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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684644/a-gyral-coordinate-system-predictive-of-fibre-orientations
#1
Michiel Cottaar, Matteo Bastiani, Charles Chen, Krikor Dikranian, David Van Essen, Timothy E Behrens, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi
When axonal fibres approach or leave the cortex, their trajectories tend to closely follow the cortical convolutions. To quantify this tendency, we propose a three-dimensional coordinate system based on the gyral geometry. For every voxel in the brain, we define a "radial" axis orthogonal to nearby surfaces, a "sulcal" axis along the sulcal depth gradient that preferentially points from deep white matter to the gyral crown, and a "gyral" axis aligned with the long axis of the gyrus...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683966/intracranial-space-occupying-lesion-inducing-intracranial-hypertension-increases-the-encephalographic-effects-of-isoflurane-in-a-swine-model
#2
Tadayoshi Kurita, Shingo Kawashima, Koji Morita, Yoshiki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Patients with a brain tumor are susceptible to the hypnotic effect of anesthetics depending on the tumor's size. We investigated whether intracranial space-occupying lesions (ICSOLs) inducing intracranial hypertension increase isoflurane's effect on electroencephalographic (EEG) results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After anesthetic induction with isoflurane, 11 swine were studied with regard to isoflurane's effect on EEGs at 0.5% to 2.0% inhalational concentration at sequential stages: baseline 1, ICSOL 1, baseline 2, ICSOL 2, baseline 3...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683852/reversing-interferon-alpha-neurotoxicity-in-a-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-mouse-model
#3
Rajeth Koneru, Heather Bimonte-Nelson, Vincent Ciavatta, Woldeab Haile, Kate Elmore, Jennifer Ward, Leonard Maroun, William R Tyor
OBJECTIVE: Increased brain interferon-alpha (IFNα) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND occurs in approximately 50% of individuals with HIV despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Therefore, adjunctive therapies must be developed that prevent progression of mild forms of HAND to HIV-associated dementia. Increased IFNα in the CNS has been associated with HAND in patients and in a HAND mouse model. DESIGN AND METHODS: B18R binds IFNα and ameliorates HAND mouse brain histopathology (HIV encephalitis)...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682629/triheteromeric-nmda-receptors-from-structure-to-synaptic-physiology
#4
David Stroebel, Mariano Casado, Pierre Paoletti
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that play crucial roles in brain development and synaptic plasticity. They are also therapeutic targets of interest since their dysfunction is associated with multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders. In vivo , NMDARs exist as multiple subtypes that differ in their subunit composition, anatomical distribution, functional properties, as well as signaling capacities. While much is known about diheteromeric NMDARs composed of two GluN1 subunits and two identical GluN2 (or GluN3) subunits, the majority of native NMDARs are triheteromers containing two GluN1 and two different GluN2 (or a combination of GluN2 and GluN3)...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682502/frontiers-of-complex-disease-mechanisms-membrane-surface-tension-may-link-genotype-to-phenotype-in-glaucoma
#5
Howard R Petty
Although many monogenic diseases are understood based upon structural changes of gene products, less progress has been made concerning polygenic disease mechanisms. This article presents a new interdisciplinary approach to understand complex diseases, especially their genetic polymorphisms. I focus upon primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Although elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and oxidative stress are glaucoma hallmarks, the linkages between these factors and cell death are obscure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote the formation of oxidatively truncated phosphoglycerides (OTP), free fatty acids, lysophosphoglycerides, oxysterols, and other chemical species that promote membrane disruption and decrease membrane surface tension...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680574/subcortical-volume-and-cortical-surface-architecture-in-women-with-acute-and-remitted-anorexia-nervosa-an-exploratory-neuroimaging-study
#6
Amy E Miles, Aristotle N Voineskos, Leon French, Allan S Kaplan
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by starvation and emaciation and associated with changes in brain structure. The precise nature of these changes remains unclear, as does their developmental time course and capacity for reversal with weight-restoration. In this comprehensive neuroimaging study, we sought to characterize these changes by measuring subcortical volume and cortical surface architecture in women with acute and remitted AN...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679761/expression-profiling-and-microbial-ligand-binding-analysis-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-hmgb1-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l
#7
Xin Cai, Chengbin Gao, Baofeng Su, Fenghua Tan, Ning Yang, Guodong Wang
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved DNA-binding protein, was involved in nucleosome formation and transcriptional regulation, and can also act as an extracellular cytokine to trigger inflammation and immune responses. In this study, we identified a HMGB1 gene in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). The full-length SaHMGB1 cDNA includes an open reading frame of 615 bp which encoded a 204 amino acid polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 23.19°kDa. SaHMGB1 was most closely related to several fish HMGB1 and shared 74...
April 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679668/a-novel-peptide-ligand-rap12-of-lrp1-for-glioma-targeted-drug-delivery
#8
Huitong Ruan, Zhilan Chai, Qing Shen, Xishan Chen, Bingxia Su, Cao Xie, Changyou Zhan, Shengyu Yao, Huan Wang, Mingfei Zhang, Man Ying, Weiyue Lu
The receptor associated protein (RAP) is a 39 kDa chaperone protein, binding tightly to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) that is overexpressed in glioma, tumor neovasculature, vasculogenic mimicry (VM), the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB). Herein, we miniaturized the RAP protein into a short peptide RAP12 (EAKIEKHNHYQK) aiding by computer-aided peptide design technique. RAP12 contained the essential lysines at the positions 253 and 256. The binding affinity of RAP12 to LRP1 was theoretically and experimentally evaluated...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679636/neuroanatomical-characteristics-of-youths-with-prenatal-opioid-and-poly-drug-exposure
#9
Egil Nygaard, Kari Slinning, Vibeke Moe, Paulina Due-Tønnessen, Anders Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Neuroanatomical and cognitive differences have been documented during childhood between children with prenatal opioid- and poly-drug exposure and controls in small samples. We investigated whether these differences persisted in larger samples of youth at older ages. Quantitative MRI and cognitive data were compared between 38 youths in the risk group and 44 youths in the non-exposed group (aged 17 to 22 years) who had been followed prospectively since birth. Most drug-exposed youths (84%) moved to permanent foster or adoptive homes before one year of age...
April 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679634/ex-vivo-mouse-brain-microscopy-at-15t-with-loop-gap-rf-coil
#10
Ouri Cohen, Jerome L Ackerman
The design of a loop-gap-resonator RF coil optimized for ex vivo mouse brain microscopy at ultra high fields is described and its properties characterized using simulations, phantoms and experimental scans of mouse brains fixed in 10% formalin containing 4 mM Magnevist™. The RF (B1 ) and magnetic field (B0 ) homogeneities are experimentally quantified and compared to electromagnetic simulations of the coil. The coil's performance is also compared to a similarly sized surface coil and found to yield double the sensitivity...
April 18, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678760/sub-millimeter-ecog-pitch-in-human-enables-higher-fidelity-cognitive-neural-state-estimation
#11
John Hermiz, Nicholas Rogers, Erik Kaestner, Mehran Ganji, Daniel R Cleary, Bob Carter, David Barba, Shadi Dayeh, Eric Halgren, Vikash Gilja
Electrocorticography (ECoG), electrophysiological recording from the pial surface of the brain, is a critical measurement technique for clinical neurophysiology, basic neurophysiology studies, and demonstrates great promise for the development of neural prosthetic devices for assistive applications and the treatment of neurological disorders. Recent advances in device engineering are poised to enable orders of magnitude increase in the resolution of ECoG without comprised measurement quality. This enhancement in cortical sensing enables the observation of neural dynamics from the cortical surface at the micrometer scale...
April 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677184/elasticity-based-boosting-of-neuroepithelial-nucleokinesis-via-indirect-energy-transfer-from-mother-to-daughter
#12
Tomoyasu Shinoda, Arata Nagasaka, Yasuhiro Inoue, Ryo Higuchi, Yoshiaki Minami, Kagayaki Kato, Makoto Suzuki, Takefumi Kondo, Takumi Kawaue, Kanako Saito, Naoto Ueno, Yugo Fukazawa, Masaharu Nagayama, Takashi Miura, Taiji Adachi, Takaki Miyata
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are apicobasally elongated and densely packed in the developing brain, systematically move their nuclei/somata in a cell cycle-dependent manner, called interkinetic nuclear migration (IKNM): apical during G2 and basal during G1. Although intracellular molecular mechanisms of individual IKNM have been explored, how heterogeneous IKNMs are collectively coordinated is unknown. Our quantitative cell-biological and in silico analyses revealed that tissue elasticity mechanically assists an initial step of basalward IKNM...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676856/age-related-changes-in-cortical-and-subcortical-structures-of-healthy-adult-brains-a-surface-based-morphometry-study
#13
Fenglian Zheng, Yulin Liu, Zilong Yuan, Xiaodong Gao, Yaoyao He, Xiaojing Liu, Dong Cui, Rui Qi, Tiao Chen, Jianfeng Qiu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral structures in both cortical and subcortical regions change with aging. More specific and comprehensive studies are needed to better elucidate these changes. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between age and cerebral structures regarding cortical and subcortical changes. STUDY TYPE: Cross-cohort research. POPULATION: 54 healthy adults (28 females) aged 21-71 years. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: T1 -weighted imaging was performed at 1...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676693/intraoperative-evaluation-of-local-cerebral-hemodynamic-change-by-indocyanine-green-videoangiography-prediction-of-incidence-and-duration-of-postoperative-transient-neurological-events-in-patients-with-moyamoya-disease
#14
Kenji Uda, Yoshio Araki, Shinsuke Muraoka, Shinji Ota, Kentaro Wada, Kinya Yokoyama, Masahiro Nishihori, Takashi Izumi, Sho Okamoto, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
OBJECTIVE Transient neurological events (TNEs) occur frequently in the acute phase after direct bypass surgery for moyamoya disease (MMD), but there is currently no way to predict them. FlowInsight is a specialized software for analyzing indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography taken with a surgical microscope. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intraoperative evaluation of local hemodynamic changes around anastomotic sites using FlowInsight could predict the incidence and duration of TNEs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676567/biomolecular-corona-dictates-a%C3%AE-fibrillation-process
#15
Alireza Lotfabadi, Mohammad Javad Hajipour, Hossein Derakhshankhah, Afshin Peirovi, Samaneh Saffar, Elnaz Shams, Elnaz Fatemi, Ebrahim Barzegari, Sajad Sarvari, Faezeh Moakedi, Maryam Ferdousi, Fatemeh Atyabi, Ali Akbar Saboury, Rassoul Dinarvand
Amyloid beta (Aβ), which forms toxic oligomers and fibrils in brain tissues of patients with Alzheimer's disease, is broadly used as a model protein to probe the effect of nanoparticles (NPs) on oligomerization and fibrillation process. However, majority of the reports in the field, ignored the effect of biomolecular corona on the fibrillogenesis of the Aβ proteins. Biomolecular corona, which is a layer composed of various types of biomolecules that covers surface of NPs upon their interaction with biological fluids, determines the biological fates of NPs...
April 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676230/insights-into-the-molecular-aspects-of-neuroprotective-bacoside-a-and-bacopaside-i
#16
Vini C Sekhar, Gayathri Viswanathan, Sabulal Baby
Bacopa monnieri, commonly known as Brahmi, has been extensively used as a neuromedicine for various disorders such as anxiety, depression and memory loss. Chemical characterization studies revealed the major active constituents of the herb as the triterpenoid saponins, bacosides. Bacoside A, the vital neuroprotective constituent, is composed of four constituents viz., bacoside A3, bacopaside II, jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (bacopaside X) and bacopasaponin C. B. monnieri extracts as well as bacosides successfully establish a healthy antioxidant environment in various tissues especially in liver and brain...
April 19, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675682/development-of-nanoparticle-assisted-pcr-assay-in-the-rapid-detection-of-brain-eating-amoebae
#17
Shobana Gabriel, Abdul Khaliq Rasheed, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Jimmy Nelson Appaturi, Leo Bey Fen, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) have gained increasing attention owing to their capacity to produce severe human and animal infections involving the brain. Early detection is a pre-requisite in successful prognosis. Here, we developed a nanoPCR assay for the rapid detection of brain-eating amoebae using various nanoparticles. Graphene oxide, copper and alumina nanoparticles used in this study were characterized using Raman spectroscopy measurements through excitation with a He-Ne laser, while powder X-ray diffraction patterns were taken on a PANanalytical, X'Pert HighScore diffractometer and the morphology of the materials was confirmed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)...
April 20, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675554/theranostical-application-of-nanomedicine-for-treating-central-nervous-system-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Wang Ran, Xue Xue
The primary reason for the failure of traditional medicine in treating the disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) is the obstruction to traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Due to the unique physiochemical properties of nanoparticles, they can preferably help deliver drugs passing through the BBB. Researchers have been investigating the capacity of multifunctional nanomaterials as theranostical agents. However, some of the studies have reported controversial results, which might be due to different schematic designs, including size, surface charge, and shape...
April 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672848/from-the-inside-out-a-new-species-of-armoured-catfish-corydoras-with-the-description-of-poorly-explored-character-sources-teleostei-siluriformes-callichthyidae
#19
V C Espíndola, L F C Tencatt, F M Pupo, L Villa-Verde, M R Britto
A new species of the armoured catfish genus Corydoras is described from the Xingu-Tapajos ecoregion, Brazilian Amazon. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by having the following combination of features: short mesethmoid, with anterior tip poorly developed, smaller than 50% of bone length; posterior margin of pectoral spine with serrations directed towards spine tip or perpendicularly oriented; infraorbital 2 only in contact with sphenotic; ventral laminar expansion of infraorbital 1 poorly or moderately developed; flank midline covered by small dark brown or black saddles with similar size to remaining markings on body; relatively larger, scarcer and more sparsely distributed dark brown or black spots on body; absence of stripe on flank midline; caudal fin with conspicuous dark brown or black spots along its entire surface; slender body; and strongly narrow frontals...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671296/minimally-invasive-tubular-retractor-assisted-biopsy-and-resection-of-subcortical-intra-axial-gliomas-and-other-neoplasms
#20
Kelly Gassie, Olindi Wijesekera, Kaisorn L Chaichana
Deep-seated, subcortical tumors represent a surgical challenge. The traditional approach to these lesions involve large craniotomies, fixed retractor systems, and extensive white matter dissection, each with their own associated morbidity. We describe our experience with the use of tubular retractors for accessing these deep-seated lesions. Fifty consecutive patients operated on for an intra-axial brain tumor (both biopsies and resection) from January 2016 to December 2017 by a single surgeon using tubular retractors with exoscopic visualization were prospectively identified and included in this consecutive case series...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
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