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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544554/concept-analysis-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#1
Bikram Sekhon
PURPOSE: Mental health nursing is not the same as psychiatry, so it is important for nurses to have an understanding of the defining attributes, antecedents, consequences, model cases, and empirical referents of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: Walker and Avant's (2005) method is used to guide this concept analysis of PTSD. FINDINGS: Four attributes arise from this concept analysis, which are addressed through both the DSM-IV and DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, /): triggering event or events, re-experiencing, fear, and helplessness...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Knowledge
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542470/differential-physiological-changes-following-internet-exposure-in-higher-and-lower-problematic-internet-users
#2
Phil Reed, Michela Romano, Federica Re, Alessandra Roaro, Lisa A Osborne, Caterina Viganò, Roberto Truzoli
Problematic internet use (PIU) has been suggested as in need of further research with a view to being included as a disorder in future Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association, but lack of knowledge about the impact of internet cessation on physiological function remains a major gap in knowledge and a barrier to PIU classification. One hundred and forty-four participants were assessed for physiological (blood pressure and heart rate) and psychological (mood and state anxiety) function before and after an internet session...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541649/consensus-recommendations-for-the-clinical-application-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-in-the-treatment-of-depression
#3
Shawn M McClintock, Irving M Reti, Linda L Carpenter, William M McDonald, Marc Dubin, Stephan F Taylor, Ian A Cook, John O'Reardon, Mustafa M Husain, Christopher Wall, Andrew D Krystal, Shirlene M Sampson, Oscar Morales, Brent G Nelson, Vassilios Latoussakis, Mark S George, Sarah H Lisanby
OBJECTIVE: To provide expert recommendations for the safe and effective application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). PARTICIPANTS: Participants included a group of 17 expert clinicians and researchers with expertise in the clinical application of rTMS, representing both the National Network of Depression Centers (NNDC) rTMS Task Group and the American Psychiatric Association Council on Research (APA CoR) Task Force on Novel Biomarkers and Treatments...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541234/psychiatric-specialty-training-in-greece
#4
EDITORIAL
M Margariti, V Kontaxakis, D Ploumpidis
The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534599/untreated-dyslipidemia-in-lebanese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#5
Marouan Zoghbi, Chadia Haddad, Pascale Salameh, Georges Haddad, Souheil Hallit
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of statin-untreated schizophrenic patients needing treatment according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines and to compare the performance of these guidelines to the 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP-III) recommendations. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using medical charts, patient inverventions, and various anthropometric measures between April 2016 and July 2016 at the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross enrolled 329 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-5 criteria) to determine dyslipidemia and risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
May 18, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522089/sleep-stage-distribution-in-persons-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-polysomnographic-study-according-to-american-academy-of-sleep-medicine-standards
#6
Tatyana Mollayeva, Angela Colantonio, J David Cassidy, Lee Vernich, Rahim Moineddin, Colin M Shapiro
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Sleep stage disruption in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has received little research attention. We examined deviations in sleep stage distribution in persons with mTBI relative to population age- and sex-specific normative data and the relationships between such deviations and brain injury-related, medical/psychiatric, and extrinsic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional polysomnographic investigation in 40 participants diagnosed with mTBI (mean age 47...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513567/mental-health-service-utilization-among-black-youth-psychosocial-determinants-in-a-national-sample
#7
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell
Racial disparity in mental health service utilization (MHSU) persists, and youths are not an exception to the underutilization of services. Very limited research has been conducted on the determinants of MHSU among Black youth. Using a national sample of American Black youth, the current study investigated the association between demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychiatric disorders, and self-rated health (SRH) on MHSU. We also tested the heterogeneity of the effects of SRH and psychiatric disorders based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection...
May 17, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502243/a-60-week-prospective-rct-of-a-self-management-intervention-for-individuals-with-serious-mental-illness-and-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Martha Sajatovic, Douglas D Gunzler, Stephanie W Kanuch, Kristin A Cassidy, Curtis Tatsuoka, Richard McCormick, Carol E Blixen, Adam T Perzynski, Douglas Einstadter, Charles L Thomas, Mary E Lawless, Siobhan Martin, Corinna Falck-Ytter, Eileen L Seeholzer, Christine L McKibben, Mark S Bauer, Neal V Dawson
OBJECTIVES: A 60-week randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of targeted training in illness management (TTIM) versus treatment as usual among 200 individuals with serious mental illness and diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The study used the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) to assess psychiatric symptoms; the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) to assess functioning; the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess general health, and serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to assess diabetes control...
May 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500908/distress-tolerance-interacts-with-circumstances-motivation-and-readiness-to-predict-substance-abuse-treatment-retention
#9
Bina Ali, Kerry M Green, Stacey B Daughters, C W Lejuez
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the conditions that influence substance abuse treatment retention in urban African American substance users is limited. This study examined the interacting effect of circumstances, motivation, and readiness (CMR) with distress tolerance to predict substance abuse treatment retention in a sample of urban African American treatment-seeking substance users. METHODS: Data were collected from 81 African American substance users entering residential substance abuse treatment facility in an urban setting...
April 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498023/physical-and-or-sexual-abuse-is-associated-with-increased-psychological-and-emotional-distress-among-transgender-women
#10
Alexandra L Kussin-Shoptaw, Jesse B Fletcher, Cathy J Reback
PURPOSE: Transgender women have consistently reported elevated rates of lifetime physical and sexual abuse. This study examined the associations between reported physical and/or sexual abuse and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of urban, high-risk transgender women. METHODS: From June 2005 through July 2012, 99 transgender women enrolled in a Comprehensive Risk Counseling and Services program in Hollywood, CA. Seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE) were used to simultaneously regress psychiatric symptom reports on participant sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported history of physical/sexual abuse...
May 12, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495490/further-evidence-for-the-association-between-lrp8-and-schizophrenia
#11
Xiao Xiao, Hao Yu, Jun Li, Lu Wang, Lingyi Li, Hong Chang, Dai Zhang, Weihua Yue, Ming Li
Previous studies (including genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene studies) have revealed the important roles of genetic risk factors in schizophrenia, and RELN has been identified as a risk gene for this illness. We recently found that the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 (LRP8), a receptor of Reelin (the protein encoded by RELN), was significantly associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in European populations. To further enhance our understanding of its role in the risk of psychiatric illnesses, we conducted meta-analyses of a higher density of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, N=173) in LRP8 to understand their associations with schizophrenia in much larger samples (39,400 cases and 50,357 controls) from populations of European, Chinese and African American ancestries...
May 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494249/evaluation-of-problematic-psychoactive-substances-use-in-people-placed-in-police-custody
#12
Marie Gérardin, Gabriel Guigand, Laura Wainstein, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, Renaud Clément
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In France, the law states that any person held in custody could be examined by a doctor. The main objective of the medical examination is to give medical evidence of health compatibility with custody. This review identifies health risks such as addictive behaviour. We wanted to know which psychoactive substances are used in this particular population, and how problematic these uses are. DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, monocentric, open-ended study conducted via a structured questionnaire was carried out on detainees who reported having taken drugs or illegal substances...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493733/dimensional-conceptualizations-of-impulsivity
#13
Sarah A Griffin, Donald R Lynam, Douglas B Samuel
Impulsivity is a transdiagnostic dimension of crucial importance to understanding psychopathology, as it is highly relevant to a wide array of maladaptive life outcomes including substance use, criminality, and other risky behaviors. There exist a variety of operationalizations of impulsivity across the literature distinct nomological networks. In fact, research suggests that "impulsivity" is a multifaceted construct comprised of at least 4 distinct traits that have unique pathways to maladaptive behaviors...
May 11, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493729/the-clinician-administered-ptsd-scale-for-dsm-5-caps-5-development-and-initial-psychometric-evaluation-in-military-veterans
#14
Frank W Weathers, Michelle J Bovin, Daniel J Lee, Denise M Sloan, Paula P Schnurr, Danny G Kaloupek, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) is an extensively validated and widely used structured diagnostic interview for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The CAPS was recently revised to correspond with PTSD criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This article describes the development of the CAPS for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and presents the results of an initial psychometric evaluation of CAPS-5 scores in 2 samples of military veterans (Ns = 165 and 207)...
May 11, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490881/risk-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-hospitalized-psychiatric-patients
#15
Farid R Talih, Jean J Ajaltouni, Hani M Tamim, Firas H Kobeissy
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in hospitalized psychiatric patients at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUB-MC). Factors associated with OSA and EDS occurrence in this sample were also examined. METHODS: The Berlin questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale; which respectively evaluate OSA and EDS symptoms, were administered to individuals hospitalized at an acute psychiatric treatment unit at the AUB-MC between the dates of January 2014 and October 2016...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486207/possible-link-of-interleukin-6-and-interleukin-2-with-psychiatric-diagnosis-ethnicity-disaster-or-bmi
#16
Phebe Tucker, Betty Pfefferbaum, Pascal Nitiéma, Qaiser Khan, Ruchi Aggarwal, Erin E Walling
BACKGROUND: Cytokines are of increasing interest as markers for stress responses, mental disorders and general health. We assessed associations of two cytokines with several factors among relocated hurricane survivors and controls. METHODS: We examined 40 relocated hurricane survivors and 40 demographically matched (frequency matching) Oklahoma controls to assess relationships of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) with psychiatric diagnoses (SCID-IV), demographic variables, hurricane exposure and body mass index (BMI)...
May 6, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482185/effect-of-exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-basal-ganglia-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-primary-school-children
#17
Marion Mortamais, Jesus Pujol, Barend L van Drooge, Didac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Christelle Reynes, Robert Sabatier, Ioar Rivas, Joan Grimalt, Joan Forns, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Xavier Querol, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as environmental risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The effects of these pollutants on brain structures potentially involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PAHs on basal ganglia volumes and ADHD symptoms in school children. METHODS: We conducted an imaging study in 242 children aged 8-12years, recruited through a set of representative schools of the city of Barcelona, Spain...
May 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479884/prevalence-and-socioeconomic-correlates-of-autism-among-children-attending-primary-and-secondary-schools-in-south-east-nigeria
#18
Josephat M Chinawa, Pius C Manyike, Elias C Aniwada, Awoere T Chinawa, Herbert A Obu, Odutola I Odetunde, Ada Rc Nwokocha, Roland R Ibekwe
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and socio-economic determinants of autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in South East, Nigeria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that assessed the prevalence and socio-economic pattern of childhood autism among children attending primary and secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states, South East Nigeria. The questionnaire was adapted from American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR, 2000)...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469582/exploring-the-intersections-of-trauma-structural-adversity-and-psychosis-among-a-primarily-african-american-sample-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#19
Cherise Rosen, Nev Jones, Eleanor Longden, Kayla A Chase, Mona Shattell, Jennifer K Melbourne, Sarah K Keedy, Rajiv P Sharma
Traumatic life events (TLEs) have been associated with multiple psychiatric diagnoses, including anxiety disorders, major depression, PTSD, and psychosis. To advance our understanding of the complex interactions between forms of adversity as they manifest across the lifespan, psychosis, and symptom content, we undertook a mixed-methods investigation of TLEs and psychosis. Our research explored the association between cumulative exposures, type of TLE, and proximity to the traumatic event and psychosis; the association between TLEs and clinical symptomology including specific types of delusions and/or hallucinations; and how qualitative data further inform understanding of complex relationships and patterns of past trauma and symptoms as they unfold over time...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462772/mixed-features-in-major-depressive-disorder-diagnoses-and-treatments
#20
Trisha Suppes, Michael Ostacher
For the first time in 20 years, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) updated the psychiatric diagnostic system for mood disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Perhaps one of the most notable changes in the DSM-5 was the recognition of the possibility of mixed symptoms in major depression and related disorders (MDD). While MDD and bipolar and related disorders are now represented by 2 distinct chapters, the addition of a mixed features specifier to MDD represents a structural bridge between bipolar and major depression disorders, and formally recognizes the possibility of a mix of hypomania and depressive symptoms in someone who has never experienced discrete episodes of hypomania or mania...
April 2017: CNS Spectrums
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