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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651099/brain-shift-compensation-using-intraoperative-ultrasound-and-constraint-based-biomechanical-simulation
#1
Fanny Morin, Hadrien Courtecuisse, Ingerid Reinertsen, Florian Le Lann, Olivier Palombi, Yohan Payan, Matthieu Chabanas
PURPOSE: During brain tumor surgery, planning and guidance are based on preoperative images which do not account for brain-shift. However, this deformation is a major source of error in image-guided neurosurgery and affects the accuracy of the procedure. In this paper, we present a constraint-based biomechanical simulation method to compensate for craniotomy-induced brain-shift that integrates the deformations of the blood vessels and cortical surface, using a single intraoperative ultrasound acquisition...
June 15, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650234/antinociceptive-and-respiratory-effects-following-application-of-transdermal-fentanyl-patches-and-assessment-of-brain-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-ball-pythons
#2
Rima J Kharbush, Allison Gutwillig, Kate E Hartzler, Rebecca S Kimyon, Alyssa N Gardner, Andrew D Abbott, Sherry K Cox, Jyoti J Watters, Kurt K Sladky, Stephen M Johnson
OBJECTIVE To quantify plasma fentanyl concentrations (PFCs) and evaluate antinociceptive and respiratory effects following application of transdermal fentanyl patches (TFPs) and assess cerebrospinal μ-opioid receptor mRNA expression in ball pythons (compared with findings in turtles). ANIMALS 44 ball pythons (Python regius) and 10 turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). PROCEDURES To administer 3 or 12 μg of fentanyl/h, a quarter or whole TFP (TFP-3 and TFP-12, respectively) was used. At intervals after TFP-12 application in snakes, PFCs were measured by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography...
July 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649491/ventricular-shape-and-relative-position-abnormalities-in-preterm-neonates
#3
N Paquette, J Shi, Y Wang, Y Lao, R Ceschin, M D Nelson, A Panigrahy, N Lepore
Recent neuroimaging findings have highlighted the impact of premature birth on subcortical development and morphological changes in the deep grey nuclei and ventricular system. To help characterize subcortical microstructural changes in preterm neonates, we recently implemented a multivariate tensor-based method (mTBM). This method allows to precisely measure local surface deformation of brain structures in infants. Here, we investigated ventricular abnormalities and their spatial relationships with surrounding subcortical structures in preterm neonates...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649229/cortical-and-subcortical-structural-plasticity-associated-with-the-glioma-volumes-in-patients-with-cerebral-gliomas-revealed-by-surface-based-morphometry
#4
Jinping Xu, Ahmed Elazab, Jinhua Liang, Fucang Jia, Huimin Zheng, Weimin Wang, Limin Wang, Qingmao Hu
Postlesional plasticity has been identified in patients with cerebral gliomas by inducing a large functional reshaping of brain networks. Although numerous non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this functional redistribution in patients with cerebral gliomas, little effort has been made to investigate the structural plasticity of cortical and subcortical structures associated with the glioma volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the contralateral cortical and subcortical structures are able to actively reorganize by themselves in these patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648865/self-assembled-amphiphilic-core-shell-nanocarriers-in-line-with-the-modern-strategies-for-brain-delivery
#5
REVIEW
Reham S Elezaby, Heba A Gad, Abdelkader A Metwally, Ahmed S Geneidi, Gehanne A Awad
Disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) represent increasing social and economic problems all over the world which makes the effective transport of drugs to the brain a crucial need. In the last decade, many strategies were introduced to deliver drugs to the brain trying to overcome the challenge of the blood brain barrier (BBB) using both invasive and non-invasive methods. Non-invasive strategy represented in the application of nanocarriers became very common. One of the most hopeful nanoscopic carriers for brain delivery is core-shell nanocarriers or polymeric micelles (PMs)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648714/evaluation-of-a-minimum-norm-based-beamforming-technique-sloreta-for-reducing-tonic-muscle-contamination-of-eeg-at-sensor-level
#6
Azin S Janani, Tyler S Grummett, Trent W Lewis, Sean P Fitzgibbon, Emma M Whitham, Dylan DelosAngeles, Hanieh Bakhshayesh, John O Willoughby, Kenneth J Pope
BACKGROUND: Cranial and cervical muscle activity (electromyogram, EMG) contaminates the surface electroencephalogram (EEG) from frequencies below 20 through to frequencies above 100Hz. It is not possible to have a reliable measure of cognitive tasks expressed in EEG at gamma-band frequencies until the muscle contamination is removed. NEW METHOD: In the present work, we introduce a new approach of using a minimum-norm based beamforming technique (sLORETA) to reduce tonic muscle contamination at sensor level...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648571/the-neuro-cognitive-representations-of-symbols-the-case-of-concrete-words
#7
Valentina Borghesani, Manuela Piazza
We live our lives surrounded by symbols (e.g., road signs, logos, but especially words and numbers), and throughout our life we use them to evoke, communicate and reflect upon ideas and things that are not currently present to our senses. Symbols are represented in our brains at different levels of complexity: at the first and most simple level, as physical entities, in the corresponding primary and secondary sensory cortices. The crucial property of symbols, however, is that, despite the simplicity of their surface forms, they have the power of evoking higher order multifaceted representations that are implemented in distributed neural networks spanning a large portion of the cortex...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648465/planum-temporale-asymmetry-in-people-who-stutter
#8
Patricia M Gough, Emily L Connally, Peter Howell, David Ward, Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported that the planum temporale - a language-related structure that normally shows a leftward asymmetry - had reduced asymmetry in people who stutter (PWS) and reversed asymmetry in those with severe stuttering. These findings are consistent with the theory that altered language lateralization may be a cause or consequence of stuttering. Here, we re-examined these findings in a larger sample of PWS. METHODS: We evaluated planum temporale asymmetry in structural MRI scans obtained from 67 PWS and 63 age-matched controls using: 1) manual measurements of the surface area; 2) voxel-based morphometry to automatically calculate grey matter density...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647798/a-new-model-for-biofilm-formation-and-inflammatory-tissue-reaction-intraoperative-infection-of-a-cranial-implant-with-staphylococcus-aureus-in-rats
#9
Silke Glage, Silke Paret, Andreas Winkel, Meike Stiesch, André Bleich, Joachim K Krauss, Kerstin Schwabe
BACKGROUND: Implant failure is a severe and frequent adverse event in all areas of neurosurgery. It often involves infection with biofilm formation, accompanied by inflammation of surrounding tissue, including the brain, and bone loss. The most common bacteria involved are Staphylococcus aureus. We here test whether intraoperative infection of intracranial screws with Staphylococcus aureus would lead to biofilm formation and inflammatory tissue reaction in rats. METHODS: Two titanium screws were implanted in the cranium of Sprague-Dawley rats, anesthetized with xylazine (4 mg/kg) and ketamine (75 mg/kg)...
June 25, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647011/brain-structural-signatures-of-adolescent-depressive-symptom-trajectories-a-longitudinal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#10
Lianne Schmaal, Murat Yücel, Rachel Ellis, Nandita Vijayakumar, Julian G Simmons, Nicholas B Allen, Sarah Whittle
OBJECTIVE: Most evidence for structural brain abnormalities associated with adolescent depression is based on cross-sectional study designs that do not take into account the dynamic course of depressive symptoms and brain maturation across adolescence. In this study, a longitudinal design was used to investigate the association between different trajectories of depressive symptoms and longitudinal changes in brain structure throughout adolescence. METHOD: One hundred forty-nine adolescents were assessed on depressive symptoms and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging at 12 years of age and were followed up multiple times until 19 years...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642370/in-vitro-cytochrome-p450-46a1-cyp46a1-activation-by-neuroactive-compounds
#11
Natalia Mast, Kyle W Anderson, Kevin M Johnson, Thanh T N Phan, F Peter Guengerich, Irina A Pikuleva
Cytochrome P450 46A1 (CYP46A1, cholesterol 24-hydroxylase) is the enzyme responsible for the majority of cholesterol elimination from the brain. Previously, we found that the anti-HIV drug efavirenz (EFV) can pharmacologically activate CYP46A1 in mice. Herein, we investigated whether CYP46A1 could also be activated by endogenous compounds, including major neurotransmitters. In vitro experiments with purified recombinant CYP46A1 indicated that CYP46A1 is activated by L-glutamate (L-Glu), L-aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and acetylcholine, with L-Glu eliciting the highest increase (3-fold) in CYP46A1-mediated cholesterol 24-hydroxylation...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637679/characterization-of-ectonucleotidase-expression-in-the-rat-carotid-body-regulation-by-chronic-hypoxia
#12
Shaima Salman, Cathy Vollmer, Grant B McClelland, Colin A Nurse
The carotid body (CB) chemoreflex maintains blood PO2 and PCO2/H(+) homeostasis and displays sensory plasticity during exposure to chronic hypoxia. Purinergic signaling via P1 and P2 receptors plays a pivotal role in shaping the afferent discharge at the sensory synapse containing catecholaminergic chemoreceptor (type I) cells, glial-like type II cells, and sensory (petrosal) nerve endings. However, little is known about the family of ectonucleotidases that control synaptic nucleotide levels. Using quantitative PCR (QPCR), we first compared expression levels of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases1,2,3,5,6) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E5'Nt/CD73) mRNAs in juvenile rat CB versus brain, petrosal ganglia, sympathetic (superior cervical) ganglia, and a sympathoadrenal chromaffin (MAH) cell line...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637207/the-use-of-semitranslucent-rubber-pledgets-during-microsurgical-dissection-of-cerebellopontine-angle-tumors-technical-note
#13
Marcus D Mazur, Richard Gurgel, Joel D MacDonald
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Dissection of cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors that abut or adhere to the brainstem or cranial nerves can be a challenging surgical endeavor. We describe the use of semitranslucent latex rubber pledgets in the tumor-brain interface as a method to improve visualization and protection of vital tissue during microsurgical dissection of CPA masses. The rubber pledgets are fashioned by cutting circular discs out of the cuff portion of talc-free, partially opaque latex gloves...
June 20, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636371/iron-oxidation-and-core-formation-in-recombinant-heteropolymeric-human-ferritins
#14
Matthew R Mehlenbacher, Maura Poli, Paolo Arosio, Paolo Santambrogio, Sonia Levi, N Dennis Chasteen, Fadi Bou-Abdallah
In animals, the iron storage and detoxification protein, ferritin, is composed of two functionally and genetically distinct subunit types, H (Heavy) and L (Light), which co-assemble in various ratios with tissue specific distributions to form shell-like protein structures of 24 subunits within which a mineralized iron core is stored. The H-subunit possesses a ferroxidase center (FC) which catalyzes Fe(II) oxidation whereas the L-subunit does not. To assess the role of the L-subunit in iron oxidation and core formation, two human recombinant heteropolymeric ferritins, designated H-rich and L-rich with ratios of ~ 20H:4L and ~ 22L:2H, respectively, were employed and compared to the human homopolymeric H-subunit ferritin (HuHF)...
June 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633321/places-in-the-brain-bridging-layout-and-object-geometry-in-scene-selective-cortex
#15
Moira R Dillon, Andrew S Persichetti, Elizabeth S Spelke, Daniel D Dilks
Diverse animal species primarily rely on sense (left-right) and egocentric distance (proximal-distal) when navigating the environment. Recent neuroimaging studies with human adults show that this information is represented in 2 scene-selective cortical regions-the occipital place area (OPA) and retrosplenial complex (RSC)-but not in a third scene-selective region-the parahippocampal place area (PPA). What geometric properties, then, does the PPA represent, and what is its role in scene processing? Here we hypothesize that the PPA represents relative length and angle, the geometric properties classically associated with object recognition, but only in the context of large extended surfaces that compose the layout of a scene...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632387/poly-trehalose-nanoparticle-prevents-amyloid-aggregation-and-suppress-polyglutamine-aggregation-in-huntington-s-disease-model-mouse
#16
Koushik Debnath, Nibedita Pradhan, Brijesh Kumar Singh, Nihar R Jana, Nikhil R Jana
Prevention and therapeutic strategy of various neurodegenerative disease focus on inhibiting protein fibrillation, clearing of aggregated protein plaques from brain and lowering of protein aggregate-induced toxicity. We have designed poly(trehalose) nanoparticle that can inhibit amyloid/polyglutamine aggregation under extra-/intra-cellular condition, reduce such aggregation-derived cytotoxicity and prevents polyglutamine aggregation in Huntington's disease (HD) model mouse brain. Nanoparticle has 20-30 nm hydrodynamic size, composed of 6 nm iron oxide core and zwitterionic polymer shell with covalently linked trehalose of ~5-12 wt %...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631360/reduced-cell-attachment-to-poly-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-coated-ventricular-catheters-in-vitro
#17
Brian W Hanak, Chia-Yun Hsieh, William Donaldson, Samuel R Browd, Kenneth K S Lau, William Shain
The majority of patients with hydrocephalus are dependent on ventriculoperitoneal shunts for diversion of excess cerebrospinal fluid. Unfortunately, these shunts are failure-prone and over half of all life-threatening pediatric failures are caused by obstruction of the ventricular catheter by the brain's resident immune cells, reactive microglia and astrocytes. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels are widely used for biomedical implants. The extreme hydrophilicity of PHEMA confers resistance to protein fouling, making it a strong candidate coating for ventricular catheters...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629404/white-matter-lesions-characterise-brain-involvement-in-moderate-to-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-but-cerebral-atrophy-does-not
#18
Catherine A Spilling, Paul W Jones, James W Dodd, Thomas R Barrick
BACKGROUND: Brain pathology is relatively unexplored in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study is a comprehensive investigation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes and how these relate to disease severity and cognitive function. METHODS: T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired for 31 stable COPD patients (FEV1 52.1% pred., PaO2 10.1 kPa) and 24 age, gender-matched controls. T1-weighted images were segmented into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tissue classes using a semi-automated procedure optimised for use with this cohort...
June 19, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628128/adaptive-optics-improves-multiphoton-super-resolution-imaging
#19
Wei Zheng, Yicong Wu, Peter Winter, Robert Fischer, Damian Dalle Nogare, Amy Hong, Chad McCormick, Ryan Christensen, William P Dempsey, Don B Arnold, Joshua Zimmerberg, Ajay Chitnis, James Sellers, Clare Waterman, Hari Shroff
We improve multiphoton structured illumination microscopy using a nonlinear guide star to determine optical aberrations and a deformable mirror to correct them. We demonstrate our method on bead phantoms, cells in collagen gels, nematode larvae and embryos, Drosophila brain, and zebrafish embryos. Peak intensity is increased (up to 40-fold) and resolution recovered (up to 176 ± 10 nm laterally, 729 ± 39 nm axially) at depths ∼250 μm from the coverslip surface.
June 19, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628101/dynamic-illumination-of-spatially-restricted-or-large-brain-volumes-via-a-single-tapered-optical-fiber
#20
Ferruccio Pisanello, Gil Mandelbaum, Marco Pisanello, Ian A Oldenburg, Leonardo Sileo, Jeffrey E Markowitz, Ralph E Peterson, Andrea Della Patria, Trevor M Haynes, Mohamed S Emara, Barbara Spagnolo, Sandeep Robert Datta, Massimo De Vittorio, Bernardo L Sabatini
Optogenetics promises precise spatiotemporal control of neural processes using light. However, the spatial extent of illumination within the brain is difficult to control and cannot be adjusted using standard fiber optics. We demonstrate that optical fibers with tapered tips can be used to illuminate either spatially restricted or large brain volumes. Remotely adjusting the light input angle to the fiber varies the light-emitting portion of the taper over several millimeters without movement of the implant...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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