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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453542/mechanisms-underlying-neurotoxicity-of-silver-nanoparticles
#1
Lidia Strużyńska, Joanna Skalska
The potent antimicrobial properties of nanoparticulate silver (AgNPs) have led to broad interest in using them in a wide range of commercial and medical applications. Although numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have provided evidence of toxic effects, rapid commercialization of AgNP-based nanomaterials has advanced without characterization of their potential environmental and health hazards. There is evidence that AgNPs can be translocated from the blood to the brain, regardless the route of exposure, and accumulate in the brain over time...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452205/impaired-cerebral-microcirculation-induced-by-ammonium-chloride-in-rats-is-due-to-cortical-adenosine-release
#2
Peter Nissen Bjerring, Esben Jannik Bjerrum, Fin Stolze Larsen
BACKGROUND: Liver failure results in hyperammonaemia, impaired regulation of cerebral microcirculation, encephalopathy and death. However, the key mediator that alters cerebral microcirculation remains unidentified. In this study we show that topical ammonium significantly increases periarteriolar adenosine tone on the brain surface of healthy rats and is associated with a disturbed microcirculation. METHODS: Cranial windows were prepared in anaesthetized Wistar rats...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451034/cytochrome-p450-in-the-central-nervous-system-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Cynthia Navarro-Mabarak, Rafael Camacho-Carranza, Jesús Javier Espinosa-Aguirre
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) constitute a family of enzymes that can be found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria or the cell surface of the cells. CYPs are characterized by carrying out the oxidation of organic compounds and they are mainly recognized as mediators of the biotransformation of xenobiotics to polar hydrophilic metabolites that can be eliminated from the organism. However, these enzymes play a key role in many other physiological processes, being involved in diverse indispensable metabolic pathways since they metabolize many endogenous substrates...
February 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449109/arsenic-containing-hydrocarbons-disrupt-a-model-in-vitro-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier
#4
S M Müller, F Ebert, J Bornhorst, H-J Galla, K A Francesconi, T Schwerdtle
Lipid-soluble arsenicals, so-called arsenolipids, have gained a lot of attention in the last few years because of their presence in many seafoods and reports showing substantial cytotoxicity emanating from arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs), a prominent subgroup of the arsenolipids. More recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that some arsenolipids might have adverse effects on brain health. In the present study, we focused on the effects of selected arsenolipids and three representative metabolites on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B), a brain-regulating interface...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447005/human-asic1a-mediates-stronger-acid-induced-responses-as-compared-with-mouse-asic1a
#5
Yuanyuan Xu, Yu-Qing Jiang, Ce Li, Mindi He, W George Rusyniak, Naga Annamdevula, Juan Ochoa, Silas J Leavesley, Jiangping Xu, Thomas C Rich, Mike T Lin, Xiang-Ming Zha
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are the major proton receptor in the brain and a key mediator of acidosis-induced neuronal injuries in disease. Most of published data on ASIC function came from studies performed in mice, and relatively little is known about potential differences between human and mouse ASICs (hASIC and mASIC, respectively). This information is critical for us to better interpret the functional importance of ASICs in human disease. Here, we examined the expression of ASICs in acutely resected human cortical tissue...
February 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444300/deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-disease-does-not-worsen-or-improve-postural-instability-a-prospective-cohort-trial
#6
Nicholas J Brandmeir, Cheryl L Brandmeir, David Carr, Kristine Kuzma, James McInerney
BACKGROUND: Falls and postural instability (PI) are major sources of morbidity in Parkinson disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a major therapy for PD. The effects of DBS on PI and falls remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: To study if DBS worsens PI, validated measures of PI (Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale 3.12 [Pull Test], and the Biodex Sway Index with eyes closed on a firm and soft surface) and reported falls were used to prospectively evaluate the effect of DBS on PI at 3 and 12 mo postoperatively compared to baseline measurements...
February 10, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440896/intranasal-delivery-of-huperzine-a-to-the-brain-using-lactoferrin-conjugated-n-trimethylated-chitosan-surface-modified-plga-nanoparticles-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Qingqing Meng, Aiping Wang, Hongchen Hua, Ying Jiang, Yiyun Wang, Hongjie Mu, Zimei Wu, Kaoxiang Sun
Background: Safe and effective delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain is important for successful therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Purpose: To develop Huperzine A (HupA)-loaded, mucoadhesive and targeted polylactide-co-glycoside (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with surface modification by lactoferrin (Lf)-conjugated N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC) (HupA Lf-TMC NPs) for efficient intranasal delivery of HupA to the brain for AD treatment. Methods: HupA Lf-TMC NPs were prepared using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimized using the Box-Behnken design...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440700/age-related-changes-in-the-response-of-retinal-structure-function-and-blood-flow-to-pressure-modification-in-rats
#8
Da Zhao, Christine T O Nguyen, Zheng He, Vickie H Y Wong, Anna K van Koeverden, Algis J Vingrys, Bang V Bui
Age-related changes to the balance between the pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure, IOP) and the pressure inside the brain (intracranial pressure, ICP) can modify the risk of glaucoma. In this study, we consider whether the optic nerve in older rat eyes is more susceptible to acute IOP and ICP modification. We systematically manipulate both ICP and IOP and quantify their effects on ganglion cell function (electroretinography, ERG), optic nerve structure (optical coherence tomography, OCT) and retinal blood flow (Doppler OCT)...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437639/soluble-gpvi-is-elevated-in-injured-patients-shedding-is-mediated-by-fibrin-activation-of-gpvi
#9
Samantha J Montague, Céline Delierneux, Christelle Lecut, Nathalie Layios, Robert J Dinsdale, Christine S-M Lee, Natalie S Poulter, Robert K Andrews, Peter Hampson, Christopher M Wearn, Nathalie Maes, Jonathan Bishop, Amy Bamford, Chris Gardiner, Woei Ming Lee, Tariq Iqbal, Naiem Moiemen, Steve P Watson, Cécile Oury, Paul Harrison, Elizabeth E Gardiner
Soluble glycoprotein VI (sGPVI) is shed from the platelet surface and is a marker of platelet activation in thrombotic conditions. We assessed sGPVI levels together with patient and clinical parameters in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, including patients with thermal injury and inflammatory bowel disease and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for elective cardiac surgery, trauma, acute brain injury, or prolonged ventilation. Plasma sGPVI was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and was elevated on day 14 after thermal injury, and was higher in patients who developed sepsis...
February 13, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437578/tissue-factor-an-essential-mediator-of-hemostasis-and-trigger-of-thrombosis
#10
REVIEW
Steven P Grover, Nigel Mackman
Tissue factor (TF) is the high-affinity receptor and cofactor for FVII/VIIa. The TF-FVIIa complex is the primary initiator of blood coagulation and plays an essential role in hemostasis. TF is expressed on perivascular and epithelial cells at organ and body surfaces where it forms a hemostatic barrier. TF also provides additional hemostatic protection to vital organs, such as the brain, lung, and heart. Under pathological conditions, TF can trigger both arterial and venous thrombosis. For instance, atherosclerosis plaques contain high levels of TF on macrophage foam cells and microvesicles that drives thrombus formation after plaque rupture...
February 8, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435040/prostate-stem-cell-antigen-is-expressed-in-normal-and-malignant-human-brain-tissues
#11
Hiroe Ono, Hiromi Sakamoto, Teruhiko Yoshida, Norihisa Saeki
Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface protein and exhibits an organ-dependent expression pattern in cancer. PSCA is upregulated in prostate cancer and downregulated in gastric cancer. PSCA is expressed in a variety of human organs. Although certain studies previously demonstrated its expression in the mammalian and avian brain, its expression in the human brain has not been thoroughly elucidated. Additionally, it was previously reported that PSCA is weakly expressed in the astrocytes of the normal human brain but aberrantly expressed in glioma, suggesting that PSCA is a promising target of glioma therapy and prostate cancer therapy...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434548/transporter-guided-delivery-of-nanoparticles-to-improve-drug-permeation-across-cellular-barriers-and-drug-exposure-to-selective-cell-types
#12
REVIEW
Longfa Kou, Yangzom D Bhutia, Qing Yao, Zhonggui He, Jin Sun, Vadivel Ganapathy
Targeted nano-drug delivery systems conjugated with specific ligands to target selective cell-surface receptors or transporters could enhance the efficacy of drug delivery and therapy. Transporters are expressed differentially on the cell-surface of different cell types, and also specific transporters are expressed at higher than normal levels in selective cell types under pathological conditions. They also play a key role in intestinal absorption, delivery via non-oral routes (e.g., pulmonary route and nasal route), and transfer across biological barriers (e...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434536/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-as-emerging-players-in-synaptic-specificity
#13
REVIEW
Giuseppe Condomitti, Joris de Wit
Neural circuits consist of distinct neuronal cell types connected in specific patterns. The specificity of these connections is achieved in a series of sequential developmental steps that involve the targeting of neurites, the identification of synaptic partners, and the formation of specific types of synapses. Cell-surface proteins play a critical role in each of these steps. The heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) family of cell-surface proteins is emerging as a key regulator of connectivity. HSPGs are expressed throughout brain development and play important roles in axon guidance, synapse development and synapse function...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432780/how-mechanical-forces-shape-the-developing-eye
#14
REVIEW
Hadi S Hosseini, Larry A Taber
In the vertebrate embryo, the eyes develop from optic vesicles that grow laterally outward from the brain tube and contact the overlying surface ectoderm. Within the region of contact, each optic vesicle and the surface ectoderm thicken to form placodes, which then invaginate to create the optic cup and lens pit, respectively. Eventually, the optic cup becomes the retina, while the lens pit closes to form the lens vesicle. Here, we review current hypotheses for the physical mechanisms that create these structures and present novel three-dimensional computer (finite-element) models to illustrate the plausibility and limitations of these hypotheses...
February 9, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432181/three-classes-of-recurrent-dna-break-clusters-in-brain-progenitors-identified-by-3d-proximity-based-break-joining-assay
#15
Pei-Chi Wei, Cheng-Sheng Lee, Zhou Du, Bjoern Schwer, Yuxiang Zhang, Jennifer Kao, Jeffrey Zurita, Frederick W Alt
We recently discovered 27 recurrent DNA double-strand break (DSB) clusters (RDCs) in mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). Most RDCs occurred across long, late-replicating RDC genes and were found only after mild inhibition of DNA replication. RDC genes share intriguing characteristics, including encoding surface proteins that organize brain architecture and neuronal junctions, and are genetically implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders and/or cancers. RDC identification relies on high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS), which maps recurrent DSBs based on their translocation to "bait" DSBs in specific chromosomal locations...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430989/nk1r-5-ht1ar-interaction-is-related-to-the-regulation-of-melanogenesis
#16
Huali Wu, Yucheng Zhao, Qiaoling Huang, Minxuan Cai, Qi Pan, Mengsi Fu, Xiaohong An, Zhenjiang Xia, Meng Liu, Yu Jin, Ling He, Jing Shang
Substance P (SP) is a candidate mediator along the brain-skin axis and can mimic the effects of stress to regulate melanogenesis. Previously, we and others have found that the regulation of SP for pigmentary function was mediated by neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R). Emerging evidence has accumulated that psychologic stress can induce dysfunction in the cutaneous serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-5-HT1A/1B receptor system, thereby resulting in skin hypopigmentation. Moreover, NK1R and 5-HTR (except 5-HT3) belong to GPCR...
February 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430519/heterogeneities-in-axonal-structure-and-transporter-distribution-lower-dopamine-reuptake-efficiency
#17
Cihan Kaya, Mary H Cheng, Ethan R Block, Tom M Bartol, Terrence J Sejnowski, Alexander Sorkin, James R Faeder, Ivet Bahar
Efficient clearance of dopamine (DA) from the synapse is key to regulating dopaminergic signaling. This role is fulfilled by DA transporters (DATs). Recent advances in the structural characterization of DAT from Drosophila (dDAT) and in high-resolution imaging of DA neurons and the distribution of DATs in living cells now permit us to gain a mechanistic understanding of DA reuptake events in silico. Using electron microscopy images and immunofluorescence of transgenic knock-in mouse brains that express hemagglutinin-tagged DAT in DA neurons, we reconstructed a realistic environment for MCell simulations of DA reuptake, wherein the identity, population and kinetics of homology-modeled human DAT (hDAT) substates were derived from molecular simulations...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429985/posterior-associative-and-cingulate-cortex-involvement-of-brain-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-in-semantic-dementia-with-probable-alzheimer-disease-pathology-a-case-report
#18
Yumi Takano, Keiko Kunitoki, Yasuko Tatewaki, Tatsushi Mutoh, Tomoko Totsune, Hideo Shimomura, Manabu Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Arai, Yasuyuki Taki
BACKGROUND Semantic dementia (SD) is a type of primary progressive aphasia with prominent language dysfunction, mostly within the spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Although there is an overlap in clinical manifestations of SD attributable to FTLD and neuropathologically proven Alzheimer disease (AD), clinical diagnostic clues are not readily available. We present a characteristic finding based on a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based regional cerebral blood flow study and its statistical imaging analysis for a rare case of SD with AD-like pathology...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429047/the-small-gtpase-rac1-ced-10-is-essential-in-maintaining-dopaminergic-neuron-function-and-survival-against-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-toxicity
#19
Hanna Kim, Carles Calatayud, Sangib Guha, Irene Fernández-Carasa, Laura Berkowitz, Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Mario Ezquerra, Rubén Fernández-Santiago, Pankaj Kapahi, Ángel Raya, Antonio Miranda-Vizuete, Jose Miguel Lizcano, Miquel Vila, Kim A Caldwell, Guy A Caldwell, Antonella Consiglio, Esther Dalfo
Parkinson's disease is associated with intracellular α-synuclein accumulation and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neuronal death in the Substantia Nigra of brain patients. The Rho GTPase pathway, mainly linking surface receptors to the organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, has been suggested to participate to Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Nevertheless, its exact contribution remains obscure. To unveil the participation of the Rho GTPase family to the molecular pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, we first used C elegans to demonstrate the role of the small GTPase RAC1 (ced-10 in the worm) in maintaining dopaminergic function and survival in the presence of alpha-synuclein...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427847/computationally-optimized-ecog-stimulation-with-local-safety-constraints
#20
Seyhmus Guler, Moritz Dannhauer, Biel Roig-Solvas, Alexis Gkogkidis, Rob Macleod, Tonio Ball, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Dana H Brooks
Direct stimulation of the cortical surface is used clinically for cortical mapping and modulation of local activity. Future applications of cortical modulation and brain-computer interfaces may also use cortical stimulation methods. One common method to deliver current is through electrocorticography (ECoG) stimulation in which a dense array of electrodes are placed subdurally or epidurally to stimulate the cortex. However, proximity to cortical tissue limits the amount of current that can be delivered safely...
February 7, 2018: NeuroImage
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