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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132524/hepatitis-a-and-b-infections
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer Thuener
Hepatitis A virus causes acute viral hepatitis, presenting with jaundice, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms are self-limited and treated symptomatically. Routine vaccination of infants has greatly reduced the incidence in the United States. Vaccination is recommended for all infants and adults at increased risk. Hepatitis B virus can cause acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Acute hepatitis B is usually self-limited, but can develop into a chronic infection. Patients are at highest risk for developing chronic disease if they are infected at a younger age...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131270/imaging-assessment-of-portal-venous-system-pictorial-essay-of-normal-anatomy-anatomic-variants-and-congenital-anomalies
#2
A Guerra, A M De Gaetano, A Infante, C Mele, M G Marini, E Rinninella, R Inchingolo, L Bonomo
The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe anatomic variants and congenital anomalies of portal venous system and related liver parenchymal alterations. The imaging findings of some of these entities have been previously described in other articles, however this work encompasses all congenital anomalies of portal venous system with attention to their features on various imaging modalities; in particular we illustrated with detailed pictures all the main portal vein variants, congenital extra- and intra-hepatic porto-systemic venous shunts and portal vein aneurysm...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#3
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122384/strengthening-global-vaccine-access-for-adolescents-and-adults
#4
REVIEW
Angeline Nanni, Stefanie Meredith, Stephanie Gati, Karin Holm, Tom Harmon, Ann Ginsberg
Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112519/methadone-versus-buprenorphine-for-opioid-use-dependence-and-risk-of-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#5
Lara S Lemon, Steve N Caritis, Raman Venkataramanan, Robert W Platt, Lisa M Bodnar
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to estimate the association between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome compared with buprenorphine using a probabilistic bias analysis to account for unmeasured confounding by severity of addiction. METHODS: We used a cohort of live-born infants exposed in utero to methadone or buprenorphine for maternal opioid maintenance therapy at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA from 2013-2015 (n=716). We determined exposure and outcome status using pharmacy billing claims...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110981/distributive-shock-in-a-neonate-with-diffuse-infantile-hepatic-hemangioma
#6
James Brown, Rajan Arora, Usha Sethuraman
BACKGROUND: Hemangiomas are common cutaneous findings on healthy infants. These vascular malformations are generally benign, though in rare circumstances they can potentially be fatal. This is particularly true when the hemangiomas are large or numerous and occurring in visceral organs. Previously unrecognized visceral hemangiomas are part of the differential for any neonate presenting unexpectedly in shock. CASE REPORT: A 10-day-old neonate presented to the pediatric emergency department with difficulty breathing...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106317/is-hepatitis-b-vaccination-performed-at-infant-and-adolescent-age-able-to-provide-long-term-immunological-memory-an-observational-study-on-healthcare-students-and-workers-in-florence-italy
#7
Costanza Bini, Maddalena Grazzini, Martina Chellini, Nicola Mucci, Giulio Arcangeli, Emilia Tiscione, Paolo Bonanni
Universal vaccination programmes against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) have significantly reduced the burden of the disease; nevertheless, HBV infection remains a relevant issue for high-risk subjects, such as healthcare workers (HCWs), who may potentially be exposed to blood or body fluids. Our study evaluates the long-term duration of the immunological memory of HBV vaccination 11-23 years after primary immunization by examining the response to booster doses in HCWs and students of health disciplines at Careggi Teaching Hospital in Florence (Italy)...
November 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105047/hepatitis-e-virus-seroprevalence-in-pregnant-women-in-pakistan-maternal-and-fetal-outcomes
#8
Najma Javed, Sultana H Ullah, Nazli Hussain, Munir A Sheikh, Ambreen Khan, Farkhanda Ghafoor, Rukhsana Firdous, Waqar Uddin, Arif N Saqib, Ghazal Muhyudin
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in Pakistan. Although otherwise asymptomatic, HEV infection becomes fatal in pregnancy, with considerable maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. We conducted a descriptive study from April to October 2015 in 10 tertiary care hospitals throughout Pakistan to determine maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in HEV-positive pregnant women with acute jaundice or raised liver function tests. Twenty-one of 135 women were HEV positive and in 3rd trimester except for 1 in 1st trimester...
October 30, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101037/hyperoxia-mediated-transcriptional-activation-of-cytochrome-p4501a1-cyp1a1-and-decreased-susceptibility-to-oxygen-mediated-lung-injury-in-newborn-mice
#9
Weiwu Jiang, Paramahamsa Maturu, Yanhong Wei Liang, Lihua Wang, Krithika Lingappan, Xanthi Couroucli
Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that newborn transgenic mice carrying the human CYP1A1-Luc promoter will display transcriptional activation of the human CYP1A1 promoter in vivo upon exposure to hyperoxia, and that these mice will be less susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury and alveolar simplification than similarly exposed wild type (WT) mice. Newborn WT (CD-1) or transgenic mice carrying a 13.2 kb human CYP1A1 promoter and the luciferase (Luc) reporter gene (CYP1A1-luc) were maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for 7-14 days...
October 31, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096166/lung-and-liver-growth-and-retinoic-acid-status-in-human-fetuses-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#10
Christine K C Loo, Michael A Pearen, Tamara N Pereira, Joanna Perry-Keene, Diane Payton, Grant A Ramm
BACKGROUND: Abnormal retinoic acid (RA) signalling is considered a major cause of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in infants born with CDH. Experimental studies in animals have found that RA signalling is involved in lung and liver development, but animal models of CDH do not directly correlate with CDH in human fetuses. This study investigated if RA status is also linked to lung and liver growth in human fetuses with CDH...
October 30, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095348/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-its-role-in-developing-cholestasis-an-in-vitro-study-on-different-liver-cell-types
#11
Haristi Gaitantzi, Priska Hakenberg, Jannick Theobald, Hagen Heinlein, Chen Cai, Steffan Loff, Stefan Wölfl, Matthias P Ebert, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Ulrike Subotic
OBJECTIVES: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in many polyvinylchloride medical devices and is washed out easily. Thereby critically ill infants can become exposed to DEHP concentrations significantly exceeding the recommended threshold. We suspect DEHP to play an important role in the development of intestinal failure associated liver disease. The aim of this study was therefore, to determine the direct influence of DEHP on different liver cell types. METHODS: HepG2, human upcyte hepatocytes, primary murine hepatocytes, LX-2, human upcyte hepatic stellate cells and liver organoids were cultured with DEHP (0...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091317/the-change-of-antibody-levels-in-children-changes-and-analysis-of-anti-hbs-titers-after-primary-immunization-in-1-16-year-old-chinese-children-a-hospital-based-study
#12
Xiaomei Yue, Congcong Ge, Shurui Zhuge, Hao He, Hui Yang, Hongmei Xu, Ailong Huang, Yao Zhao
Immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in antibody levels induced by administration of the hepatitis B vaccine in children aged 1-16 year-old in a large sample sized investigation. HBV markers were determined in 93,326 1-16 year-old hospitalized children who completed primary immunization as infants from southwest China, Chongqing. Analyses were performed on anti-HBs titer changes with increasing age, and the revaccination effect was evaluated in children aged 7-14...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082653/telbivudine-therapy-for-gravidas-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-and-patients-at-risk-of-renal-impairment
#13
REVIEW
J Liu, T Chen, Y Zhao
Hepatitis B virus infection is currently the most important cause of chronic viral hepatitis worldwide and is one of the most frequent causes of end-stage liver disease. With the international implementation of the hepatitis B vaccine and combined prophylaxis for infants born to HBsAg(+) mothers, the prevalence of hepatitis B has decreased remarkably. However, intra-uterine transmission has become a critical bottleneck for eliminating hepatitis B infection. The efficacy of nucleos(t)ide analogs on inhibiting hepatitis B replication has been widely confirmed, and the quality of life and the survival of individuals with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have improved to a great degree...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082650/prospective-cohort-study-on-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-telbivudine-used-throughout-pregnancy-in-blocking-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#14
W Yi, M-H Li, Y Xie, J Wu, Y-H Hu, D Zhang, Y Zhang, W-H Cao
Women with chronic hepatitis B should maintain nucleotide analogue treatment to prevent disease progression during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of telbivudine used throughout pregnancy for preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). From January 2012 to June 2014, women who were receiving telbivudine therapy and became pregnant were enrolled in group A at 28 weeks of gestation. Pregnant women with an HBV DNA level >10(6)  IU/mL were enrolled in either group B (telbivudine started at 28 weeks of gestation) or group C (control group without treatment)...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082646/safety-and-efficacy-of-telbivudine-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-during-the-entire-pregnancy-long-term-follow-up
#15
J Shang, Q Wen, C C Wang, K Liu, L Bai, H Tang
The management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnancy is a unique issue. Telbivudine (LdT) is recommended to block HBV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in the third trimester. However, the safety of LdT treatment during the entire pregnancy for the long-term growth of infants is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of LdT for the entire pregnancy period. This retrospective cohort study included 40 pregnant women and 43 children from 2011 to 2017. The antiviral effects and maternal abnormalities were evaluated...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079173/general-paucity-of-genomic-alteration-and-low-tumor-mutation-burden-in-refractory-and-metastatic-hepatoblastoma-comprehensive-genomic-profiling-study
#16
Hwajeong Lee, Tony El Jabbour, Sanaz Ainechi, Laurie M Gay, Julia A Elvin, Jo-Anne Vergilio, James Suh, Shakti H Ramkissoon, Siraj M Ali, Alexa Schrock, David Fabrizio, Garrett Frampton, Tipu Nazeer, Vincent A Miller, Philip J Stephens, Jeffrey S Ross
Hepatoblastoma (HBL) is hepatic malignancy of infants and young children which is often cured by combinations of surgery and chemotherapy. Management of refractory and metastatic HBL is challenging. Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on 31 refractory and metastatic HBL using a hybrid-capture, adaptor ligation based next generation sequencing assay. Tumor mutation burden (TMB) was calculated from a minimum of 1.11Mb of sequenced DNA and reported as mutations/Mb. The results were analyzed for all classes of genomic alterations (GA)...
October 24, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079104/the-maternal-viral-threshold-for-antiviral-prophylaxis-of-perinatal-hepatitis-b-virus-transmission-in-settings-with-limited-resources-a-large-prospective-cohort-study-in-china
#17
Ying Lu, Feng-Cai Zhu, Jian-Xun Liu, Xiang-Jun Zhai, Zhan-Jun Chang, Ling Yan, Kai-Ping Wei, Xin Zhang, Hui Zhuang, Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Antiviral therapy has been documented to reduce perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in highly viremic mothers. This large prospective cohort study conducted in China aims to delineate the maternal viral threshold for consideration of antiviral prophylaxis in settings with limited resources. METHODS: A total of 1177 mother-infant pairs with positive maternal hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) under current passive-active prophylaxis regimen were enrolled from community health centers in Jiangsu and Henan provinces, China...
October 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073129/receipt-of-selected-preventive-health-services-for-women-and-men-of-reproductive-age-united-states-2011-2013
#18
Karen Pazol, Cheryl L Robbins, Lindsey I Black, Katherine A Ahrens, Kimberly Daniels, Anjani Chandra, Anjel Vahratian, Lorrie E Gavin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Receipt of key preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age (i.e., 15-44 years) can help them achieve their desired number and spacing of healthy children and improve their overall health. The 2014 publication Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs (QFP) establishes standards for providing a core set of preventive services to promote these goals. These services include contraceptive care for persons seeking to prevent or delay pregnancy, pregnancy testing and counseling, basic infertility services for those seeking to achieve pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, and other preconception care and related preventive health services...
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072864/increased-risk-for-mother-to-infant-transmission-of-hepatitis-c-virus-among-medicaid-recipients-wisconsin-2011-2015
#19
Theresa Watts, Lauren Stockman, Justin Martin, Sheila Guilfoyle, James M Vergeront
State surveillance during the last 10 years reveals a nationwide increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among young adults (1). The proportion of infants born to HCV-infected women is also increasing nationally (2). To estimate the proportion of infants born to HCV-infected women and the frequency of confirmed HCV infection in their infants, maternal name and date of birth from HCV reports in the Wisconsin Electronic Disease Surveillance System (WEDSS) were linked to Wisconsin Medicaid data for 2011-2015 births...
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064028/mother-to-infant-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-challenges-and-perspectives
#20
Yi-Fen Shih, Chun-Jen Liu
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to perinatal mother-to-infant transmission (MTIT) remains a serious global health problem. Despite passive-active immunoprophylaxis using hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg), up to 8-10% of newborns still acquire HBV infection. Understanding the mechanisms of MTIT is essential for the interruption of HBV transmission. There are three possible routes of transmission: intrauterine transmission, transmission during delivery (intrapartum) and postnatal transmission through close contact or breast milk (postpartum)...
October 24, 2017: Hepatology International
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