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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437250/ionizing-radiation-reduces-adam10-expression-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-stress-induced-senescence
#1
Lucinda S McRobb, Matthew J McKay, Jennifer R Gamble, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Estevam D Santos, Vivienne S Lee, Zhenjun Zhao, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Cellular senescence is associated with aging and is considered a potential contributor to age-associated neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing premature neurovascular degeneration and dementia but also induces premature senescence. As cells of the cerebrovascular endothelium are particularly susceptible to radiation and play an important role in brain homeostasis, we investigated radiation-induced senescence in brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Using biotinylation to label surface proteins, streptavidin enrichment and proteomic analysis, we analyzed the surface proteome of stress-induced senescent EC in culture...
April 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435263/neuroprotection-against-apoptosis-of-sk-n-mc-cells-using-rmp-7-and-lactoferrin-grafted-liposomes-carrying-quercetin
#2
Yung-Chih Kuo, Chien-Wei Tsao
A drug delivery system of quercetin (QU)-encapsulated liposomes (LS) grafted with RMP-7, a bradykinin analog, and lactoferrin (Lf) was developed to permeate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and rescue degenerated neurons, acting as an Alzheimer's disease (AD) pharmacotherapy. This colloidal formulation of QU-encapsulated LS grafted with RMP-7 and Lf (RMP-7-Lf-QU-LS) was used to traverse human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) regulated by human astrocytes (HAs) and to treat SK-N-MC cells after an insult with cytotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) fibrils...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435053/in-depth-analysis-of-the-synaptic-plasma-membrane-proteome-of-small-hippocampal-slices-using-an-integrated-approach
#3
Rui Qiao, Shuiming Li, Mi Zhou, Penghui Chen, Zhao Liu, Min Tang, Jian Zhou
Comprehensive knowledge of the synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) proteome of a distinct brain region in a defined pathological state would greatly advance the understanding of the underlying biology of synaptic plasticity. The development of innovative approaches for studying the SPM proteome of small brain tissues is highly desired. This study presents a suitable protocol that integrates biotinylation-based affinity capture of cell surface-exposed proteins, isolation of synaptosomes, and biochemical extraction of SPM proteins from biotinylated hippocampal slices...
April 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434802/active-touch-and-self-motion-encoding-by-merkel-cell-associated-afferents
#4
Kyle S Severson, Duo Xu, Margaret Van de Loo, Ling Bai, David D Ginty, Daniel H O'Connor
Touch perception depends on integrating signals from multiple types of peripheral mechanoreceptors. Merkel-cell associated afferents are thought to play a major role in form perception by encoding surface features of touched objects. However, activity of Merkel afferents during active touch has not been directly measured. Here, we show that Merkel and unidentified slowly adapting afferents in the whisker system of behaving mice respond to both self-motion and active touch. Touch responses were dominated by sensitivity to bending moment (torque) at the base of the whisker and its rate of change and largely explained by a simple mechanical model...
April 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434655/apolipoprotein-e-receptors-and-modulation-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Na Zhao, Chia-Chen Liu, Wenhui Qiao, Guojun Bu
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid carrier in both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Lipid-loaded apoE lipoprotein particles bind to several cell surface receptors to support membrane homeostasis and injury repair in the brain. Considering prevalence and relative risk magnitude, the ε4 allele of the APOE gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE4 contributes to AD pathogenesis by modulating multiple pathways, including but not limited to the metabolism, aggregation, and toxicity of amyloid-β peptide, tauopathy, synaptic plasticity, lipid transport, glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function, vascular integrity, and neuroinflammation...
March 14, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432328/tactile-flow-overides-other-cues-to-self-motion
#6
Laurence R Harris, Kenzo Sakurai, William H A Beaudot
Vestibular-somatosensory interactions are pervasive in the brain but it remains unclear why. Here we explore the contribution of tactile flow to processing self-motion. We assessed two aspects of self-motion: timing and speed. Participants sat on an oscillating swing and either kept their hands on their laps or rested them lightly on an earth-stationary surface. They viewed a grating oscillating at the same frequency as their motion and judged its phase or, in a separate experiment, its speed relative to their perceived motion...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431825/single-subcortical-infarct-pathomechanism-assessed-by-thin-section-computed-tomography-perfusion
#7
Dong Hoon Shin, Ernst Klotz, Eung Yeop Kim
INTRODUCTION: The pathomechanism of a single subcortical infarct (SSI) may be better determined by assessing the perfusion status between parent artery and ischemic lesion. We aimed to compare the classifications into branch atheromatous disease (BAD) versus non-BAD based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) or computed tomography perfusion (CTP), and to test whether a CTP-based classification improves the predicting power for progression in SSI (PSSI) compared to that by DWI. METHODS: We enrolled 109 consecutive patients with SSI examined by whole-supratentorial brain CTP and follow-up DWI...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431614/permeability-surface-area-product-analysis-in-malignant-brain-edema-prediction-a-pilot-study
#8
O Volny, P Cimflova, T-Y Lee, B K Menon, C D d'Esterre
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Using an extended CT perfusion acquisition (150s), we sought to determine the association between perfusion parameters and malignant edema after ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patients (from prospective study PROVE-IT, NCT02184936) with terminal internal carotid artery±proximal middle cerebral occlusion were involved. CTA was assessed for clot location and status of leptomeningeal collaterals. The following CTP parameters were calculated within the ischemic territory and contralaterally: permeability surface area product (PS), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427902/effects-of-different-green-light-intensities-on-the-growth-performance-and-endocrine-properties-of-barfin-flounder-verasper-moseri
#9
Akiyoshi Takahashi, Satoshi Kasagi, Naoto Murakami, Sumihisa Furufuji, Shigeto Kikuchi, Kanta Mizusawa, Tadashi Andoh
We previously reported that the somatic growth of barfin flounder, Verasper moseri, was effectively stimulated by the green light compared to the blue and red lights. Herein, we report the effects of different green light intensities on the growth and endocrine system of the fish. Fish were reared in a dark room with light from a light-emitting diode (LED) at a peak wavelength of 518 nm under controlled photoperiod (10.5:13.5 h, light:dark cycle; 06:00-16:30, light) with three levels of photon flux density (PFD)-2 (low), 7 (medium), or 21 (high) μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at the water surface...
April 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425447/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-of-recombinant-human-myelin-basic-protein-nano-therapeutic-vaccine-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice-animal-model
#10
Medhat A Al-Ghobashy, Aliaa N ElMeshad, Rania M Abdelsalam, Mohammed M Nooh, Muhammad Al-Shorbagy, Götz Laible
Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424513/super-multiplex-vibrational-imaging
#11
Lu Wei, Zhixing Chen, Lixue Shi, Rong Long, Andrew V Anzalone, Luyuan Zhang, Fanghao Hu, Rafael Yuste, Virginia W Cornish, Wei Min
The ability to visualize directly a large number of distinct molecular species inside cells is increasingly essential for understanding complex systems and processes. Even though existing methods have successfully been used to explore structure-function relationships in nervous systems, to profile RNA in situ, to reveal the heterogeneity of tumour microenvironments and to study dynamic macromolecular assembly, it remains challenging to image many species with high selectivity and sensitivity under biological conditions...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422529/implant-compositions-for-the-unidirectional-delivery-of-drugs-to-the-brain
#12
Michael McGinity, John Floyd, James McGinity, Feng Zhang
The overall objective of this study was to design and characterize the properties of a bioadhesive trilayer sustained-release implant device for the unidirectional local delivery of anticancer compounds to the brain following the removal of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. Using acetaminophen as a model drug compound, we compressed trilayer wafers that contained (a) a bioadhesive layer, (b) a drug layer that contained a lipid and a pore-forming hydrophilic polymer, and (c) a third layer comprising a lipid substance...
April 19, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421536/lysosomal-quality-control-in-prion-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Priyanka Majumder, Oishee Chakrabarti
Prion diseases are transmissible, familial or sporadic. The prion protein (PrP), a normal cell surface glycoprotein, is ubiquitously expressed throughout the body. While loss of function of PrP does not elicit apparent phenotypes, generation of misfolded forms of the protein or its aberrant metabolic isoforms has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as scrapie, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker and bovine spongiform encephalopathy...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421530/time-of-day-dependent-neuronal-injury-after-ischemic-stroke-implication-of-circadian-clock-transcriptional-factor-bmal1-and-survival-kinase-akt
#14
Mustafa Caglar Beker, Berrak Caglayan, Esra Yalcin, Ahmet Burak Caglayan, Seyma Turkseven, Busra Gurel, Taha Kelestemur, Elif Sertel, Zafer Sahin, Selim Kutlu, Ulkan Kilic, Ahmet Tarik Baykal, Ertugrul Kilic
Occurrence of stroke cases displays a time-of-day variation in human. However, the mechanism linking circadian rhythm to the internal response mechanisms against pathophysiological events after ischemic stroke remained largely unknown. To this end, temporal changes in the susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury were investigated in mice in which the ischemic stroke induced at four different Zeitgeber time points with 6-h intervals (ZT0, ZT6, ZT12, and ZT18). Besides infarct volume and brain swelling, neuronal survival, apoptosis, ischemia, and circadian rhythm related proteins were examined using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, planar surface immune assay, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry tools...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420972/multi-modal-multi-measure-and-multi-class-discrimination-of-adhd-with-hierarchical-feature-extraction-and-extreme-learning-machine-using-structural-and-functional-brain-mri
#15
Muhammad Naveed Iqbal Qureshi, Jooyoung Oh, Beomjun Min, Hang Joon Jo, Boreom Lee
Structural and functional MRI unveil many hidden properties of the human brain. We performed this multi-class classification study on selected subjects from the publically available attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD-200 dataset of patients and healthy children. The dataset has three groups, namely, ADHD inattentive, ADHD combined, and typically developing. We calculated the global averaged functional connectivity maps across the whole cortex to extract anatomical atlas parcellation based features from the resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data and cortical parcellation based features from the structural MRI (sMRI) data...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420824/dynamic-changes-in-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-findings-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#16
Tsuyoshi Hatakeyama, Yasuto Kunii, Itaru Miura, Shuntaro Itagaki, Soichi Kono, Tetsuya Shiga, Sachie Oshima, Keiko Nozaki, Rieko Suzuki, Hirooki Yabe
The clinical course of schizophrenia is characterized by recurrence and chronicity and has a large burden on society. Nevertheless, diagnosis of schizophrenia is based only on distinctive symptoms and the disease course. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a useful method for measuring changes in the hemoglobin concentration in the cortical surface area and reflects brain function. We measured NIRS four times during the clinical course in a patient with first-episode schizophrenia.A 17-year-old woman admitted to our hospital because of hallucinations, delusions and appetite loss...
April 15, 2017: Fukushima Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419852/reliability-of-volumetric-and-surface-based-normalisation-and-smoothing-techniques-for-pet-analysis-of-the-cortex-a-test-retest-analysis-using-11-c-sch-23390
#17
Granville J Matheson, Per Stenkrona, Zsolt Cselényi, Pontus Plavén-Sigray, Christer Halldin, Lars Farde, Simon Cervenka
Parametric voxelwise analysis is a commonly used tool in neuroimaging, as it allows for identification of regions of effects in the absence of a strong a-priori regional hypothesis by comparing each voxel of the brain independently. Due to the inherent imprecision of single voxel measurements, spatial smoothing is performed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of single-voxel estimates. In addition, smoothing compensates for imprecisions in anatomical registration, and allows for the use of cluster-based statistical thresholding...
April 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419308/brain-invasion-in-meningiomas-clinical-considerations-and-impact-of-neuropathological-evaluation-a-systematic-review
#18
Benjamin Brokinkel, Katharina Hess, Christian Mawrin
With the release of the 2016 edition of the WHO Classification of Central Nervous System tumors, brain invasion in meningiomas has been added as a stand-alone criterion for atypia and can therefore impact grading and indirectly adjuvant therapy. Regarding this rising clinical importance, we have reviewed the current knowledge about brain invasion with emphasis on its implications on current and future clinical practice. We found various definitions of brain invasion and approaches for evaluation in surgically obtained specimen described over the past decades...
April 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418454/an-indirect-indentation-method-for-evaluating-the-linear-viscoelastic-properties-of-the-brain-tissue
#19
Aref Samadi-Dooki, George Z Voyiadjis, Rhett W Stout
Indentation experiments offer a robust, fast, and repeatable testing method for evaluating the mechanical properties of solid state materials in a wide stiffness range. With the advantage of requiring a minimal sample preparation and multiple tests on a small piece of specimen, this method has recently become a popular technique for measuring the elastic properties of the biological materials, especially the brain tissue whose ultra-soft nature makes its mechanical characterization very challenging. Nevertheless, some limitations are associated with the indentation of the brain tissue, such as improper surface detection, negative initial contact force due to tip-tissue moisture interaction, partial contact between the tip and the sample, etc...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417232/healthy-cortical-development-through-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#20
Natalie J Forde, Lisa Ronan, Marcel P Zwiers, Lizanne J S Schweren, Aaron F Alexander-Bloch, Barbara Franke, Stephen V Faraone, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
Adolescence is a period of significant brain changes; however, the effects of age and sex on cortical development are yet to be fully characterized. Here, we utilized innovative intrinsic curvature (IC) analysis, along with the traditional cortical measures [cortical thickness (CT), local gyrification index (LGI), and surface area (SA)], to investigate how these indices (1) relate to each other and (2) depend on age and sex in adolescent cortical development. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from 218 healthy volunteers (age range 8...
April 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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