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Brain surface mri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633321/places-in-the-brain-bridging-layout-and-object-geometry-in-scene-selective-cortex
#1
Moira R Dillon, Andrew S Persichetti, Elizabeth S Spelke, Daniel D Dilks
Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627714/migraine-subclassification-via-a-data-driven-automated-approach-using-multimodality-factor-mixture-modeling-of-brain-structure-measurements
#2
Todd J Schwedt, Bing Si, Jing Li, Teresa Wu, Catherine D Chong
BACKGROUND: The current subclassification of migraine is according to headache frequency and aura status. The variability in migraine symptoms, disease course, and response to treatment suggest the presence of additional heterogeneity or subclasses within migraine. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to subclassify migraine via a data-driven approach, identifying latent factors by jointly exploiting multiple sets of brain structural features obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 19, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626291/machine-learning-in-a-graph-framework-for-subcortical-segmentation
#3
Zhihui Guo, Satyananda Kashyap, Milan Sonka, Ipek Oguz
Automated and reliable segmentation of subcortical structures from human brain magnetic resonance images is of great importance for volumetric and shape analyses in quantitative neuroimaging studies. However, poor boundary contrast and variable shape of these structures make the automated segmentation a tough task. We propose a 3D graph-based machine learning method, called LOGISMOS-RF, to segment the caudate and the putamen from brain MRI scans in a robust and accurate way. An atlas-based tissue classification and bias-field correction method is applied to the images to generate an initial segmentation for each structure...
February 11, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622141/analysis-of-structural-brain-mri-and-multi-parameter-classification-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Yingteng Zhang, Shenquan Liu
Incorporating with machine learning technology, neuroimaging markers which extracted from structural Magnetic Resonance Images (sMRI), can help distinguish Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients from Healthy Controls (HC). In the present study, we aim to investigate differences in atrophic regions between HC and AD and apply machine learning methods to classify these two groups. T1-weighted sMRI scans of 158 patients with AD and 145 age-matched HC were acquired from the ADNI database. Five kinds of parameters (i...
June 15, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608653/complementary-cortical-gray-and-white-matter-developmental-patterns-in-healthy-preterm-neonates
#5
Vidya Rajagopalan, Julia A Scott, Mengyuan Liu, Kenneth Poskitt, Vann Chau, Steven Miller, Colin Studholme
Preterm birth is associated with brain injury and altered cognitive development. However, the consequences of extrauterine development are not clearly distinguished from perinatal brain injury. Therefore, we characterized cortical growth patterns from 30 to 46 postmenstrual weeks (PMW) in 27 preterm neonates (25-32 PMW at birth) without detectable brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging. We introduce surface-based morphometric descriptors that quantify radial (thickness) and tangential (area) change rates...
June 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605410/abstract-representations-of-object-directed-action-in-the-left-inferior-parietal-lobule
#6
Quanjing Chen, Frank E Garcea, Robert A Jacobs, Bradford Z Mahon
Prior neuroimaging and neuropsychological research indicates that the left inferior parietal lobule in the human brain is a critical substrate for representing object manipulation knowledge. In the present functional MRI study we used multivoxel pattern analyses to test whether action similarity among objects can be decoded in the inferior parietal lobule independent of the task applied to objects (identification or pantomime) and stimulus format in which stimuli are presented (pictures or printed words). Participants pantomimed the use of objects, cued by printed words, or identified pictures of objects...
June 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605386/simultaneous-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Kathleen A Williams, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Christiane Anne Weinrich, Peter Dechent, Melanie Wilke
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a promising tool for noninvasive investigation of brain oscillations. TACS employs frequency-specific stimulation of the human brain through current applied to the scalp with surface electrodes. Most current knowledge of the technique is based on behavioral studies; thus, combining the method with brain imaging holds potential to better understand the mechanisms of tACS. Because of electrical and susceptibility artifacts, combining tACS with brain imaging can be challenging, however, one brain imaging technique that is well suited to be applied simultaneously with tACS is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589856/association-analysis-of-rare-variants-near-the-apoe-region-with-csf-and-neuroimaging-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Kwangsik Nho, Sungeun Kim, Emrin Horgusluoglu, Shannon L Risacher, Li Shen, Dokyoon Kim, Seunggeun Lee, Tatiana Foroud, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Paul S Aisen, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Michael W Weiner, Robert C Green, Arthur W Toga, Andrew J Saykin
BACKGROUND: The APOE ε4 allele is the most significant common genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). The region surrounding APOE on chromosome 19 has also shown consistent association with LOAD. However, no common variants in the region remain significant after adjusting for APOE genotype. We report a rare variant association analysis of genes in the vicinity of APOE with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging biomarkers of LOAD. METHODS: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 817 blood DNA samples from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)...
May 24, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572766/conversion-discriminative-analysis-on-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-multiple-cortical-features-from-mr-images
#9
Shengwen Guo, Chunren Lai, Congling Wu, Guiyin Cen
Neuroimaging measurements derived from magnetic resonance imaging provide important information required for detecting changes related to the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical features and changes play a crucial role in revealing unique anatomical patterns of brain regions, and further differentiate MCI patients from normal states. Four cortical features, namely, gray matter volume, cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature, were explored for discriminative analysis among three groups including the stable MCI (sMCI), the converted MCI (cMCI), and the normal control (NC) groups...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569328/an-egfrviii-targeted-dual-modal-gold-nanoprobe-for-imaging-guided-brain-tumor-surgery
#10
Qi Yue, Xihui Gao, Yang Yu, Yang Li, Wei Hua, Kun Fan, Ren Zhang, Jun Qian, Liang Chen, Cong Li, Ying Mao
Surgery is a mainstay to treat malignant brain tumors. However, due to the infiltrative nature of these tumors, it is a great challenge for surgeons to accurately identify and excise all the tumor foci. EGFRvIII, a variant of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is found in 20% of glioblastoma cases, which is the brain tumor with the highest malignancy. In this study, we developed an EGFRvIII-targeted nanoprobe to guide glioblastoma surgery by pre-operatively defining the tumor boundary via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intra-operatively guiding resection by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) imaging...
June 1, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567435/abnormal-brain-metabolism-on-fdg-pet-ct-is-a-common-early-finding-in-autoimmune-encephalitis
#11
John C Probasco, Lilja Solnes, Abhinav Nalluri, Jesse Cohen, Krystyna M Jones, Elcin Zan, Mehrbod S Javadi, Arun Venkatesan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of abnormal brain metabolism by FDG-PET/CT to other paraclinical findings and to describe brain metabolism patterns in autoimmune encephalitis (AE). METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical data and initial dedicated brain FDG-PET/CT studies for neurology inpatients with AE, per consensus criteria, treated at a single tertiary center over 123 months. Z-score maps of FDG-PET/CT were made using 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projections with comparison to age group-matched controls...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558364/structural-and-functional-correlates-of-serum-soluble-il-6-receptor-level-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#12
Pei-Chi Tu, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Mu-Hong Chen, Tung-Ping Su, Ya-Mei Bai
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is reported to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD). Higher serum levels of soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R), which forms a ligand-receptor complex with the potent proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, have been consistently observed in patients with BD. However, the effect of sIL-6R on neural structure and function remains unclear. This study investigated the association between serum sIL-6R levels and the structural and functional connectivity (FC) of the brain in patients with BD...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553989/neuroimaging-in-former-preterm-children-who-received-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents
#13
John Phillips, Ronald A Yeo, Arvind Caprihan, Daniel C Cannon, Shrena Patel, Sarah Winter, Michael Steffen, Richard Campbell, Susan Wiedmeier, Shawna Baker, Sean Gonzales, Jean Lowe, Robin K Ohls
BACKGROUND: In premature children, erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) may improve developmental outcome. It is not clear which of several potential mechanisms are responsible for this improvement. High resolution MRI and diffusion tensor imaging characterize brain structure and white matter organization, offering possible insight into the long-term effect of ESAs on brain development. DESIGN/METHODS: MRI scans were performed at 3.5 to 4 years of age on former preterm infants treated with ESAs or placebo, and on healthy term controls...
May 29, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553356/asymptomatic-brain-edema-after-hemodialysis-initiation-in-a-patient-with-severe-uremia
#14
Kiichiro Fujisaki, Kaneyasu Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nagae, Toshiaki Nakano, Masatomo Taniguchi, Kosuke Masutani, Takanari Kitazono, Kazuhiko Tsuruya
A 66-year-old man with severe renal insufficiency presented with mild confusion associated with uremia. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no remarkable changes. The patient was placed on short-duration hemodialysis (2 hours) with smaller surface area and low blood flow (100 mL/min) to avoid dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS). His consciousness gradually improved and he did not develop apparent DDS symptoms. However, T2-weighted FLAIR MRI showed increased signal intensities bilaterally in the cortical and subcortical areas of the occipital lobe on day 15...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553343/magnetic-resonance-imaging-three-dimensional-printing-technology-fabricates-customized-scaffolds-for-brain-tissue-engineering
#15
Feng Fu, Zhe Qin, Chao Xu, Xu-Yi Chen, Rui-Xin Li, Li-Na Wang, Ding-Wei Peng, Hong-Tao Sun, Yue Tu, Chong Chen, Sai Zhang, Ming-Liang Zhao, Xiao-Hong Li
Conventional fabrication methods lack the ability to control both macro- and micro-structures of generated scaffolds. Three-dimensional printing is a solid free-form fabrication method that provides novel ways to create customized scaffolds with high precision and accuracy. In this study, an electrically controlled cortical impactor was used to induce randomized brain tissue defects. The overall shape of scaffolds was designed using rat-specific anatomical data obtained from magnetic resonance imaging, and the internal structure was created by computer-aided design...
April 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549318/brain-neurodevelopmental-markers-related-to-the-deficit-subtype-of-schizophrenia
#16
Tsutomu Takahashi, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Yumiko Nishikawa, Mihoko Nakamura, Yuko Komori, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Daiki Sasabayashi, Kyo Noguchi, Michio Suzuki
Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i...
May 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530209/reproducible-3d-printed-head-tanks-for-electrical-impedance-tomography-with-realistic-shape-and-conductivity-distribution
#17
James Avery, Kirill Aristovich, Barney Low, David Holder
OBJECTIVE: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has many promising applications in brain injury monitoring. To evaluate both instrumentation and reconstruction algorithms, experiments are first performed in head tanks. Existing methods, whilst accurate, produce a discontinuous conductivity, and are often made by hand, making it hard for other researchers to replicate. APPROACH: We have developed a method for constructing head tanks directly in a 3D printer. Conductivity was controlled through perforations in the skull surface, which allow for saline to pass through...
May 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527815/neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-characteristics-of-cerebellar-injury-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#18
Mayumi Matsufuji, Nozomi Sano, Hisashi Tsuru, Sachio Takashima
OBJECTIVE: To determine the morphological characteristics and pathogenic factors of cerebellar injury in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Neuroimaging examination was performed on 17 eligible surviving ELBWI. Their MR images were assessed and classified its pattern of cerebellar injuries. Brain pathology was examined on 15 patients, who isolated this neuroimaging subjects. The trend of brain pathologies was revealed. RESULTS: Four types of morphological pattern were recognized: (i) the absence of major portions in the cerebellum (6/17 cases); (ii) focal cerebellar tissue loss (2/17); (iii) unilateral cerebellar atrophy/hypoplasia (3/17); (iv) small cerebellum with entrapped fourth ventricle (6/17)...
May 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512057/normative-morphometric-data-for-cerebral-cortical-areas-over-the-lifetime-of-the-adult-human-brain
#19
Olivier Potvin, Louis Dieumegarde, Simon Duchesne
Proper normative data of anatomical measurements of cortical regions, allowing to quantify brain abnormalities, are lacking. We developed norms for regional cortical surface areas, thicknesses, and volumes based on cross-sectional MRI scans from 2713 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94 years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting regional cortical estimates of each hemisphere were produced using age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors...
May 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509682/new-neurosurgical-approaches-for-tremor-and-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Alfonso Fasano, Andres M Lozano, Esther Cubo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to gather the newest advances in the surgical treatment of tremor and Parkinson's disease. We will briefly discuss the potential applications of the new technologies of deep brain stimulation (DBS), and we will focus on MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). RECENT FINDINGS: Novel DBS devices are being progressively adopted, particularly electrodes allowing a longer stimulating surface (suitable for multiple targets stimulation) and current radial steering (to minimize side effects of stimulation)...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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