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Brain surface mri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549318/brain-neurodevelopmental-markers-related-to-the-deficit-subtype-of-schizophrenia
#1
Tsutomu Takahashi, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Yumiko Nishikawa, Mihoko Nakamura, Yuko Komori, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Daiki Sasabayashi, Kyo Noguchi, Michio Suzuki
Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i...
May 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530209/reproducible-3d-printed-head-tanks-for-electrical-impedance-tomography-with-realistic-shape-and-conductivity-distribution
#2
James Avery, Kirill Aristovich, Barney Low, David Holder
OBJECTIVE: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has many promising applications in brain injury monitoring. To evaluate both instrumentation and reconstruction algorithms, experiments are first performed in head tanks. Existing methods, whilst accurate, produce a discontinuous conductivity, and are often made by hand, making it hard for other researchers to replicate. APPROACH: We have developed a method for constructing head tanks directly in a 3D printer. Conductivity was controlled through perforations in the skull surface, which allow for saline to pass through...
May 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527815/neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-characteristics-of-cerebellar-injury-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#3
Mayumi Matsufuji, Nozomi Sano, Hisashi Tsuru, Sachio Takashima
OBJECTIVE: To determine the morphological characteristics and pathogenic factors of cerebellar injury in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Neuroimaging examination was performed on 17 eligible surviving ELBWI. Their MR images were assessed and classified its pattern of cerebellar injuries. Brain pathology was examined on 15 patients, who isolated this neuroimaging subjects. The trend of brain pathologies was revealed. RESULTS: Four types of morphological pattern were recognized: (i) the absence of major portions in the cerebellum (6/17 cases); (ii) focal cerebellar tissue loss (2/17); (iii) unilateral cerebellar atrophy/hypoplasia (3/17); (iv) small cerebellum with entrapped fourth ventricle (6/17)...
May 17, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512057/normative-morphometric-data-for-cerebral-cortical-areas-over-the-lifetime-of-the-adult-human-brain
#4
Olivier Potvin, Louis Dieumegarde, Simon Duchesne
Proper normative data of anatomical measurements of cortical regions, allowing to quantify brain abnormalities, are lacking. We developed norms for regional cortical surface areas, thicknesses, and volumes based on cross-sectional MRI scans from 2713 healthy individuals aged 18 to 94 years using 23 samples provided by 21 independent research groups. The segmentation was conducted using FreeSurfer, a widely used and freely available automated segmentation software. Models predicting regional cortical estimates of each hemisphere were produced using age, sex, estimated total intracranial volume (eTIV), scanner manufacturer, magnetic field strength, and interactions as predictors...
May 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509682/new-neurosurgical-approaches-for-tremor-and-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Alfonso Fasano, Andres M Lozano, Esther Cubo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to gather the newest advances in the surgical treatment of tremor and Parkinson's disease. We will briefly discuss the potential applications of the new technologies of deep brain stimulation (DBS), and we will focus on MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). RECENT FINDINGS: Novel DBS devices are being progressively adopted, particularly electrodes allowing a longer stimulating surface (suitable for multiple targets stimulation) and current radial steering (to minimize side effects of stimulation)...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507896/intraoperative-resection-control-using-arterial-spin-labeling-proof-of-concept-reproducibility-of-data-and-initial-results
#6
Thomas Lindner, Hajrullah Ahmeti, Isabel Lübbing, Michael Helle, Olav Jansen, Michael Synowitz, Stephan Ulmer
OBJECTIVES: Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool for visualizing structures during resection and/or for updating any kind of neuronavigation that might be hampered as a result of brain shift during surgery. Advanced MRI techniques such as perfusion-weighted imaging have already proven to be important in the initial diagnosis preoperatively, but can also help to differentiate between tumor and surgically induced changes intraoperatively. Commonly used methods to visualize brain perfusion include contrast agent administration and are therefore somewhat limited...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490772/flexible-and-compact-hybrid-metasurfaces-for-enhanced-ultra-high-field-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#7
Rita Schmidt, Alexey Slobozhanyuk, Pavel Belov, Andrew Webb
Developments in metamaterials and related structures such as metasurfaces have opened up new possibilities in designing materials and devices with unique properties. Here we report a new hybrid metasurface structure, comprising a two-dimensional metamaterial surface and a very high permittivity dielectric substrate, that has been designed to enhance the local performance of an ultra-high field MRI scanner. This new flexible and compact resonant structure is the first metasurface which can be integrated with multi-element close-fitting receive coil arrays that are used for all clinical MRI scans...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488804/three-dimensional-shape-and-surface-features-distinguish-multiple-sclerosis-lesions-from-nonspecific-white-matter-disease
#8
Braeden D Newton, Katy Wright, Mandy D Winkler, Francesca Bovis, Masaya Takahashi, Ivan E Dimitrov, Maria Pia Sormani, Marco C Pinho, Darin T Okuda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There remains a need to further refine the ability of clinicians to differentiate multiple sclerosis (MS) from other disease etiologies. Here, we illustrate the value of 3-dimensional (3D) geometric shape and surface lesion characteristics between disease states. METHODS: Standardized 3-Tesla 3D brain magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed on enrolled MS and nonspecific white matter (NSWM) patients. Focal supratentorial lesions were identified, reconstructed using maximum intensity projection, manually segmented, and 3D printed...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486817/altered-network-topology-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-after-fractionated-radiotherapy
#9
Naeim Bahrami, Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Hauke Bartsch, AnithaPriya Krishna, Nikdokht Farid, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth, Carrie R McDonald
Radiation therapy (RT) is a critical treatment modality for patients with brain tumors, though it can cause adverse effects. Recent data suggests that brain RT is associated with dose-dependent cortical atrophy which could disrupt neocortical networks. This study examines whether brain RT affects structural network properties in brain tumor patients. We applied graph theory to MRI-derived cortical thickness estimates of 54 brain tumor patients before and after RT. Cortical surfaces were parcellated into 68 regions and correlation matrices were created for patients pre- and post-RT...
May 9, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480992/inferring-pathobiology-from-structural-mri-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-modeling-head-motion-and-neuroanatomical-specificity
#10
Nailin Yao, Anderson M Winkler, Jennifer Barrett, Gregory A Book, Tamara Beetham, Rachel Horseman, Olivia Leach, Karen Hodgson, Emma E Knowles, Samuel Mathias, Michael C Stevens, Michal Assaf, Theo G M van Erp, Godfrey D Pearlson, David C Glahn
Despite over 400 peer-reviewed structural MRI publications documenting neuroanatomic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the confounding effects of head motion and the regional specificity of these defects are unclear. Using a large cohort of individuals scanned on the same research dedicated MRI with broadly similar protocols, we observe reduced cortical thickness indices in both illnesses, though less pronounced in bipolar disorder. While schizophrenia (n = 226) was associated with wide-spread surface area reductions, bipolar disorder (n = 227) and healthy comparison subjects (n = 370) did not differ...
May 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470878/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-evaluation-by-diffusional-kurtosis-imaging-and-neurite-orientation-dispersion-and-density-imaging
#11
Koji Kamagata, Andrew Zalesky, Taku Hatano, Ryo Ueda, Maria Angelique Di Biase, Ayami Okuzumi, Keigo Shimoji, Masaaki Hori, Karen Caeyenberghs, Christos Pantelis, Nobutaka Hattori, Shigeki Aoki
Mapping gray matter (GM) pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD) with conventional MRI is challenging, and the need for more sensitive brain imaging techniques is essential to facilitate early diagnosis and assessment of disease severity. GM microstructure was assessed with GM-based spatial statistics applied to diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and neurite orientation dispersion imaging (NODDI) in 30 participants with PD and 28 age- and gender-matched controls. These were compared with currently used assessment methods such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and surface-based cortical thickness analysis...
May 4, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467458/concerning-the-matching-of-magnetic-susceptibility-differences-for-the-compensation-of-background-gradients-in-anisotropic-diffusion-fibre-phantoms
#12
Ezequiel Farrher, Johannes Lindemeyer, Farida Grinberg, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, N Jon Shah
Artificial, anisotropic fibre phantoms are nowadays increasingly used in the field of diffusion-weighted MRI. Such phantoms represent useful tools for, among others, the calibration of pulse sequences and validation of diffusion models since they can mimic well-known structural features of brain tissue on the one hand, but exhibit a reduced complexity, on the other. Among all materials, polyethylene fibres have been widely used due to their excellent properties regarding the restriction of water diffusion and surface relaxation properties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464368/leptomeningeal-enhancement-at-7t-in-multiple-sclerosis-frequency-morphology-and-relationship-to-cortical-volume
#13
Daniel M Harrison, Kevin Y Wang, Julie Fiol, Kerry Naunton, Walter Royal, Jun Hua, Izlem Izbudak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perform an investigation of the frequency and distribution of leptomeningeal enhancement on postgadolinium magnetization-prepared FLAIR (MPFLAIR) in multiple sclerosis (MS) on 7 Tesla (7T) MRI and to relate this finding to measures of brain structure and lesion volumes. METHODS: Twenty-nine participants with MS underwent 7T MRI of the brain. Three healthy volunteers (HVs) were scanned for comparison. Areas of postcontrast leptomeningeal enhancement were identified...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461699/cortical-abnormalities-in-bipolar-disorder-an-mri-analysis-of-6503-individuals-from-the-enigma-bipolar-disorder-working-group
#14
D P Hibar, L T Westlye, N T Doan, N Jahanshad, J W Cheung, C R K Ching, A Versace, A C Bilderbeck, A Uhlmann, B Mwangi, B Krämer, B Overs, C B Hartberg, C Abé, D Dima, D Grotegerd, E Sprooten, E Bøen, E Jimenez, F M Howells, G Delvecchio, H Temmingh, J Starke, J R C Almeida, J M Goikolea, J Houenou, L M Beard, L Rauer, L Abramovic, M Bonnin, M F Ponteduro, M Keil, M M Rive, N Yao, N Yalin, P Najt, P G Rosa, R Redlich, S Trost, S Hagenaars, S C Fears, S Alonso-Lana, T G M van Erp, T Nickson, T M Chaim-Avancini, T B Meier, T Elvsåshagen, U K Haukvik, W H Lee, A H Schene, A J Lloyd, A H Young, A Nugent, A M Dale, A Pfennig, A M McIntosh, B Lafer, B T Baune, C J Ekman, C A Zarate, C E Bearden, C Henry, C Simhandl, C McDonald, C Bourne, D J Stein, D H Wolf, D M Cannon, D C Glahn, D J Veltman, E Pomarol-Clotet, E Vieta, E J Canales-Rodriguez, F G Nery, F L S Duran, G F Busatto, G Roberts, G D Pearlson, G M Goodwin, H Kugel, H C Whalley, H G Ruhe, J C Soares, J M Fullerton, J K Rybakowski, J Savitz, K T Chaim, M Fatjó-Vilas, M G Soeiro-de-Souza, M P Boks, M V Zanetti, M C G Otaduy, M S Schaufelberger, M Alda, M Ingvar, M L Phillips, M J Kempton, M Bauer, M Landén, N S Lawrence, N E M van Haren, N R Horn, N B Freimer, O Gruber, P R Schofield, P B Mitchell, R S Kahn, R Lenroot, R Machado-Vieira, R A Ophoff, S Sarró, S Frangou, T D Satterthwaite, T Hajek, U Dannlowski, U F Malt, V Arolt, W F Gattaz, W C Drevets, X Caseras, I Agartz, P M Thompson, O A Andreassen
Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) is still not well understood. Structural brain differences have been associated with BD, but results from neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent. To address this, we performed the largest study to date of cortical gray matter thickness and surface area measures from brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 6503 individuals including 1837 unrelated adults with BD and 2582 unrelated healthy controls for group differences while also examining the effects of commonly prescribed medications, age of illness onset, history of psychosis, mood state, age and sex differences on cortical regions...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461062/analysis-strategies-for-high-resolution-uhf-fmri-data
#15
Jonathan R Polimeni, Ville Renvall, Natalia Zaretskaya, Bruce Fischl
Functional MRI (fMRI) benefits from both increased sensitivity and specificity with increasing magnetic field strength, making it a key application for Ultra-High Field (UHF) MRI scanners. Most UHF-fMRI studies utilize the dramatic increases in sensitivity and specificity to acquire high-resolution data reaching sub-millimeter scales, which enable new classes of experiments to probe the functional organization of the human brain. This review article surveys advanced data analysis strategies developed for high-resolution fMRI at UHF...
April 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461058/a-population-mri-brain-template-and-analysis-tools-for-the-macaque
#16
REVIEW
Jakob Seidlitz, Caleb Sponheim, Daniel Glen, Frank Q Ye, Kadharbatcha S Saleem, David A Leopold, Leslie Ungerleider, Adam Messinger
The use of standard anatomical templates is common in human neuroimaging, as it facilitates data analysis and comparison across subjects and studies. For non-human primates, previous in vivo templates have lacked sufficient contrast to reliably validate known anatomical brain regions and have not provided tools for automated single-subject processing. Here we present the "National Institute of Mental Health Macaque Template", or NMT for short. The NMT is a high-resolution in vivo MRI template of the average macaque brain generated from 31 subjects, as well as a neuroimaging tool for improved data analysis and visualization...
April 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460835/a-chronic-in-situ-coil-system-adapted-for-intracerebral-stimulation-during-mri-in-rats
#17
Dan Madularu, Chathura Kumaragamage, Axel P Mathieu, Praveen Kulkarni, M Natasha Rajah, Alain P Gratton, Jamie Near
BACKGROUND: We describe the fabrication and performance of a chronic in situ coil system designed to allow focal brain stimulation in rats while acquiring functional MRI data. NEW METHOD: An implantable receive-only surface radiofrequency coil (iCoil) was designed to be fitted subcutaneously, directly onto to the rat skull surface during the intracerebral cannulation procedure. The coil is fixed in place using acrylic dental cement anchored to four screws threaded into the skull...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458927/papillary-fibroelastoma-as-a-cause-of-cardiogenic-embolic-stroke-in-a-%C3%AE-thalassemia-patient-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Re-I Chin, John J Monda, Maulik Sheth, William Ogle, Gloria Merenda, Debapriya De
We describe a case of a young male without stroke risk factors who presented with a sudden onset of left-sided weakness, left hand numbness, and left eye blurriness. CT scan of the head without contrast and diffusion-weighted MRI of the brain with contrast revealed an ischemic stroke in the right middle cerebral artery distribution. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed a mobile pedunculated mass on the posterior surface of the mitral valve. This mass was resected and pathology showed a cardiac papillary fibroelastoma (CPFE), which was determined to be the cause of the patient's cardioembolic stroke...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457836/imaging-of-current-flow-in-the-human-head-during-transcranial-electrical-therapy
#19
A K Kasinadhuni, A Indahlastari, M Chauhan, Michael Schär, T H Mareci, R J Sadleir
BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that effects caused by tDCS or tACS neuromodulation are due to electric current flow within brain structures. However, to date, direct current density distributions in the brains of human subjects have not been measured. Instead computational models of tDCS or tACS have been used to predict electric current and field distributions for dosimetry and mechanism analysis purposes. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We present the first in vivo images of electric current density distributions within the brain in four subjects undergoing transcranial electrical stimulation...
April 20, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455369/complement-c5ar1-signaling-promotes-polarization-and-proliferation-of-embryonic-neural-progenitor-cells-through-pkc%C3%AE
#20
Liam G Coulthard, Owen A Hawksworth, Rui Li, Anushree Balachandran, John D Lee, Farshid Sepehrband, Nyoman Kurniawan, Angela Jeanes, David G Simmons, Ernst Wolvetang, Trent M Woodruff
The complement system, typically associated with innate immunity, is emerging as a key controller of non-immune systems including in development, with recent studies linking complement mutations with neurodevelopmental disease. A key effector of the complement response is the activation fragment C5a which, through its receptor C5aR1, is a potent driver of inflammation. Surprisingly, C5aR1 is also expressed during early mammalian embryogenesis, however no clearly defined function is ascribed to C5aR1 in development...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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