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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094879/nutritional-inflammatory-and-ecological-correlates-of-maternal-retinol-allocation-to-breast-milk-in-agro-pastoral-ariaal-communities-of-northern-kenya
#1
Masako Fujita, Yun-Jia Lo, Eleanor Brindle
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin A (VA) is an essential micronutrient required for a range of biological functions throughout life. VA deficiency (VAD) claims an estimated 1 million preschool children's lives annually. Human milk is enriched with VA (retinol) from the maternal blood, which originates from the hepatic reserve and dietary intake. Secreting retinol into milk will benefit the nursing infant through breast milk, but retaining retinol is also important for the maternal health. Previous studies found that the public health intervention of high-dose VA supplementation to lactating mothers did not significantly lower child mortality...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078864/human-herpesviruses-6-and-7-encephalitis-in-immunocompetent-infants-are-they-really-so-uncommon
#2
L Marseglia, S Manti, G D Angelo, G Stroscio, D Impollonia, S Arena, C Salpietro, E Gitto
Human herpesviruses-6 and -7 (HHV-6 and 7) are considered uncommon causes of central nervous system infection and may occasionally cause encephalitis in young infants, however, the clinical syndrome and incidence are not well defined. In immunosuppressed hosts, reactivation is associated with a worse outcome such as encephalitis, hepatitis, or graft rejection. In immunocompetent hosts, this persistent infection is generally of no consequence. We report 4 cases of immunocompetent critically ill children, affected by HHV-6 and -7 encephalitis, admitted to our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073406/-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#3
H Zhuang
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is a major mode of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission, especially in high endemic areas. Administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine to infants at birth, followed by completion of the vaccine series, prevented approximately 95% of HBV transmission from HBsAg-positive mothers to their infants. However, immunoprophylaxis failure was still observed in 5~10% infants born to mothers with high levels of viremia. It was demonstrated that antiviral nucleot(s)ide analogues (NUCs) provided to pregnant women with high viral loads in late pregnancy further reduced MTCT...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070010/low-level-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-children-20-years-after-initiation-of-infant-vaccination-program-in-wallis-and-futuna
#4
Lorenzo Pezzoli, Jean Pierre Mathelin, Karen Hennessey, Padmasiri Eswara-Aratchige, Jayaprakash Valiakolleri, Sung Hye Kim
The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Wallis and Futuna (WAF) was one of the highest in the Pacific and was the driving factor for introducing hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination in 1992 and HepB birth dose (HepB-BD) in 2006. Using transmission assessment survey (TAS) as a survey platform for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF), we assessed HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence, HepB vaccination coverage, and its timeliness among schoolchildren in WAF. From one finger prick of all registered fourth and fifth grade students, we tested HBsAg and filariasis antigen simultaneously, and estimated HepB vaccination coverage and timeliness by reviewing students' immunization cards...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067163/hbv-coinfection-is-associated-with-reduced-cd4-response-to-antiretroviral-treatment-in-pregnancy
#5
Marco Floridia, Giulia Masuelli, Enrica Tamburrini, Arsenio Spinillo, Giuliana Simonazzi, Giovanni Guaraldi, Anna Maria Degli Antoni, Pasquale Martinelli, Vincenzo Portelli, Serena Dalzero, Marina Ravizza
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection on response to antiretroviral treatment in pregnant women with HIV. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a large case series of pregnant women with HIV in Italy; outcome measures were CD4 changes, HIV viral load, and main pregnancy outcomes (preterm delivery, low birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, mode of delivery, and major birth defects). RESULTS: Rate of HBV coinfection among 1462 pregnancies was 12...
January 9, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054156/parental-refusal-of-vitamin-k-and-neonatal-preventive-services-a-need-for-surveillance
#6
Lauren H Marcewicz, Joshua Clayton, Matthew Maenner, Erika Odom, Ekwutosi Okoroh, Deborah Christensen, Alyson Goodman, Michael D Warren, Julie Traylor, Angela Miller, Timothy Jones, John Dunn, William Schaffner, Althea Grant
Objectives Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infants is a coagulopathy preventable with a single dose of injectable vitamin K at birth. The Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) investigated vitamin K refusal among parents in 2013 after learning of four cases of VKDB associated with prophylaxis refusal. Methods Chart reviews were conducted at Nashville-area hospitals for 2011-2013 and Tennessee birthing centers for 2013 to identify parents who had refused injectable vitamin K for their infants...
January 4, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051794/%C3%A2-effects-of-interleukin-4-and-interleukin-12b-gene-polymorphisms-on-hepatitis-b-virus-vaccination
#7
Eun Youn Roh, Eun Young Song, Jong Hyun Yoon, Sohee Oh, Ju Young Chang, Hyunwoong Park, Soo Hyun Seo, Sue Shin
 Approximately 10% of individuals do not respond to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination, i.e. non-responders (NRs). We aimed to investigate the association of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12B gene polymorphisms with responsiveness to the HBV vaccine in Korean infants. Among 300 healthy infants (9-12 month), SNPs for the IL-4 gene (rs2243250, rs2070874, and rs2227284) and for the IL-12B gene (rs3213094 and rs17860508) were compared between subgroups in terms of the response to HBV vaccination. The percentages of NRs (< 10 mIU/mL), low-titer responders (LRs, 10-100 mIU/mL), and high-titer responders (HRs, ≥ 100 mIU/mL) were 20...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051047/evaluation-of-the-use-of-laparoscopic-guided-cholecystocholangiography-and-liver-biopsy-in-definitive-diagnosis-of-neonatal-cholestatic-jaundice
#8
Khalid Shreef, Abdullah Alhelal
BACKGROUND: Once it is established that a jaundiced infant has direct hyperbilirubinemia, the principal diagnostic concern is to differentiate hepatocellular from obstructive cholestasis. Traditional tests such as ultrasonography, percutaneous liver biopsy and technetium 99 m hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan are often not sufficiently discriminating. Definitive exclusion of biliary atresia (BA) in the infant with cholestatic jaundice usually requires mini-laparotomy and intra-operative cholangiography...
October 2016: African Journal of Paediatric Surgery: AJPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039902/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-telbivudine-in-infants-born-to-mothers-treated-during-the-second-or-third-trimesters-of-pregnancy
#9
Guo-Rong Han, Hong-Xiu Jiang, Cui-Min Wang, Yi Ding, Gen-Ju Wang, Xin Yue, Liu Zhou, Wei Zhao
Telbivudine, an FDA pregnancy category B drug, has been found to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) perinatal transmission with no safety concerns in infants aged up to 1 year. This study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of telbivudine in 214 infants born to 210 pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B infection who were treated with telbivudine during pregnancy (weeks 20-32 of gestation). The infants were followed for up to 5 years after birth. The efficacy endpoint was the rate of perinatal transmission, which was established by HBsAg and HBV DNA levels at 7 and 12 months...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039625/the-influence-of-maternal-exposure-history-to-virus-and-medicine-during-pregnancy-on-congenital-heart-defects-of-fetus
#10
Qianhong Liang, Wei Gong, Dongming Zheng, Risheng Zhong, Yunjie Wen, Xiaodan Wang
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect. It is due to dysfunction of the heart and great vessels during embryo development stage, or the channel was not closed after birth. This study focuses on investigating the influence of virus infection and medicine history during pregnancy on the incidence rate of CHD of fetus. We conducted a retrospective birth cohort study of infant born in the maternal and child health hospital of Fanyu district in Guangzhou. Five thousand three hundred eighty one cases with complete medical records, including mothers, fathers, and infants, were enrolled...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035545/dtap5-hb-ipv-hib-vaccine-vaxelis-%C3%A2-a-review-of-its-use-in-primary-and-booster-vaccination
#11
Yahiya Y Syed
Vaxelis(®) is a fully liquid, ready-to-use, hexavalent vaccine approved in the EU for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers from the age of 6 weeks against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). It contains diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, five acellular pertussis antigens, recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen produced in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivated poliovirus, and the Hib polysaccharide (polyribosylribitol phosphate) conjugated to the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis...
December 29, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030527/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-testing-among-pregnant-women-united-states-2014
#12
Maureen Kolasa, Yuping Tsai, Jing Xu, Nancy Fenlon, Sarah Schillie
BACKGROUND: Post-exposure prophylaxis administered to infants shortly after birth prevents approximately 90% of cases of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) transmission. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all pregnant women be tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at an early prenatal visit during each pregnancy to detect active infection with HBV. This study sought to determine the proportion and characteristics of pregnant women tested\not tested according to ACIP recommendations METHODS:: We analyzed MarketScan databases to assess prenatal HBsAg testing among women with commercial and Medicaid health care coverage according to demographic and clinical characteristics...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028560/pathophysiology-prevention-treatment-and-outcomes-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Noora H Al-Shahwani, David L Sigalet
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) remains a serious problem in the treatment of infants with nutritional problems and short bowel syndrome. METHODS: A review of the recent literature from 2010 to 2016, concentrating on articles related to the pathophysiology of IFALD and to outcomes of novel nutritional and pharmacological therapies for neonatal cholestasis in the post-surgical neonate. RESULTS: The pathophysiology of IFALD relates to an increase sensitivity of the neonatal liver to cholestasis in the non-fed state; prolonged cholestasis almost inevitably results in liver damage which will progress from fibrosis to cirrhosis...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025872/lamivudine-therapy-during-the-second-vs-the-third-trimester-for-preventing-transmission-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#14
C Q Pan, W Yi, M Liu, G Wan, Y-H Hu, M-F Zhou
There are little data on the timing of initiating lamivudine therapy for preventing transmission of hepatitis B in highly viremic mothers. Between May 2008 and January 2015, we retrospectively enrolled mothers with HBV DNA >6 log10  copies/mL who received lamivudine during pregnancy, and we compared them to untreated mothers. The primary measurement was the vertical transmission rate. The secondary outcomes were the mothers' and infants' safety. Among 249 consecutive mothers enrolled, 66 and 94 received lamivudine during the second and third trimesters, respectively, and 89 were untreated...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017429/risk-factors-related-to-the-failure-of-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-mother-to-child-transmission-in-yunnan-china
#15
Wenyu Kang, Qiongfen Li, Liping Shen, Lifen Zhang, Ziying Tian, Lin Xu, Feng Qiu, Feng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the failure of prevention of hepatitis B virus Mother-to-Child transmission and HBV serological pattern, viral load as well as HBV genotypes. METHODS: 2765 pairs of mother-infant matched samples were collected. These pregnant women were HBsAg positive and delivered at hospital from January 1st, 2011 to June 30th, 2011. Of these samples, 26 pairs of sera samples were randomly selected from 114 pairs of samples which failed in the prevention of hepatitis B virus Mother-to-Child transmission...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003725/neonatal-cholestasis-as-initial-presentation-of-portosystemic-shunt-a-case-report
#16
Güzide Doğan, Fatih Düzgün, Serdar Tarhan, Yeliz Çağan Appak, Erhun Kasırga
Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunts are rare in children. Portosystemic venous malformations are characterized by extreme clinical variability. We report a full-term 33-day-old male infant presenting with neonatal jaundice. On physical examination, he had generalized icterus and the liver was palpable 3.5 cm below the right costal margin. He had no other symptoms. Laboratory tests showed AST 632 U/L, ALT 198 U/L, total bilirubin 12.1 mg/dL, conjugated bilirubin 10.2 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase 753 U/L, GGT 47 U/L and glucose 67 U/L...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003042/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-infection-in-finland-implications-for-immunisation-policy
#17
Tanja Karvonen, Kari Auranen, Markku Kuusi, Tuija Leino
OBJECTIVES: We describe the current epidemiology of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections in Finland. We estimate the total incidence of chronic hepatitis B following from the current incidence of acute infections and the influx of chronic carriers of hepatitis B associated with net immigration. We evaluate the incidence of hepatitis B infections preventable by a universal vaccination programme among infants. METHODS: We analysed hepatitis B cases reported to the National Infectious Disease Register during 2004-2012 and used pre-developed methods to adjust for acute asymptomatic infections...
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998385/hepatitis-b-immunoprophylactic-failure-and-characteristics-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-gene-in-mother-infant-pairs-in-parts-of-china
#18
Wen Jiao Yin, Li Ping Shen, Fu Zhen Wang, Guo Min Zhang, Hui Zheng, Feng Wang, Tie Zhu Liu, Qing Ling Meng, Yao Yi, Fu Qiang Cui, Sheng Li Bi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the hepatitis B immunoprophylactic failure rate in infants born to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected mothers and to characterize HBV genes. METHODS: HBV-serological testing was conducted for pregnant women and infants. The complete genomes of 30 HBV isolates were sequenced, and genetic characteristics were analyzed using MEGA 5 software. RESULTS: The immunoprophylactic failure rate for infants who had completed the scheduled hepatitis B vaccination program was 5...
November 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996332/dtap5-ipv-hib-hepb-a-hexavalent-vaccine-for-infants-and-toddlers
#19
Andrew W Lee, Emilia Jordanov, Florence Boisnard, Gary S Marshall
Combination vaccines reduce the 'shot burden' and simplify the childhood immunization schedule. Only 5-valent DTaP-based vaccines are licensed in the U.S. Areas covered: A new combination vaccine - DTaP5-IPV-Hib-HepB - is described, which induces antibody responses in infants (given in different schedules, including a 2, 4, and 6-month schedule) that are similar to the respective component vaccines. The vaccine appears to be safe and would be expected to protect against six diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, H influenzae type b, and polio...
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994903/congenital-hypothyroidism-an-unusual-combination-of-biochemical-abnormalities
#20
Ruchi Mantri, S B Bavdekar, Sushma U Save
A forty-five-day-old female infant presented with prolonged jaundice with clinical features suggestive of congenital hypothyroidism (CHT). On investigations, the infant was noted to have indirect hyperbilirubinemia (13.8 mg/dl) with increased levels of AST (298 IU/dl) and ALT (174 IU/dl) in the serum. The child had low levels of free T3 (<1 pg/ml) and free T4 (0.4 ng/dl) secondary to thyroid agenesis detected on radionuclide scan and ultrasonography of the neck and raised levels of TSH (>500 microIU/ml) in the serum...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
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