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Brain surface mri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734178/subcortical-surface-shape-in-youth-at-familial-high-risk-for-schizophrenia
#1
Kathryn Hill, Nicolas Bolo, Suraj Sarvode Mothi, Paulo Lizano, Synthia Guimond, Neeraj Tandon, Elena Molokotos, Matcheri Keshavan
Abnormalities in the subcortical brain regions that support cognitive functions have been reported in schizophrenia. Relatives of those with schizophrenia often present with psychosis-like traits (schizotypy) and similar cognition as those with schizophrenia. To evaluate the relationships between subcortical structure, schizotypy, and cognitive function, we assessed shape and volume of the hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus in untreated youth at familial high risk for schizophrenia (HRSZ). The sample consisted of 66 HRSZ and 69 age-matched healthy controls (HC)...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732269/gyral-net-a-new-representation-of-cortical-folding-organization
#2
Hanbo Chen, Yujie Li, Fangfei Ge, Gang Li, Dinggang Shen, Tianming Liu
One distinct feature of the cerebral cortex is its convex (gyri) and concave (sulci) folding patterns. Due to the remarkable complexity and variability of gyral/sulcal shapes, it has been challenging to quantitatively model their organization patterns. Inspired by the observation that the lines of gyral crests can form a connected graph on each brain hemisphere, we propose a new representation of cortical gyri/sulci organization pattern - gyral net, which models cortical architecture from a graph perspective, starting with nodes and edges obtained from the reconstructed cortical surfaces...
July 15, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730720/microstructural-white-matter-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-idiopathic-fecal-incontinence
#3
J Muthulingam, S Haas, T M Hansen, S Laurberg, L Lundby, H S Jørgensen, A M Drewes, K Krogh, J B Frøkjaer
BACKGROUND: Abnormal central nervous system processing of visceral sensation may be a part of the pathogenesis behind idiopathic fecal incontinence (IFI). Our aim was to characterize brain differences in patients with IFI and healthy controls by means of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: In 21 female patients with IFI and 15 female healthy controls, whole-brain structural differences in gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, and white matter tracts fractional anisotropy (FA) were quantified...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729939/feature-selective-temporal-prediction-of-alzheimer-s-disease-progression-using-hippocampus-surface-morphometry
#4
Sinchai Tsao, Niharika Gajawelli, Jiayu Zhou, Jie Shi, Jieping Ye, Yalin Wang, Natasha Leporé
INTRODUCTION: Prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression based on baseline measures allows us to understand disease progression and has implications in decisions concerning treatment strategy. To this end, we combine a predictive multi-task machine learning method (cFSGL) with a novel MR-based multivariate morphometric surface map of the hippocampus (mTBM) to predict future cognitive scores of patients. METHODS: Previous work has shown that a multi-task learning framework that performs prediction of all future time points simultaneously (cFSGL) can be used to encode both sparsity as well as temporal smoothness...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729936/are-there-differences-in-brain-morphology-according-to-handedness
#5
Han Jang, Jae Youn Lee, Kang Il Lee, Kang Min Park
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the differences in brain morphology according to handedness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy subjects were enrolled (21 right-handers and 21 nonright-handers). The two groups were classified according to the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Measures of cortical morphology, such as thickness, surface area, volume, and curvature, and the volumes of subcortical structures, such as the amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, and thalamus, were compared between the groups according to handedness using whole-brain 3D T1-weighted MRI...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694041/real-time-three-dimensional-3d-visualization-of-fusion-image-for-accurate-subdural-electrodes-placement-of-epilepsy-surgery
#6
Ayataka Fujimoto, Tohru Okanishi, Sotaro Kanai, Keishiro Sato, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Hideo Enoki
INTRODUCTION: The perfect match between pre-surgical estimated seizure onset zone and subdural electrodes (SEs) position is requested for epilepsy surgery. However, post-surgical neuro images sometimes disappoint physicians due to SEs malposition. To place SEs, we used to use intraoperative photograph and fluoroscopy. With this procedure, we just recognized approximate location of SEs during surgery. The purpose of the study is to perform precise SEs location intraoperatively using intra operative computer tomography (CT) and image-guidance...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693687/abnormal-alterations-of-cortical-thickness-in-16-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-pilot-mri-study-%C3%A2
#7
Chen Zhiye, Zang Xiujuan, Liu Mengqi, Liu Mengyu, Li Jinfeng, Gu Zhaoyan, Ma Lin
Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the cerebral cortical thickness changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a whole brain cortical thickness mapping system based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods High resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MR images were obtained from 16 patients with T2DM, as well as from 16 normal controls. The whole brain cortical thickness maps were generated, and the cortical thickness of each brain region was calculated according to gyral based regions of interest (ROI) using an automated labeling system by the Freesurfer software...
June 10, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688606/a-clinical-and-neurophysiological-motor-signature-of-unverricht-lundborg-disease
#8
E Hainque, A Blancher, V Mesnage, S Rivaud-Pechoux, A Bertrand, S Dupont, V Navarro, E Roze, I Gourfinkel-An, E Apartis
OBJECTIVES: Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) is the most common form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Cerebellar dysfunction may appear over time, contributing along with myoclonus to motor disability. The purpose of the present work was to clarify the motor and neurophysiological characteristics of ULD patients. METHODS: Nine patients with genetically proven ULD were evaluated clinically (medical history collected from patient charts, the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale)...
July 5, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685319/workflow-for-visualization-of-neuroimaging-data-with-an-augmented-reality-device
#9
Christof Karmonik, Timothy B Boone, Rose Khavari
Commercial availability of three-dimensional (3D) augmented reality (AR) devices has increased interest in using this novel technology for visualizing neuroimaging data. Here, a technical workflow and algorithm for importing 3D surface-based segmentations derived from magnetic resonance imaging data into a head-mounted AR device is presented and illustrated on selected examples: the pial cortical surface of the human brain, fMRI BOLD maps, reconstructed white matter tracts, and a brain network of functional connectivity...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683024/brain-imaging-of-pain-sensitization-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#10
Jesus Pujol, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Jone Llorente-Onaindia, Ben J Harrison, Marina López-Solà, Marina López-Ruiz, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Pere Benito, Joan Deus, Jordi Monfort
A relevant aspect in osteoarthritic pain is neural sensitization. This phenomenon involves augmented responsiveness to painful stimulation and may entail a clinically worse prognosis. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to study pain sensitization in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Sixty patients were recruited and pain sensitization was clinically defined on the basis of regional spreading of pain (spreading sensitization) and increased pain response to repeated stimulation (temporal summation). fMRI testing involved assessing brain responses to both pressure and heat stimulation...
July 3, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681401/prevalence-and-outcome-of-late-onset-seizures-due-to-autoimmune-etiology-a-prospective-observational-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Felix von Podewils, Marie Suesse, Julia Geithner, Bernadette Gaida, Zhong I Wang, Julia Lange, Alexander Dressel, Matthias Grothe, Christof Kessler, Soenke Langner, Uwe Runge, Christian G Bien
OBJECTIVE: The increasing incidence of new-onset seizures with age is well known. Often, the etiology cannot be clarified. In the present study, patients with unprovoked late-onset seizures and without known neoplasm, who might have had paraneoplastic encephalitis, were investigated for a potentially underlying autoimmunity. METHODS: Sixty-six consecutive patients (36 women; aged ≥55 years) after having at least one seizure or seizures for ≤6 months were prospectively identified over a period of 4...
July 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680389/post-mortem-validation-of-mri-identified-veins-on-the-surface-of-the-cerebral-cortex-as-potential-landmarks-for-neurosurgery
#12
Günther Grabner, Thomas Haider, Mark Glassner, Alexander Rauscher, Hannes Traxler, Siegfried Trattnig, Simon D Robinson
Background and Objective: Image-guided neurosurgery uses information from a wide spectrum of methods to inform the neurosurgeon's judgement about which tissue to resect and which to spare. Imaging data are registered to the patient's skull so that they correspond to the intraoperative macro- and microscopic view. The correspondence between imaging and optical systems breaks down during surgery, however, as a result of cerebro-spinal fluid drain age, tissue resection, and gravity-based brain shift. In this work we investigate whether a map of surface veins, automatically segmented from MRI, could serve as additional reference system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672181/corpus-callosum-macro-and-microstructure-in-late-life-depression
#13
Louise Emsell, Christopher Adamson, François-Laurent De Winter, Thibo Billiet, Daan Christiaens, Filip Bouckaert, Katarzyna Adamczuk, Rik Vandenberghe, Marc L Seal, Pascal Sienaert, Stefan Sunaert, Mathieu Vandenbulcke
BACKGROUND: Differences in corpus callosum (CC) morphology and microstructure have been implicated in late-life depression and may distinguish between late and early-onset forms of the illness. However, a multimodal approach using complementary imaging techniques is required to disentangle microstructural alterations from macrostructural partial volume effects. METHODS: 107 older adults were assessed: 55 currently-depressed patients without dementia and 52 controls without cognitive impairment...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666502/bilateral-intractable-trigeminal-neuralgia-due-to-a-prepontine-epidermoid-tumour-an-unlikely-duo
#14
Muhammad Junaid, Mamoon Ur Rashid, Afeera Afsheen, Ayesha Tahir, Syed Sarmad Bukhari, Anisa Kalsoom
Prepontine epidermoid is a rare congenital tumour which arises during 3rd - 5th week of embryogenesis due to incomplete separation of neuroectoderm from surface ectoderm. This is slow growing benign tumour with late presentation in adult life. The clinical symptoms depend on the location of the tumour. In this case, the patient had intractable bilateral trigeminal neuralgia. The patient was given conservative treatment for 8 weeks with carbamazipine, but it did not respond to the neuralgic pain medication. Another trial of combined neuropathic medications including carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin and baclofen were given for another 8 weeks, but the symptoms continued...
November 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664031/large-scale-structural-alteration-of-brain-in-epileptic-children-with-scn1a-mutation
#15
Yun-Jeong Lee, Mi-Sun Yum, Min-Jee Kim, Woo-Hyun Shim, Hee Mang Yoon, Il Han Yoo, Jiwon Lee, Byung Chan Lim, Ki Joong Kim, Tae-Sung Ko
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in SCN1A gene encoding the alpha 1 subunit of the voltage gated sodium channel are associated with several epilepsy syndromes including genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS +) and severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI). However, in most patients with SCN1A mutation, brain imaging has reported normal or non-specific findings including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in brain morphometry in epileptic children with SCN1A mutation compared to healthy control subjects...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661940/brain-structure-and-response-to-emotional-stimuli-as-related-to-gut-microbial-profiles-in-healthy-women
#16
Kirsten Tillisch, Emeran Mayer, Arpana Gupta, Zafar Gill, Rémi Brazeilles, Boris Le Nevé, Johan E T van Hylckama Vlieg, Denis Guyonnet, Muriel Derrien, Jennifer S Labus
OBJECTIVE: Brain-gut-microbiota interactions may play an important role in human health and behavior. However, while rodent models have demonstrated effects of the gut microbiota on emotional, nociceptive and social behaviors, there is little translational human evidence to date. In this study we identify brain and behavioral characteristics of healthy women clustered by gut microbiota profiles. METHODS: Forty women supplied fecal samples for 16s rRNA profiling...
June 28, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656347/neural-correlates-of-verbal-memory-in-youth-with-heavy-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#17
Lauren A Gross, Eileen M Moore, Jeffrey R Wozniak, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Elizabeth R Sowell, Kenneth L Jones, Edward P Riley, Sarah N Mattson
Prenatal alcohol exposure can impact both brain development and neurobehavioral function, including verbal learning and recall, although the relation between verbal recall and brain structure in this population has not been examined fully. We aimed to determine the structural neural correlates of verbal learning and recall in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a region of interest (ROI) approach. As part of an ongoing multisite project, subjects (age 10-16 years) with prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 81) and controls (CON, n = 81) were tested using the CVLT-C and measures of cortical volume, surface area, and thickness as well as hippocampal volume were derived from MRI...
June 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648714/evaluation-of-a-minimum-norm-based-beamforming-technique-sloreta-for-reducing-tonic-muscle-contamination-of-eeg-at-sensor-level
#18
Azin S Janani, Tyler S Grummett, Trent W Lewis, Sean P Fitzgibbon, Emma M Whitham, Dylan DelosAngeles, Hanieh Bakhshayesh, John O Willoughby, Kenneth J Pope
BACKGROUND: Cranial and cervical muscle activity (electromyogram, EMG) contaminates the surface electroencephalogram (EEG) from frequencies below 20 through to frequencies above 100Hz. It is not possible to have a reliable measure of cognitive tasks expressed in EEG at gamma-band frequencies until the muscle contamination is removed. NEW METHOD: In the present work, we introduce a new approach of using a minimum-norm based beamforming technique (sLORETA) to reduce tonic muscle contamination at sensor level...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648465/planum-temporale-asymmetry-in-people-who-stutter
#19
Patricia M Gough, Emily L Connally, Peter Howell, David Ward, Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported that the planum temporale - a language-related structure that normally shows a leftward asymmetry - had reduced asymmetry in people who stutter (PWS) and reversed asymmetry in those with severe stuttering. These findings are consistent with the theory that altered language lateralization may be a cause or consequence of stuttering. Here, we re-examined these findings in a larger sample of PWS. METHODS: We evaluated planum temporale asymmetry in structural MRI scans obtained from 67 PWS and 63 age-matched controls using: 1) manual measurements of the surface area; 2) voxel-based morphometry to automatically calculate grey matter density...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647011/brain-structural-signatures-of-adolescent-depressive-symptom-trajectories-a-longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Lianne Schmaal, Murat Yücel, Rachel Ellis, Nandita Vijayakumar, Julian G Simmons, Nicholas B Allen, Sarah Whittle
OBJECTIVE: Most evidence for structural brain abnormalities associated with adolescent depression is based on cross-sectional study designs that do not take into account the dynamic course of depressive symptoms and brain maturation across adolescence. In this study, a longitudinal design was used to investigate the association between different trajectories of depressive symptoms and longitudinal changes in brain structure throughout adolescence. METHOD: One hundred forty-nine adolescents were assessed on depressive symptoms and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging at 12 years of age and were followed up multiple times until 19 years...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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