 25, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089889/panax-notoginseng-saponins-for-treating-coronary-artery-disease-a-functional-and-mechanistic-overview
#13
REVIEW
Lian Duan, Xingjiang Xiong, Junyuan Hu, Yongmei Liu, Jun Li, Jie Wang
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major public health problem and the chief cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Panax notoginseng, a valuable herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with obvious efficacy and favorable safety, shows a great promise as a novel option for CAD and is increasingly recognized clinically. Firstly, this review introduced recent clinical trials on treatment with PNS either alone or in combination with conventional drugs as novel treatment strategies. Then we discussed the mechanisms of P...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080277/proteomic-profiling-of-follicle-fluids-after-superstimulation-in-one-month-old-lambs
#14
Y Wu, J Lin, B Han, L Wang, Y Chen, M Liu, J Huang
Follicular fluid (FF) accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle. In addition, FF provides the microenvironment for oocyte development, oocyte maturation and competence, which are acquired during follicular development. Superstimulatory treatment of 1-month-old lambs can achieve synchronous development of numerous growing follicles. However, these growing follicles are unable to completely mature and ovulate. Furthermore, the oocytes exhibit lower competence compared with those of ewes. In this study, we utilized an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomics analysis and compare protein composition between pre-pubertal and adult superstimulated follicle FF in sheep...
October 28, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077251/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antithrombotic-and-cytotoxicity-effects-of-ferulic-acid
#15
Jun-Hui Choi, Jong-Kook Park, Ki-Man Kim, Hyo-Jeong Lee, Seung Kim
We discovered recently in vitro and in vivo antithrombotic and cytotoxicity effects of ferulic acid. The cytotoxicity assays showed that ferulic acid (∼300 μg/mL) did not cause any significant toxicity on three cell lines, platelets, leukocytes, and erythrocytes. In vitro assays showed inhibitory effects of ferulic acid on thrombin (THR)- or collagen/epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation by inhibiting platelet aggregation, and decreasing clot retraction activity. The in vitro effect of ferulic acid on THR-stimulated platelet activation was proved by the decrease in the secretion of serotonin from the platelets...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073617/preimplantation-factor-pif-promotes-hla-g-e-f-c-expression-in-jeg-3-choriocarcinoma-cells-and-endogenous-progesterone-activity
#16
Miya Soukaina Hakam, Jose Maria Miranda-Sayago, Soren Hayrabedyan, Krassimira Todorova, Patrick Simon Spencer, Asma Jabeen, Eytan R Barnea, Nelson Fernandez
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pregnancy success requires mandatory maternal tolerance of the semi/ allogeneic embryo involving embryo-derived signals. Expression levels of PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos, correlate with embryo development, and its early detection in circulation correlates with a favourable pregnancy outcome. PIF enhances endometrial receptivity to promote embryo implantation. Via the p53 pathway, it increases trophoblast invasion, improving cell survival / immune privilege...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072911/the-design-of-small-molecule-active-site-inhibitors-of-the-s1a-family-proteases-as-procoagulant-and-anticoagulant-drugs
#17
Peter M Fischer
Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) have long been the default drugs for anticoagulant management in venous thrombosis. While efficacious, they are difficult to use due to interpatient dose-response variability and the risks of bleeding. The approval of fondaparinux, a heparin-derived factor Xa (fXa) inhibitor, provided validation for the development of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), and currently such inhibitors of thrombin and fXa are in clinical use. These agents can be used without regular coagulation monitoring but the inherent risk of bleeding complications associated with blocking the common coagulation pathway remains...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072555/streptococcus-gallolyticus-subsp-gallolyticus-endocarditis-isolate-interferes-with-coagulation-and-activates-the-contact-system
#18
Julia Isenring, Juliane Köhler, Masanobu Nakata, Marcus Frank, Christoph Jans, Pierre Renault, Camille Danne, Shaynoor Dramsi, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Sonja Oehmcke-Hecht
Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, formerly classified as S. bovis biotype I, is an increasing cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis in the elderly. The physiopathology of infective endocarditis is poorly understood and involves immune and coagulation systems. In this study, we found that S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus activates the human contact system, which in turn has two consequences: cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) resulting in release of the potent pro-inflammatory peptide bradykinin, and initiation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation...
October 26, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067856/challenges-for-intraventricular-hemorrhage-research-and-emerging-therapeutic-targets
#19
Thomas Garton, Ya Hua, Jianming Xiang, Guohua Xi, Richard F Keep
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) affects both premature infants and adults. In both demographics, it has high mortality and morbidity. There is no FDA approved therapy that improves neurological outcome in either population highlighting the need for additional focus on therapeutic targets and treatments emerging from preclinical studies. Areas covered: IVH induces both initial injury linked to the physical effects of the blood (mass effect) and secondary injury linked to the brain response to the hemorrhage...
October 30, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064629/proteomics-and-protein-adsorption-on-hemodialysis-membranes
#20
Mario Bonomini
Adsorption of plasma proteins onto the membrane surface during the hemodialysis session represents a key feature of membranes used for chronic dialysis therapy. In this issue of Proteomics - Clinical Applications, Han et al. [Proteomics - Clinical Applications 2017, XX] originally describe how, by using proteomic technologies, the adsorptive properties of two membranes made from the same biomaterial (Polyamix) may have different flux characteristics (low-flux and high-flux, the former having smaller pore size)...
October 24, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
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