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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239853/averaged-head-phantoms-from-magnetic-resonance-images-of-korean-children-and-young-adults
#1
Miran Han, Ae-Kyoung Lee, Hyung-Do Choi, Yong Wook Jung, Jin Seo Park
Increased use of mobile phones raises concerns about the health risks of electromagnetic radiation. Phantom heads are routinely used for radiofrequency dosimetry simulations, and the purpose of this study was to construct averaged phantom heads for children and young adults. Using magnetic resonance images (MRI), sectioned cadaver images, and a hybrid approach, we initially built template phantoms representing 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-year-old children and adult. Our subsequent approach revised the template phantoms using 29 averaged items that were identified by averaging the MRI data from 500 children and young adults...
December 14, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239813/experimental-assessment-of-the-advanced-collapsed-cone-engine-for-scalp-brachytherapy-treatments
#2
Brie Cawston-Grant, Hali Morrison, Ron S Sloboda, Geetha Menon
PURPOSE: To experimentally assess the performance of the Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine (ACE) for 192Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment planning of nonmelanoma skin cancers of the scalp. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A layered slab phantom was designed to model the head (skin, skull, and brain) and surface treatment mold using tissue equivalent materials. Six variations of the phantom were created by varying skin thickness, skull thickness, and size of air gap between the mold and skin...
November 24, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238487/morphology-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-schizophrenia-a-case-control-study-in-kashan-iran
#3
Afshin Ahmadvand, Shahab Bagherzadeh Shahidi, Hamidreza Talari, Fatemeh Sadat Ghoreishi, Gholam Abbas Mousavi
Background: Corpus Callosum (CC) plays a significant role in hemispheric communication and in lateralized brain function and behaviors. Structural abnormalities in the corpus callosum of schizophrenic patients were reported. However, previous studies regarding the relationship between morphology of CC in patients with schizophrenia and healthy people are controversial. Objective: To evaluate the morphological differences of the CC between patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy people and to examine the relationship between the characteristics of the CC and schizophrenia severity...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#4
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230564/adsorptive-filtration-systems-for-effective-removal-of-blood-amyloid-%C3%AE-a-potential-therapy-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Nobuya Kitaguchi, Kazunori Kawaguchi, Kazunori Yamazaki, Hiroshi Kawachi, Miwa Sakata, Megumi Kaneko, Masao Kato, Kazuyoshi Sakai, Norimi Ohashi, Midori Hasegawa, Yoshiyuki Hiki, Yukio Yuzawa
Accumulation of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) in the brain causes cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that an extracorporeal system that rapidly removed Aβ from the blood may accelerate Aβ drainage from the brain. We previously reported that dialyzers remove blood Aβs effectively, mainly by adsorption on the inner surfaces of the hollow fibers, resulting in lower Aβ accumulation in the brains of patients undergoing hemodialysis than the controls without hemodialysis. The aim of the present study was to create a more convenient and effective blood Aβ removal system using adsorptive filtration, in which the filtrate returned to the body...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228953/a-simple-and-accurate-rule-based-modeling-framework-for-simulation-of-autocrine-paracrine-stimulation-of-glioblastoma-cell-motility-and-proliferation-by-l1cam-in-2-d-culture
#6
Justin Caccavale, David Fiumara, Michael Stapf, Liedeke Sweitzer, Hannah J Anderson, Jonathan Gorky, Prasad Dhurjati, Deni S Galileo
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer for which there is no known cure. Its malignancy is due to rapid cell division along with high motility and invasiveness of cells into the brain tissue. Simple 2-dimensional laboratory assays (e.g., a scratch assay) commonly are used to measure the effects of various experimental perturbations, such as treatment with chemical inhibitors. Several mathematical models have been developed to aid the understanding of the motile behavior and proliferation of GBM cells...
December 11, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228824/development-of-novel-bioadhesive-granisetron-hydrochloride-spanlastic-gel-and-insert-for-brain-targeting-and-study-their-effects-on-rats
#7
Rehab Abdelmonem, Mohamed El Nabarawi, Alshaimaa Attia
The aim of this study was to formulate granisetron hydrochloride (GH) spanlastic in mucoadhesive gels and lyophilized inserts for intranasal administration to improve GH bioavailability and brain targeting. Carpapol 934 and HPMC were incorporated in GH spanlastic in nasal gels (GHSpNGs). Gelatin and HPMC as matrix former, glycine as a collapse protecting and mannitol as an insert filler and sweeting agent were used to prepare GH spanlastic loaded in lyophilized inserts (GHSpNIs). The prepared GHSpNGs were characterized for pH measurement, drug content, rheology, and in vitro drug release...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226434/protein-identification-in-imaging-mass-spectrometry-through-spatially-targeted-liquid-micro-extractions
#8
Daniel J Ryan, David Nei, Boone M Prentice, Kristie L Rose, Richard M Caprioli, Jeffrey M Spraggins
RATIONALE: Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) can be used to generate spatially-directed protein identifications in an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) workflow. This approach involves the use of robotic micro-extractions coupled to online liquid chromatography (LC). We have characterized the extraction efficiency of this method as well as its ability to identify proteins from a matrix assisted laser/desorption ionization (MALDI) IMS experiment. METHODS: Proteins and peptides were extracted from transverse sections of a rat brain and sagittal sections of a mouse pup using liquid surface extractions...
December 10, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225392/a-computational-analysis-of-bone-formation-in-the-cranial-vault-using-a-coupled-reaction-diffusion-strain-model
#9
Chanyoung Lee, Joan T Richtsmeier, Reuben H Kraft
Bones of the murine cranial vault are formed by differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts, a process that is primarily understood to be controlled by a cascade of reactions between extracellular molecules and cells. We assume that the process can be modeled using Turing's reaction-diffusion equations, a mathematical model describing the pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In addition to the processes modeled by reaction-diffusion equations, we hypothesize that mechanical stimuli of the cells due to growth of the underlying brain contribute significantly to the process of cell differentiation in cranial vault development...
June 2017: Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225114/fructose-induced-inflammation-and-increased-cortisol-a-new-mechanism-for-how-sugar-induces-visceral-adiposity
#10
REVIEW
James J DiNicolantonio, Varshil Mehta, Neema Onkaramurthy, James H O'Keefe
Traditionally, the leading hypothesis regarding the development of obesity involves caloric imbalance, whereby the amount of calories consumed exceeds the amount of calories burned which causes obesity. Another hypothesis for why we get fat has surfaced in the last decade which is the idea that the overconsumption of added sugars and refined carbohydrates induce insulin resistance and high insulin levels causing obesity. While insulin is a fat-storing hormone, this hypothesis does not explain visceral adiposity, or why certain people are found to have fat stored in and around their organs...
December 7, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222770/ocular-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-and-ngf-eye-drop-application-as-paradigms-to-investigate-ngf-neuroprotective-and-reparative-actions
#11
Paola Tirassa, Pamela Rosso, Angela Iannitelli
The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219760/direct-visualization-of-microcirculation-impairment-after-acute-subdural-hemorrhage-in-a-novel-animal-model
#12
Huan-Chih Wang, Jui-Chang Tsai, Jing-Er Lee, Sheng-Jean Huang, Abel Po-Hao Huang, Wei-Chou Lin, Sung-Tsang Hsieh, Kuo-Chuan Wang
OBJECTIVE Direct brain compression and secondary injury due to increased intracranial pressure are believed to be the pathognomic causes of a grave outcome in acute subdural hemorrhage (aSDH). However, ischemic damage from aSDH has received limited attention. The authors hypothesized that cerebral microcirculation is altered after aSDH. Direct visualization of microcirculation was conducted in a novel rat model. METHODS A craniectomy was performed on each of the 18 experimental adult Wistar rats, followed by superfusion of autologous arterial blood onto the cortical surface...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218800/ultrastretchable-kirigami-bioprobes
#13
Yusuke Morikawa, Shota Yamagiwa, Hirohito Sawahata, Rika Numano, Kowa Koida, Makoto Ishida, Takeshi Kawano
An ultrastretchable film device is developed that can follow the shape of spherical and large deformable biological samples such as heart and brain tissues. Although the film is composed of biocompatible parylene for the device substrate and metal layers of platinum (Pt)/titanium (Ti), which are unstretchable materials, the film shows a high stretchability by patterning slits as a "Kirigami" design. A Pt/Ti-microelectrode array embedded in 11 µm thick parylene film with 5 × 91 slits exhibits a film strain of ≈250% at 9 mN strain-force (0...
December 8, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218544/the-molecular-pathway-regulating-bergmann-glia-and-folia-generation-in-the-cerebellum
#14
REVIEW
Alan W Leung, James Y H Li
Evolution of complex behaviors in higher vertebrates and primates require the development of sophisticated neuronal circuitry and the expansion of brain surface area to accommodate the vast number of neuronal and glial populations. To achieve these goals, the neocortex in primates and the cerebellum in amniotes have developed specialized types of basal progenitors to aid the folding of their cortices. In the cerebellum, Bergmann glia constitute such a basal progenitor population, having a distinctive morphology and playing a critical role in cerebellar corticogenesis...
December 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215702/adam17-participates-in-the-protective-effect-of-paeoniflorin-on-mouse-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#15
Haifang Wang, Shuhui Ma, Jing Li, Miaomiao Zhao, Xueping Huo, Jingying Sun, Lijun Sun, Jun Hu, Qinshe Liu
Paeoniflorin (PF), the most abundant active ingredient of traditional Chinese herbal medicine Paeoniae Radix, has been recognized as a potential neuroprotectant due to its remarkable efficacy on mitigating cerebral infarction and preventing the neurodegenerative diseases. However, the precise mechanisms of PF remain incompletely understood. In this study, we first provided evidence for the protective effect of PF on hydrogen peroxide-induced injury on mouse brain microvascular endothelial bEnd.3 cells, and for transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signal induced by PF, suggesting that EGFR transactivation might be involved in the beneficial role of PF...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215294/structure-reconstruction-of-lyp-1-lc-lyp-1-coupling-by-amide-bond-inspires-the-brain-metastatic-tumor-targeted-drug-delivery
#16
Xiaoyu Zhang, Fei Wang, Qing Shen, Cao Xie, Yu Liu, Jun Pan, Weiyue Lu
The stability and binding affinity of targeting ligands play important roles in active targeting drug delivery. Herein LyP-1 peptide was used as a model peptide to investigate chemical-biology-based strategies in the design of peptide ligands for active targeting. LyP-1, a short peptide cyclized with a disulfide bond, can specifically bind to tumor cells and tumor lymphatics through the interaction with cell-surface protein p32/gC1qR. Lc(LyP-1), with the same sequence of LyP-1 by amide coupling, showed better cellular uptake and stability in blood in our previous research...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212740/il-23-interleukin-23-producing-conventional-dendritic-cells-control-the-detrimental-il-17-interleukin-17-response-in-stroke
#17
Mathias Gelderblom, Mattia Gallizioli, Peter Ludewig, Vivien Thom, Priyadharshini Arunachalam, Björn Rissiek, Christian Bernreuther, Markus Glatzel, Thomas Korn, Thiruma Valavan Arumugam, Jan Sedlacik, Christian Gerloff, Eva Tolosa, Anna M Planas, Tim Magnus
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory mechanisms can exacerbate ischemic tissue damage and worsen clinical outcome in patients with stroke. Both αβ and γδ T cells are established mediators of tissue damage in stroke, and the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in inducing the early events of T cell activation and differentiation in stroke is not well understood. METHODS: In a murine model of experimental stroke, we defined the immune phenotype of infiltrating DC subsets based on flow cytometry of surface markers, the expression of ontogenetic markers, and cytokine levels...
December 6, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209001/remote-tactile-sensing-system-integrated-with-magnetic-synapse
#18
Sunjong Oh, Youngdo Jung, Seonggi Kim, SungJoon Kim, Xinghao Hu, Hyuneui Lim, CheolGi Kim
Mechanoreceptors in a fingertip convert external tactile stimulations into electrical signals, which are transmitted by the nervous system through synaptic transmitters and then perceived by the brain with high accuracy and reliability. Inspired by the human synapse system, this paper reports a robust tactile sensing system consisting of a remote touch tip and a magnetic synapse. External pressure on the remote touch tip is transferred in the form of air pressure to the magnetic synapse, where its variation is converted into electrical signals...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208422/support-vector-machine-based-classification-of-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-and-healthy-controls-using-structural-mri
#19
Yuan Xiao, Zhihan Yan, Youjin Zhao, Bo Tao, Huaiqiang Sun, Fei Li, Li Yao, Wenjing Zhang, Shah Chandan, Jieke Liu, Qiyong Gong, John A Sweeney, Su Lui
Although regional brain deficits have been demonstrated in schizophrenia patients by structural MRI studies, one important question that remains largely unanswered is whether the complex and subtle deficits revealed by MRI could be used as objective biomarkers to discriminate patients from healthy controls individually. To address this question, a total of 326 right-handed participants were recruited, including 163 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and 163 demographically matched healthy controls...
December 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207279/biofabrication-of-morphology-improved-cadmium-sulfide-nanoparticles-using-shewanella-oneidensis-bacterial-cells-and-ionic-liquid-for-toxicity-against-brain-cancer-cell-lines
#20
Li Wang, Siyuan Chen, Yiming Ding, Qiang Zhu, Nijia Zhang, Shuqing Yu
The present work determines the anticancer activity of bio-mediated synthesized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using the ionic liquid and bacterial cells (Shewanella oneidensis). Bacterial cells have been exposed to be important resources that hold huge potential as ecofriendly, cost-effective, evading toxic of dangerous chemicals and the alternative of conventional physiochemical synthesis. The Shewanella oneidensis is an important kind of metal reducing bacterium, known as its special anaerobic respiratory and sulfate reducing capacity...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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