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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077175/structural-correlates-of-trait-impulsivity-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-healthy-controls-a-surface-based-morphometry-study
#1
P C Tu, Y H Kuan, C T Li, T P Su
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) frequently exhibit impulsive behaviors independent of their mood state, and trait impulsivity is increasingly recognized as a crucial BD biomarker. This study aimed to investigate structural correlates of trait impulsivity measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) in healthy controls (HCs) and patients with BD. METHOD: We recruited 59 patients diagnosed with BD I or BD II (35.3 ± 8.5 years) and 56 age- and sex-matched HCs (33...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073935/brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-younger-adults-in-growth-hormone-receptor-deficient-humans
#2
Kaoru Nashiro, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Rico Velasco, Priya Balasubramian, Min Wei, Paul M Thompson, Mara Mather, Marvin D Nelson, Alexandra Guevara, Enrique Teran, Valter D Longo
: Growth hormone receptor deficiency (GHRD) results in short stature, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and low circulating levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Previous studies in mice and humans suggested that GHRD has protective effects against age-related diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Whereas GHRD mice show improved age-dependent cognitive performance, the effect of GHRD on human cognition remains unknown. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we compared brain structure, function, and connectivity between 13 people with GHRD and 12 unaffected relatives...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069920/folding-but-not-surface-area-expansion-is-associated-with-cellular-morphological-maturation-in-the-fetal-cerebral-cortex
#3
Xiaojie Wang, Colin Studholme, Peta L Grigsby, Antonio E Frias, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher D Kroenke
: Altered macroscopic anatomical characteristics of the cerebral cortex have been identified in individuals affected by various neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the cellular developmental mechanisms that give rise to these abnormalities are not understood. Recently, advances in image reconstruction of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI) have made possible high resolution in utero measurements of water diffusion anisotropy in the fetal brain. Here, diffusion anisotropy within the developing fetal cerebral cortex is longitudinally characterized in the rhesus macaque, focusing on gestation days (G) 85 through G135 of the 165 day term...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059629/extra-axial-ependymoma-of-the-cerebral-convexity-a-very-rare-intracranial-adult-tumor
#4
Soufiane Berhili, Abdellah Aissa, Selma Kadiri, Nadia Cherradi, Sanae El Majjaoui, Hanan El Kacemi, Tayeb Kebdani, Noureddine Benjaafar
Background Ependymomas are rare adult tumors that originate from the ventricular system or the ependymal surface of the central canal. Extra-axial supratentorial ependymomas are extremely rare, and only five cases have been reported to date in the English literature. Case presentation A 46-year-old previously healthy male presented with a gradual painless loss of vision in the right eye. Cerebral MRI showed a right parietal-occipital lesion resembling an atypical meningioma. Surgical resection was performed, and immunohistochemical staining results concluded that it was a very uncommon location of a grade 3 ependymoma...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057964/t1-weighted-gradient-echo-imaging-with-and-without-inversion-recovery-in-the-identification-of-anatomical-structures-on-the-lateral-surface-of-the-brain
#5
Sergio Murilo Georgeto, Carlos Alexandre Martins Zicarelli, Munir Antônio Gariba, Luiz Roberto Aguiar
OBJECTIVE: To compare brain structures using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging with isotropic resolution, in T1-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) acquisition, with and without inversion recovery (IR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 30 individuals, we evaluated 120 blocks of images of the left and right cerebral hemispheres being acquired by T1 GRE and by T1 IR GRE. On the basis of the Naidich et al. method for localization of anatomical landmarks, 27 anatomical structures were divided into two categories: identifiable and inconclusive...
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056734/metal-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-and-diagnosis-of-neurodegenerative-brain-diseases
#6
Valentina Vio, María José Marchant, Eyleen Araya, Marcelo J Kogan
This review focuses on the application of metal nanoparticles in the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Metal nanoparticles present interesting physicochemical properties that can be applied to increase biomarker detection sensitivities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these nanoparticles could be used in different strategies for the treatment of central nervous system diseases, particularly in regards to drug delivery. Herein, specific potential applications of metal nanoparticles are separately discussed for the contexts of in vitro diagnoses and treatments...
January 5, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046509/su-c-bra-06-automatic-brain-tumor-segmentation-for-stereotactic-radiosurgery-applications
#7
Y Liu, S Stojadinovic, S Jiang, R Timmerman, R Abdulrahman, L Nedzi, X Gu
PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), which delivers a potent dose of highly conformal radiation to the target in a single fraction, requires accurate tumor delineation for treatment planning. We present an automatic segmentation strategy, that synergizes intensity histogram thresholding, super-voxel clustering, and level-set based contour evolving methods to efficiently and accurately delineate SRS brain tumors on contrast-enhance T1-weighted (T1c) Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039039/group-comparison-of-cortical-fiber-connectivity-map-an-application-between-post-stroke-patients-and-healthy-subjects
#8
Kai Liu, Teng Zhang, Winnie C W Chu, Vincent C T Mok, Defeng Wang, Lin Shi
Structural connectome measurement combined with diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography allows generation of a whole-brain connectome. However, current cortical structural connectivity (SC) measurements have not been well combined with the vertex-wise multi-subjects statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using group comparison vertex-wise analysis for cortical SC measurement. A fiber connectivity density (FiCD) method based on a combination of a diffusion fiber tracking technique and cortical surface-based analysis was used to measure the whole-brain cortical SC map (FiCD map)...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033566/towards-a-holistic-cortical-thickness-descriptor-heat-kernel-based-grey-matter-morphology-signatures
#9
Gang Wang, Yalin Wang
In this paper, we propose a heat kernel based regional shape descriptor that may be capable of better exploiting volumetric morphological information than other available methods, thereby improving statistical power on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. The mechanism of our analysis is driven by the graph spectrum and the heat kernel theory, to capture the volumetric geometry information in the constructed tetrahedral meshes. In order to capture profound brain grey matter shape changes, we first use the volumetric Laplace-Beltrami operator to determine the point pair correspondence between white-grey matter and CSF-grey matter boundary surfaces by computing the streamlines in a tetrahedral mesh...
December 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032437/birth-weight-discordance-dna-methylation-and-cortical-morphology-of-adolescent-monozygotic-twins
#10
Kevin F Casey, Melissa L Levesque, Moshe Szyf, Elmira Ismaylova, Marie-Pier Verner, Matthew Suderman, Frank Vitaro, Mara Brendgen, Ginette Dionne, Michel Boivin, Richard E Tremblay, Linda Booij
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the in utero environment, which can be indexed by birth weight (BW), is associated with cortical morphology in adolescence and adulthood. Work in monozygotic (MZ) twins suggests that this association is driven by non-shared environmental factors. This correlation could be the result of in utero impacts on DNA methylation. The aim of the present study with MZ twins is to replicate the association between discordance in BW and brain morphology and test whether discordance in DNA methylation mediates this relationship...
December 29, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032008/effects-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-resting-state-fmri-signals-and-functional-connectivity-within-primary-somatosensory-cortex-of-monkeys
#11
Tung-Lin Wu, Arabinda Mishra, Feng Wang, Pai-Feng Yang, John C Gore, Li Min Chen
INTRODUCTION: Correlated low-frequency fluctuations of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) signals have been widely used for inferring intrinsic brain functional connectivity (FC). In animal studies, accurate estimate of anesthetic effects on rsfMRI signals is demanded for reliable interpretations of FC changes. We have previously shown that inter-regional FC can reliably delineate local millimeter-scale circuits within digit representations of primary somatosensory cortex (S1) subregions (areas 3a, 3b, and 1) in monkeys under isoflurane anesthesia...
December 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029706/morphological-brain-measures-of-cortico-limbic-inhibition-related-to-resilience
#12
Arpana Gupta, Aubrey Love, Lisa A Kilpatrick, Jennifer S Labus, Ravi Bhatt, Lin Chang, Kirsten Tillisch, Bruce Naliboff, Emeran A Mayer
Resilience is the ability to adequately adapt and respond to homeostatic perturbations. Although resilience has been associated with positive health outcomes, the neuro-biological basis of resilience is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to identify associations between regional brain morphology and trait resilience with a focus on resilience-related morphological differences in brain regions involved in cortico-limbic inhibition. The relationship between resilience and measures of affect were also investigated...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026111/biomedical-applications-of-metal-encapsulated-fullerene-nanoparticles
#13
Tinghui Li, Harry C Dorn
The carbonaceous nanomaterials known as metallofullerenes have attracted considerable attention due to their attractive properties. The robust nature of the "Trojan Horse" fullerene cage provides an important structural component, which isolates the metal cluster from the bioenvironment. The large carbon surface area is ideally suited for multiple exo-functionalization approaches to modify the hydrophobic cage for a more hydrophilic bioenvironment. Additionally, peptides and other agents are readily covalently attached to this nanoprobe for targeting applications...
December 27, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017683/iron-oxide-nanoparticle-surface-decorated-with-crgd-peptides-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-brain-tumors
#14
Sophie Richard, Marianne Boucher, Yoann Lalatonne, Sébastien Mériaux, Laurence Motte
In this article, a specific targeting Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) nanoplatform, composed by iron oxide nanoparticle (NP) with cRGD peptides as targeting agent onto NP surface, is explored for the diagnosis of brain tumors by MRI using intracranial U87MG mice xenograft tumor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editor: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader.
December 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005818/multimodal-neuronavigation-in-microsurgery-resection-of-brainstem-tumors
#15
Fang Zhang, WenMing Hong, Yan Guo, QianYing Guo, XiaoPeng Hu
BACKGROUND: Microsurgery is a common treatment of brainstem tumors. However, misdirection, vascular damage, nerves injuries, paralysis, even death are all well-known complications, and the risk of adverse events is more likely in less experienced operators. This study was aimed to validate the accuracy of multimodal neuronavigation during microsurgery resection of brainstem tumors. METHODS: Ten patients with brainstem tumors underwent preoperative MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, computed tomography, three-dimensional print, and images loaded into the neuronavigation platform were used for its segmentation and preoperative planning...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996064/free-serum-haemoglobin-is-associated-with-brain-atrophy-in-secondary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Alex Lewin, Shea Hamilton, Aviva Witkover, Paul Langford, Richard Nicholas, Jeremy Chataway, Charles R M Bangham
Background A major cause of disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is progressive brain atrophy, whose pathogenesis is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to identify protein biomarkers of brain atrophy in SPMS. Methods We used surface-enhanced laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to carry out an unbiased search for serum proteins whose concentration correlated with the rate of brain atrophy, measured by serial MRI scans over a 2-year period in a well-characterized cohort of 140 patients with SPMS...
November 15, 2016: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989972/frontal-lobe-decortication-frontal-lobectomy-with-ventricular-preservation-in-epilepsy-part-1-anatomical-landmarks-and-surgical-technique
#17
Hung Tzu Wen, Leila Maria Da Róz, Albert L Rhoton, Luiz Henrique Martins Castro, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: An extensive frontal resection is a frequently performed neurosurgical procedure, especially for treating brain tumor and refractory epilepsy. However, there is paucity of reports available regarding its surgical anatomy and technique. OBJECTIVES: To present the anatomical landmarks and surgical technique of the frontal lobe decortication (FLD) in epilepsy. The goals are to maximize the gray matter removal, spare primary and supplementary motor areas, and preserving frontal horn...
October 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989841/cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-differentially-associated-with-cortical-thickness-in-young-and-older-adults
#18
Victoria Williams, Jasmeet P Hayes, Daniel E Forman, David H Salat, Reisa A Sperling, Mieke Verfaellie, Scott M Hayes
Aging is associated with reductions in gray matter volume and cortical thickness. One factor that may play a role in mitigating age-associated brain decline is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Although previous work has identified a positive association between CRF and gray matter volume, the relationship between CRF and cortical thickness, which serves as a more sensitive indicator of gray matter integrity, has yet to be assessed in healthy young and older adults. To address this gap in the literature, 32 young and 29 older adults completed treadmill-based progressive maximal exercise testing to assess CRF (peak VO2), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine vertex-wise surface-based cortical thickness metrics...
October 27, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958212/association-of-bilateral-multiple-presumed-retinal-astrocytic-proliferations-with-combined-hamartoma-of-retina-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium-in-a-9-year-old-male-child-with-neurofibromatosis-type-2
#19
Pukhraj Rishi, Raj Shri Hirawat, Aditya Verma
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2) is characterized by multifocal proliferation of neural crest-derived cells. The characteristics finding of NF-2 is bilateral vestibular schwannomas. Combined hamartoma of retina and retinal epithelium (CHRRPE) is another associated finding. A 9 year-old-male child presented with left eye decreased vision for 3 months. Visual acuity was 0.0 and 0.8 LogMAR in the right and left eye, respectively. Left fundus showed an elevated, pigmented lesion with surface wrinkling and vascular tortuosity suggestive of CHRRPE with multiple presumed retinal astrocytic proliferations in mid-periphery...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951412/increased-cortical-capillary-transit-time-heterogeneity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-dsc-mri-perfusion-study
#20
Simon F Eskildsen, Louise Gyldensted, Kartheeban Nagenthiraja, Rune B Nielsen, Mikkel Bo Hansen, Rikke B Dalby, Jesper Frandsen, Anders Rodell, Carsten Gyldensted, Sune N Jespersen, Torben E Lund, Kim Mouridsen, Hans Brændgaard, Leif Østergaard
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and neurotoxic Aβ in the brain parenchyma. Hypoxia caused by microvascular changes and disturbed capillary flows could stimulate this build-up of AD-specific proteins in the brain. In this study, we compared cerebral microcirculation in a cohort of AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with that of age-matched controls, all without a history of diabetes or of hypertension for more than 2 years, using dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI)...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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