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Brain surface mri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651568/dorsal-extensions-of-the-fastigium-cerebelli-an-anatomical-study-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Miranda, Hisato Ishii, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The fastigium cerebelli is an important topographical landmark for neurosurgeons and radiologists. However, few studies have characterized the morphology of the fastigium cerebelli. We aimed to investigate the fastigium cerebelli using postmortem specimens and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three cadaveric brains were midsagittally sectioned for observing the fastigium cerebelli. Additionally, 66 outpatients underwent MRI, including sagittal T1-weighted imaging, axial T2-weighted imaging, and coronal constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) sequence...
April 12, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629229/ambiguity-in-the-dural-tail-sign-on-mri
#2
Ramesh S Doddamani, Rajesh K Meena, Dattaraj Sawarkar
Background: Meningiomas give rise to the dural tail sign (DTS) on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI). The presence of DTS does not always qualify for a meningioma, as it is seen in only 60-72% of cases. This sign has been described in various other lesions like lymphomas, metastasis, hemangiopericytomas, schwannomas and very rarely glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The characteristics of dural-based GBMs are discussed here, as only eleven such cases are reported in the literature till date...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604454/bayesian-convolutional-neural-network-based-mri-brain-extraction-on-nonhuman-primates
#3
Gengyan Zhao, Fang Liu, Jonathan A Oler, Mary E Meyerand, Ned H Kalin, Rasmus M Birn
Brain extraction or skull stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is an essential step in neuroimaging studies, the accuracy of which can severely affect subsequent image processing procedures. Current automatic brain extraction methods demonstrate good results on human brains, but are often far from satisfactory on nonhuman primates, which are a necessary part of neuroscience research. To overcome the challenges of brain extraction in nonhuman primates, we propose a fully-automated brain extraction pipeline combining deep Bayesian convolutional neural network (CNN) and fully connected three-dimensional (3D) conditional random field (CRF)...
March 28, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598904/lipopolysaccharide-induces-subacute-cerebral-microhemorrhages-with-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-rats
#4
Jing Zeng, Hóngyi Zhào, Zhixin Liu, Weiwei Zhang, Yonghua Huang
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microhemorrhage (CMH) is a neuropathological term that could be easily found in cerebral amyloid angiopathy, intracerebral hemorrhages, etc. CMHs could be detected clearly in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-susceptibility-weighted imaging or MRI T2* scan. This terminology is now accepted in the area of neuroimaging. CMHs are quite common in elderly patients and are associated with several other neuropsychiatric disorders. The causes of CMHs are complicated, and neuroinflammation is considered as one of the well-accepted mechanical factors...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577280/emerging-depression-in-adolescence-coincides-with-accelerated-frontal-cortical-thinning
#5
Marieke G N Bos, Sabine Peters, Ferdi C van de Kamp, Eveline A Crone, Christian K Tamnes
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a transition period characterized by heightened emotional reactivity, which for some sets the stage for emerging depressive symptoms. Prior studies suggest that adolescent depression is associated with deviant cortical and subcortical brain structure. Longitudinal studies are, however, currently scarce, but critical to detect which adolescents are at risk for developing depressive symptoms. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, a community sample of 205 participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three biennial waves (522 scans) spanning 5 years across ages 8-25 years...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571264/white-matter-connectivity-of-the-visual-vestibular-cortex-examined-by-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#6
Anna M Wirth, Sebastian M Frank, Mark W Greenlee, Anton L Beer
The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) and the posterior insular cortex (PIC) are key regions of the cortical vestibular network, both located in the mid-posterior section of the lateral sulcus. Little is known about the structural connectivity pattern of these areas. We employed probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compared the ipsilateral connectivity of PIVC and PIC. Seed areas for the tracking algorithm were identified in each brain by functional MRI activity during caloric and visual motion stimulation, respectively...
March 23, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550581/rapid-fully-automatic-segmentation-of-subcortical-brain-structures-by-shape-constrained-surface-adaptation
#7
Fabian Wenzel, Carsten Meyer, Thomas Stehle, Jochen Peters, Susanne Siemonsen, Christian Thaler, Lyubomir Zagorchev
This work presents a novel approach for the rapid segmentation of clinically relevant subcortical brain structures in T1-weighted MRI by utilizing a shape-constrained deformable surface model. In contrast to other approaches for segmenting brain structures, its design allows for parallel segmentation of individual brain structures within a flexible and robust hierarchical framework such that accurate adaptation and volume computation can be achieved within a minute of processing time. Furthermore, adaptation is driven by local and not global contrast, potentially relaxing requirements with respect to preprocessing steps such as bias-field correction...
March 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547088/usefulness-of-the-convexity-apparent-hyperperfusion-sign-in-123-i-iodoamphetamine-brain-perfusion-spect-for-the-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#8
Takuma Ohmichi, Masaki Kondo, Masahiro Itsukage, Hidetaka Koizumi, Shigenori Matsushima, Nagato Kuriyama, Kazunari Ishii, Etsuro Mori, Kei Yamada, Toshiki Mizuno, Takahiko Tokuda
OBJECTIVE The gold standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is the CSF removal test. For elderly patients, however, a less invasive diagnostic method is required. On MRI, high-convexity tightness was reported to be an important finding for the diagnosis of iNPH. On SPECT, patients with iNPH often show hyperperfusion of the high-convexity area. The authors tested 2 hypotheses regarding the SPECT finding: 1) it is relative hyperperfusion reflecting the increased gray matter density of the convexity, and 2) it is useful for the diagnosis of iNPH...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540606/hyperintense-plaque-on-intracranial-vessel-wall-magnetic-resonance-imaging-as-a-predictor-of-artery-to-artery-embolic-infarction
#9
Fang Wu, Haiqing Song, Qingfeng Ma, Jiayu Xiao, Tao Jiang, Xiaoqin Huang, Xiaoming Bi, Xiuhai Guo, Debiao Li, Qi Yang, Xunming Ji, Zhaoyang Fan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in patients with artery-to-artery (A-to-A) embolic infarction by whole-brain high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Seventy-four patients (mean age, 54.7±12.1 years; 59 men) with recent stroke in the territory of middle cerebral artery because of intracranial atherosclerotic disease were prospectively enrolled. Whole-brain high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all the patients both precontrast and postcontrast administration by using a 3-dimensional T1-weighted vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging technique known as inversion-recovery prepared sampling perfection with application-optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions...
April 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533941/identification-of-in-vivo-sulci-on-the-external-surface-of-eight-adult-chimpanzee-brains-implications-for-interpreting-early-hominin-endocasts
#10
Dean Falk, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Marcia Ponce de León, Katerina Semendeferi, José Luis Alatorre Warren, William D Hopkins
The only direct source of information about hominin brain evolution comes from the fossil record of endocranial casts (endocasts) that reproduce details of the external morphology of the brain imprinted on the walls of the braincase during life. Surface traces of sulci that separate the brain's convolutions (gyri) are reproduced sporadically on early hominin endocasts. Paleoneurologists rely heavily on published descriptions of sulci on brains of great apes, especially chimpanzees (humans' phylogenetically closest living relatives), to guide their identifications of sulci on ape-sized hominin endocasts...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530541/comparison-of-feature-representations-in-mri-based-mci-to-ad-conversion-prediction
#11
Marta Gómez-Sancho, Jussi Tohka, Vanessa Gómez-Verdejo
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. The identification of at-risk subjects yet showing no dementia symptoms but who will later convert to AD can be crucial for the effective treatment of AD. For this, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is expected to play a crucial role. During recent years, several Machine Learning (ML) approaches to AD-conversion prediction have been proposed using different types of MRI features...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516625/anatomy-guided-joint-tissue-segmentation-and-topological-correction-for-6-month-infant-brain-mri-with-risk-of-autism
#12
Li Wang, Gang Li, Ehsan Adeli, Mingxia Liu, Zhengwang Wu, Yu Meng, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
Tissue segmentation of infant brain MRIs with risk of autism is critically important for characterizing early brain development and identifying biomarkers. However, it is challenging due to low tissue contrast caused by inherent ongoing myelination and maturation. In particular, at around 6 months of age, the voxel intensities in both gray matter and white matter are within similar ranges, thus leading to the lowest image contrast in the first postnatal year. Previous studies typically employed intensity images and tentatively estimated tissue probabilities to train a sequence of classifiers for tissue segmentation...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515131/machine-learning-based-individual-assessment-of-cortical-atrophy-pattern-in-alzheimer-s-disease-spectrum-development-of-the-classifier-and-longitudinal-evaluation
#13
Jin San Lee, Changsoo Kim, Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Hanna Cho, Dae-Seock Shin, Nakyoung Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Yeshin Kim, Samuel N Lockhart, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, Joon-Kyung Seong
To develop a new method for measuring Alzheimer's disease (AD)-specific similarity of cortical atrophy patterns at the individual-level, we employed an individual-level machine learning algorithm. A total of 869 cognitively normal (CN) individuals and 473 patients with probable AD dementia who underwent high-resolution 3T brain MRI were included. We propose a machine learning-based method for measuring the similarity of an individual subject's cortical atrophy pattern with that of a representative AD patient cohort...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508443/measurement-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-reduced-scan-time
#14
Jonghyun Bae, Jin Zhang, Youssef Zaim Wadghiri, Atul Singh Minhas, Harish Poptani, Yulin Ge, Sungheon Gene Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of measuring the subtle disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) using DCE-MRI with a scan duration shorter than 10 min. METHODS: The extended Patlak-model (EPM) was introduced to include the effect of plasma flow (Fp ) in the estimation of vascular permeability-surface area product (PS). Numerical simulation studies were carried out to investigate how the reduction in scan time affects the accuracy in estimating contrast kinetic parameters...
March 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507614/molecular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-endothelial-activation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
Maxime Gauberti, Antoine P Fournier, Fabian Docagne, Denis Vivien, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo
Endothelial cells of the central nervous system over-express surface proteins during neurological disorders, either as a cause, or a consequence, of the disease. Since the cerebral vasculature is easily accessible by large contrast-carrying particles, it constitutes a target of choice for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we highlight the most recent advances in molecular MRI of brain endothelial activation and focus on the development of micro-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO) targeting adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), P-Selectin and E-Selectin...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505953/multimodal-neuroimaging-and-behavioral-assessment-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-polymorphism-rs356219-in-older-adults
#16
Roxana G Burciu, Rachael D Seidler, Priyank Shukla, Mike A Nalls, Andrew B Singleton, Michael S Okun, David E Vaillancourt
The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs356219 in the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene has been shown to significantly contribute to an earlier age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD), and regulates SNCA expression in PD brain regions, blood, and plasma. Here, we used multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study healthy adults with and without the rs356219 risk genotype. Motor and cognitive tests were administered, and all participants underwent functional and structural MRI. Imaging analyses included (1) task-based functional MRI; (2) task-based functional connectivity; (3) free-water diffusion MRI of the substantia nigra; (4) voxel-based morphometry; and (5) surface-based morphometry...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501554/characterization-of-the-hemodynamic-response-function-across-the-majority-of-human-cerebral-cortex
#17
Amanda J Taylor, Jung Hwan Kim, David Ress
A brief (<4 s) period of neural activation evokes a stereotypical sequence of vascular and metabolic events to create the hemodynamic response function (HRF) measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Linear analysis of fMRI data requires that the HRF be treated as an impulse response, so the character and temporal stability of the HRF are critical issues. Here, a simple audiovisual stimulus combined with a fast-paced task was used to evoke a strong HRF across a majority, ∼77%, of cortex during a single scanning session...
February 28, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498097/non-contrast-mr-imaging-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-to-water
#18
Zixuan Lin, Yang Li, Pan Su, Deng Mao, Zhiliang Wei, Jay J Pillai, Abhay Moghekar, Matthias van Osch, Yulin Ge, Hanzhang Lu
PURPOSE: Many brain diseases are associated with an alteration in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its permeability. Current methods using contrast agent are primarily sensitive to major leakage of BBB to macromolecules, but may not detect subtle changes in BBB permeability. The present study aims to develop a novel non-contrast MRI technique for the assessment of BBB permeability to water. METHODS: The central principle is that by measuring arterially labeled blood spins that are drained into cerebral veins, water extraction fraction (E) and permeability-surface-area product (PS) of BBB can be determined...
March 1, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483624/synaptic-and-transcriptionally-downregulated-genes-are-associated-with-cortical-thickness-differences-in-autism
#19
Rafael Romero-Garcia, Varun Warrier, Edward T Bullmore, Simon Baron-Cohen, Richard A I Bethlehem
Differences in cortical morphology-in particular, cortical volume, thickness and surface area-have been reported in individuals with autism. However, it is unclear what aspects of genetic and transcriptomic variation are associated with these differences. Here we investigate the genetic correlates of global cortical thickness differences (ΔCT) in children with autism. We used Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) on structural MRI data from 548 children (166 with autism, 295 neurotypical children and 87 children with ADHD) and cortical gene expression data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science to identify genetic correlates of ΔCT in autism...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473658/gadolinium-as-a-new-emerging-contaminant-of-aquatic-environment
#20
REVIEW
Justyna Rogowska, Ewa Olkowska, Wojciech Ratajczyk, Lidia Wolska
Since the 1980 s, gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) are routinely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as stable chelates of the Gd3+ ion, without toxic effects. Generally, GBCAs are considered as some of the safest contrast agents. However, it has been observed that they can accumulate in patients tissue, bone and probably in brain (causing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with kidney failure, insufficiency and disturbance of calcium homeostasis in the organism). The GBCAs are predominantly removed renally without metabolization...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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