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Nitrous oxide

Toshikazu Suenaga, Tomo Aoyagi, Masaaki Hosomi, Tomoyuki Hori, Akihiko Terada
We report here a draft genome sequence of Azospira sp. strain I13 in the class Betaproteobacteria , a facultative anaerobic bacterium responsible for nitrous oxide (N2 O) reduction. Deciphering this genome would pave the way for the use of Azospira sp. strain I13 to facilitate N2 O consumption in a nitrogen-removing bioreactor emitting N2 O.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
Seon-Heui Cha, Yongha Hwang, Kil-Nam Kim, Hee-Sook Jun
Inflammation markers in zebrafish embryos reflect a toxic response that is common to other animal models and humans. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known to cause damage in various tissues by inducing inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether a FFA (palmitate) induces inflammation in zebrafish embryos. Nitrous oxide (NO) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression were increased in palmitate-treated zebrafish embryos in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), were also increased...
May 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie, Kurt J Smith
The first accounts of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans were made by Angelo Mosso in ~1880, who recorded brain pulsations in patients with skull defects. In 1890, Charles Roy and Charles Sherrington determined in animals that brain pulsations-assessed via a similar method used by Mosso-were altered during a variety of stimuli including sensory nerve stimulation, asphyxia, and pharmacological interventions. Between 1880 and 1944, measurements for CBF were typically relied on skull abnormalities in humans...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kirk Hogan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Anesthesiology
Yunsong Liu, Lingxi Zhou, Pieter P Tans, Kunpeng Zang, Siyang Cheng
During a cruise of the survey vessel Dongfanghong II on the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea in the spring of 2017 we performed accurate measurements of the mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) using two types of Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometers (CRDS). The spatial variations of the mole fraction of the four trace gases were very similar. The emission sources of these gases were divided into several regions by using the NOAA HYSPLIT model. Then we analyzed the variations of the ratios of the mole fraction enhancements between every pair of trace gases downwind of these source areas...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Daniele De Rosa, David W Rowlings, Johannes Biala, Clemens Scheer, Bruno Basso, Peter R Grace
Accounting for nitrogen (N) release from organic amendments (OA) can reduce the use of synthetic N-fertiliser, sustain crop production, and potentially reduce soil borne greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. However, it is difficult to assess the GHG mitigation potential for OA as a substitute of N-fertiliser over the long term due to only part of the organic N added to soil is being released in the first year after application. High-resolution nitrous oxide (N2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions monitored from a horticultural crop rotation over 2...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jarungwit Boonnorat, Somkiet Techkarnjanaruk, Ryo Honda, Anish Ghimire, Sivakorn Angthong, Thammasak Rojviroon, Supaporn Phanwilai
This research investigated the micropollutant biodegradation and nitrous oxide (N2 O) concentration reduction in high strength wastewater treated by two-stage activated sludge (AS) systems with (bioaugmented) and without (non-bioaugmented) acclimatized sludge bioaugmentation. The bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented systems were operated in parallel for 228 days, with three levels of concentrations of organics, nitrogen, and micropollutants in the influent: conditions 1 (low), 2 (moderate), and 3 (high). The results showed that, under condition 1, both systems efficiently removed the organic and nitrogen compounds...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Léonard Y M Eymann, Rosario Scopelliti, Farzaneh Fadaei Tirani, Kay Severin
Covalent adducts of imidazole-based mesoionic carbenes and nitrous oxide (N2 O, "laughing gas") can be converted into azo dyes by reaction with arenes in the presence of AlCl3 or HCl. The azo coupling can be achieved with electron-rich aromatic compounds such as mesitylene, trimethoxybenzene, azulene, or dibenzo-18-crown-6. The latter coupling reaction allows for the easy preparation of a colorimetric sensor for potassium or sodium ions. As a putative intermediate of the reaction with acid, we were able to isolate and structurally characterize a rare diazohydroxide...
May 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dustin Anderson, Grayson Beecher, Rene van Dijk, Mohammed Hussain, Zaeem Siddiqi, Fang Ba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Guangyong Zhao
Cattle supply important amounts of nutritious products such as beef and milk for human consumption. However, cattle excrete large amounts of feces and urine with low utilization rate of dietary crude protein (CP). These not only negatively affect the global environment by emission of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and N bleaching the soil and underground water, but also increase the feed cost. The low nitrogen (N) utilization rate of cattle could possibly result from the activity of rumen microorganisms degrading feed protein...
May 14, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Baosheng Wei, Wen-Xiong Zhang, Zhenfeng Xi
Efficient synthesis and structure elucidation of carbon-calcium σ-bonded compounds are of remarkable interest and importance in organometallic chemistry of the heavier s-block metals. In this paper, we report that styryl and biphenyl calcium complexes with well-defined structures can be facilely obtained via metathesis reaction between their corresponding dilithio compound and calcium iodide. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of these calcium complexes revealed their unique iodide-bridged or dicalcium-bridged structures...
May 14, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yuchun Ma, Liying Sun, Cuiying Liu, Xiaoya Yang, Wei Zhou, Bo Yang, Graeme Schwenke, De Li Liu
Inland aquaculture ponds in China collectively cover 2.57 million ha, so emissions of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) from these ponds may constitute a significant contribution to global warming. During 2016 and 2017, CH4 and N2 O fluxes and a range of pond-water and sediment properties were measured in replicated (n = 4) "mixed-fish" and "crab" aquaculture ponds in southeast China. Annual CH4 and N2 O emissions were 64.4 kg C ha-1 and 2.99 kg N ha-1 , respectively, from the "mixed-fish" ponds, and 51...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Koki Maeda, Fumihito Miyatake, Ryoki Asano, Kei-Ichi Nakajima, Takeki Maeda, Kazunori Iwabuchi
Animal manure is a source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O), therefore understanding the mechanisms underlying its production is essential for developing mitigating strategies and sustainable livestock production system. In this study, microbial communities potentially involved in multiple emission peaks during initial stage of laboratory-scale dairy manure composting with forced aeration system were investigated. Mature compost was used for the bulking agent. Change of overall bacterial community and nitrification-denitrification gene abundance were monitored by using 16S rRNA gene amoA, nirS, nirK or nosZ genes, respectively...
April 30, 2018: Chemosphere
Daryl R Cheng, Sonja Elia, Kirsten P Perrett
BACKGROUND: Sedation for immunizations is of particular importance in a subset of paediatric patients with anxiety disorders, needle phobia, developmental or behavioural disorders. The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) Melbourne offers a unique immunization under sedation service for these patients. We aimed to evaluate the number and types of patients using inpatient sedation for immunizations, distraction and sedation techniques used, and outcomes of these procedures. METHODS: A medical record review was conducted on all patients who had immunization under sedation between January 2012 to December 2016 in the RCH Day Medical Unit (DMU)...
May 9, 2018: Vaccine
E P Minet, S F Ledgard, J Grant, J B Murphy, D J Krol, G J Lanigan, J Luo, K G Richards
Nitrate (NO3 - ) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission from urine patches in grazed pastures are key sources of water and air pollution, respectively. Broadcast spraying of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) has been shown to reduce these losses, but it is expensive. As an alternative, it had been demonstrated that feeding DCD to cattle (after manual mixing with supplementary feeds) was a practical, effective and cheaper method to deliver high DCD rates within urine patches. This two-year study carried out on simulated urine patches in three application seasons (spring, summer, autumn) explored the efficacy of DCD feeding to cattle to reduce N losses from grazed pasture soil in a heavy-textured soil under temperate climatic conditions...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shanyun Wang, Weidong Wang, Lu Liu, Linjie Zhuang, Siyan Zhao, Yu Su, Yixiao Li, Mengzi Wang, Cheng Wang, Liya Xu, Guibing Zhu
Artificial microbial nitrogen (N) cycle hotspots in the plant-bed/ditch system were developed and investigated based on intact core and slurry assays measurement using isotopic tracing technology, quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing. By increasing hydraulic retention time and periodically fluctuating water level in heterogeneous riparian zones, hotspots of anammox, nitrification, denitrification, ammonium (NH4+) oxidation, nitrite (NO2-) oxidation, nitrate (NO3-) reduction and DNRA were all stimulated at the interface sediments, with the abundance and activity being about 1-3 orders higher than that in non-hotspot zones...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Min Zheng, Shuang Wu, Zhiqiang Zuo, Zhiyao Wang, Yong Qiu, Yan-Chen Liu, Xia Huang, Zhiguo Yuan
Ammonium partial oxidation to nitrite (i.e. partial nitritation) is required in a two-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal system, to provide effluent suitable for the anammox reaction. This study aims to establish influent (ammonium and bicarbonate concentrations) and operational (dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and solids retention time (SRT)) conditions that favor partial nitritation. This is achieved through extending the nitritation and nitratation models to predict pH variation as well as the effects of pH, free ammonia (NH3) and free nitrous acid (HNO2) on the two reactions...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Juhua Yu, Jianyun Zhang, Qiuwen Chen, Wenyong Yu, Liuming Hu, Wenqing Shi, Jicheng Zhong, Weixia Yan
Biogeochemical cycling of nitrous oxide (N2 O), a significant greenhouse gas (GHG), can influence global climate change. The production and emission of N2 O mediated by hydrological regimes is particularly active in water level fluctuation zones (WLFZs). However, the hydrological mechanisms affecting N2 O transformation and production across the water-sediment micro-interface remain unclear. In this study, intact sediment cores from the WLFZs of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were incubated for 24 days in a laboratory microcosm to identify the effects of the flooding-drying processes on the yield and emission of N2 O...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Seong In Chi
The first clinical application of nitrous oxide (N2 O) was in 1844, by an American dentist named Horace Wells who used it to control pain during tooth extraction. Since then, N2 O has shared a 170-year history with modern dental anesthesia. N2 O, an odorless and colorless gas, is very appealing as a sedative owing to its anxiolytic, analgesic, and amnestic properties, rapid onset and recovery, and, in particular, needle-free application. Numerous studies have reported that N2 O can be used safely and effectively as a procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) agent...
April 2018: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Dong Wei Liu, Ying Tu, Yun Ting Fang
In the past several decades, a variety of methods have been developed for measuring the isotopic composition of ammonium (δ15 N) and nitrate (δ15 N and δ18 O). This review summarized the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Nowadays, the most popular method for measu-ring δ15 N of ammonium is the combined hypobromite (BrO- ) and hydroxylamine (NH2 OH) me-thod, while for δ15 N and δ18 O of nitrate is the denitrifier method and the sodium azide (NaN3 ) me-thod. These methods convert NH4 + or NO3 - into nitrous oxide (N2 O) and measure its isotopic compositions, with higher analytical precision because of the lower background concentration of atmospheric N2 O...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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