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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235980/restoration-of-glycoprotein-erns-dimerization-via-pseudoreversion-partially-restores-virulence-of-classical-swine-fever-virus
#1
Anna Katharina Tucakov, Sabine Yavuz, Eva-Maria Schürmann, Manjula Mischler, Anne Klingebeil, Gregor Meyers
The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) represents one of the most important pathogens of swine. The CSFV glycoprotein Erns is an essential structural protein and an important virulence factor. The latter is dependent on the RNase activity of this envelope protein and, most likely, its secretion from the infected cell. A further important feature with regard to its function as a virulence factor is the formation of disulfide-linked Erns homodimers that are found in virus-infected cells and virions. Mutant CSFV lacking cysteine (Cys) 171, the residue responsible for intermolecular disulfide bond formation, were found to be attenuated in pigs (Tews BA, Schürmann EM, Meyers G...
December 13, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235892/changes-in-technical-efficiency-of-the-broiler-production-in-poland-1994-2013
#2
K Utnik-Banaś, J Żmija, J Krawczyk, K Połtowicz
1. The effects of changes in technical efficiency on the increase of broiler production are presented for the period 1994 - 2013 based on the panel data from 7 farms located in southern and central Poland. A total of 766 cycles were analysed. 2. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to assess the changes of output elasticities as well as technical changes in broiler production, for five-year sub-periods separately. 3. Technical indices of broiler production significantly improved between years 1994-2013: feed conversion ratio decreased from 2...
December 13, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235884/cost-per-successfully-treated-patient-for-vortioxetine-versus-duloxetine-in-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder-an-analysis-of-the-complete-symptoms-of-depression-and-functional-outcome
#3
Michael Cronquist Christensen, Vicki Munro
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of vortioxetine versus duloxetine in adults with moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) in Norway using a definition of a successfully treated patient (STP) that incorporates improvement in both mood symptoms and functional capacity. METHODS: Using the population of patients who completed the 8-week CONNECT study, the cost-effectiveness of vortioxetine (n = 168) (10-20 mg/day) versus duloxetine (n = 176) (60 mg/day) was investigated for the treatment of adults in Norway with moderate to severe MDD and self-reported cognitive dysfunction over an 8-week treatment period...
December 13, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235605/flexible-integrated-diode-transistor-logic-dtl-driving-circuits-based-on-printed-carbon-nanotube-thin-film-transistors-with-low-operation-voltage
#4
Tingting Liu, Jianwen Zhao, Weiwei Xu, Junyan Dou, Xinluo Zhao, Wei Deng, Changting Wei, Wenya Xu, Wenrui Guo, Wenming Su, Jiansheng Jie, Zheng Cui
Fabrication and application of hybrid functional circuits have become a hot research topic in the field of printed electronics. In this study, a novel flexible diode-transistor logic (DTL) driving circuit is proposed, which was fabricated based on a light emitting diode (LED) integrated with printed high-performance single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The LED, which is made of AlGaInP on GaAs, is commercial off-the-shelf, which could generate free electrical charges upon white light illumination...
December 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235506/differential-contributions-of-the-middle-frontal-gyrus-functional-connectivity-to-literacy-and-numeracy
#5
Maki S Koyama, David O'Connor, Zarrar Shehzad, Michael P Milham
Literacy and numeracy equally affect an individual's success in and beyond schools, but these two competencies tend to be separately examined, particularly in neuroimaging studies. The current resting-state fMRI study examined the neural correlates of literacy and numeracy in the same sample of healthy adults. We first used an exploratory "Multivariate Distance Matrix Regression" (MDMR) approach to examine intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC), highlighting the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) for both competencies...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235480/vocal-learning-promotes-patterned-inhibitory-connectivity
#6
Mark N Miller, Chung Yan J Cheung, Michael S Brainard
Skill learning is instantiated by changes to functional connectivity within premotor circuits, but whether the specificity of learning depends on structured changes to inhibitory circuitry remains unclear. We used slice electrophysiology to measure connectivity changes associated with song learning in the avian analog of primary motor cortex (robust nucleus of the arcopallium, RA) in Bengalese Finches. Before song learning, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) densely innervated glutamatergic projection neurons (PNs) with apparently random connectivity...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235451/towards-a-theoretical-clarification-of-biomimetics-using-conceptual-tools-from-engineering-design
#7
M Drack, M Limpinsel, G de Bruyn, J H Nebelsick, O Betz
Many successful examples of biomimetic products are available, and most research efforts in this emerging field are directed towards the development of specific applications. The theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of the knowledge transfer between biologists, engineers and architects are, however, poorly investigated. The present article addresses this gap. We use a 'technomorphic' approach, i.e. the application of conceptual tools derived from engineering design, to better understand the processes operating during a typical biomimetic research project...
December 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235352/systems-approaches-to-understanding-and-designing-allosteric-proteins
#8
Srivatsan Raman
The study of allostery has a central place in biology due to the myriad roles of allosteric proteins in cellular function. As technologies to probe spatiotemporal resolution of biomolecules have become increasingly sophisticated, so has our understanding of the diverse structural and molecular mechanisms of allosteric proteins. Studies have shown that allosteric signal is transmitted a through a network of residue-residue interactions connecting distal sites on a protein. Linking structural and dynamical changes to the functional role of individual residues will give a more complete molecular view of allostery...
December 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235198/substrate-interaction-defects-in-histidyl-trna-synthetase-linked-to-dominant-axonal-peripheral-neuropathy
#9
Jamie A Abbott, Rebecca Meyer-Schuman, Vincenzo Lupo, Shawna Feely, Inès Mademan, Stephanie N Oprescu, Laurie B Griffin, M Antonia Alberti, Carlos Casasnovas, Sharon Aharoni, Lina Basel-Vanagaite, Stephan Züchner, Peter De Jonghe, Jonathan Baets, Michael E Shy, Carmen Espinós, Borries Demeler, Anthony Antonellis, Christopher Francklyn
Histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) ligates histidine to cognate tRNA molecules, which is required for protein translation. Mutations in HARS cause the dominant axonal peripheral neuropathy Charcot Marie-Tooth disease type 2W (CMT2W); however, the precise molecular mechanism remains undefined. Here, we investigated three HARS missense mutations associated with CMT2W (p.Tyr330Cys, p.Ser356Asn, and p.Val155Gly). The three mutations localize to the HARS catalytic domain and failed to complement deletion of the yeast ortholog (HTS1)...
December 12, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235190/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-central-extended-amygdala
#10
Rachael M Tillman, Melissa D Stockbridge, Brendon M Nacewicz, Salvatore Torrisi, Andrew S Fox, Jason F Smith, Alexander J Shackman
The central extended amygdala (EAc)-including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce)-plays a critical role in triggering fear and anxiety and is implicated in the development of a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Although it is widely believed that these disorders reflect the coordinated activity of distributed neural circuits, the functional architecture of the EAc network and the degree to which the BST and the Ce show distinct patterns of functional connectivity is unclear...
December 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235175/acetate-provokes-mitochondrial-stress-and-cell-death-in-ustilago-maydis
#11
Matthias Kretschmer, Scott Lambie, Daniel Croll, James W Kronstad
The fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis causes disease on maize by mating to establish an infectious filamentous cell type that invades the host and induces tumours. We previously found that β-oxidation mutants were defective in virulence and did not grow on acetate. Here we demonstrate that acetate inhibits filamentation during mating and in response to oleic acid. We therefore examined the influence of different carbon sources by comparing the transcriptomes of cells grown on acetate, oleic acid or glucose, with expression changes for the fungus during tumour formation in planta...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235028/artificial-intelligence-and-regression-analysis-for-cd-ii-ion-biosorption-from-aqueous-solution-by-gossypium-barbadense-waste
#12
Manal Fawzy, Mahmoud Nasr, Heba Nagy, Shacker Helmi
In this study, batch biosorption experiments were conducted to determine the removal efficiency of Cd(II) ion from aqueous solutions by Gossypium barbadense waste. The biosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) connected with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The sorption mechanism was described by complexation/chelation of Cd2+ with the functional groups of O-H, C=O, -COO-, and C-O, as well as, cation-exchange with Mg2+ and K+. At initial Cd(II) ion concentration (C o), 50 mg/L, the adsorption equilibrium of 89...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234958/the-relationship-between-putamen-sma-functional-connectivity-and-sensorimotor-abnormality-in-esrd-patients
#13
Dun Ding, Peng Li, Xue-Ying Ma, Wang-Huan Dun, Shi-Feng Yang, Shao-Hui Ma, Hong-Juan Liu, Ming Zhang
The basal ganglia (BG) are composed of several nuclei involved in neural processing associated with integration of sensory and motor information. Recent neuroimaging studies implicated its key role in control of voluntary motor function. As the sensorimotor abnormality is common among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the abnormal structure and functional connectivity patterns of BG in ESRD patients. Twenty-nine ESRD and twenty-nine age and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to compare the volume of the subsets in the BG (e...
December 12, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234889/translaminar-circuits-formed-by-the-pyramidal-cells-in-the-superficial-layers-of-cat-visual-cortex
#14
German Koestinger, Kevan A C Martin, Elisha S Rusch
Pyramidal cells in the superficial layers of the neocortex provide a major excitatory projection to layer 5, which contains the pyramidal cells that project to subcortical motor-related targets. Both structurally and functionally rather little is known about this interlaminar pathway, especially in higher mammals. Here, we made sparse ultrastructural reconstructions of the projection to layer 5 of three pyramidal neurons from layer 3 in cat V1 whose morphology, physiology, and synaptic connections with layers 2 and 3 were known...
December 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234561/comparison-of-functional-activities-on-structural-changes-of-the-inferior-patellar-pole
#15
Kelli McKinney, Harvey Wallmann, Patrick Stalcup, Katie DiTommaso
Background: It is well known that eccentric and concentric exercise produce varied amounts of stress on the connective tissues. Diagnostic ultrasound has been used to measure these structural changes by observing fascicle length, angle, and thickness; however, there is a lack of evidence comparing the structural changes as it relates to eccentric, concentric, and stretching protocols. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static stretching, eccentric, concentric, and a combination of eccentric/concentric exercises on structural changes of the muscle tendon unit at the inferior patellar pole utilizing the diagnostic ultrasound...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234484/determining-the-surface-structure-of-silicated-alumina-catalysts-via-isotopic-enrichment-and-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-surface-enhanced-nmr-spectroscopy
#16
Andrew G M Rankin, Paul B Webb, Daniel M Dawson, Jasmine Viger-Gravel, Brennan J Walder, Lyndon Emsley, Sharon E Ashbrook
Isotopic enrichment of 29Si and DNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy are combined to determine the detailed surface structure of a silicated alumina catalyst. The significant sensitivity enhancement provided by DNP is vital to the acquisition of multinuclear and multidimensional experiments that provide information on the atomic-level structure of the species present at the surface. Isotopic enrichment not only facilitates spectral acquisition, particularly given the low (1.5 wt %) Si loading, but also enables spectra with higher resolution than those acquired using DNP to be obtained...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234280/blunted-diurnal-cortisol-activity-in-healthy-adults-with-childhood-adversity
#17
Yuliya I Kuras, Naomi Assaf, Myriam V Thoma, Danielle Gianferante, Luke Hanlin, Xuejie Chen, Alexander Fiksdal, Nicolas Rohleder
Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234091/structural-reorganization-of-the-early-visual-cortex-following-braille-training-in-sighted-adults
#18
Łukasz Bola, Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka, Małgorzata Paplińska, Ewa Sumera, Maria Zimmermann, Katarzyna Jednoróg, Artur Marchewka, Marcin Szwed
Training can induce cross-modal plasticity in the human cortex. A well-known example of this phenomenon is the recruitment of visual areas for tactile and auditory processing. It remains unclear to what extent such plasticity is associated with changes in anatomy. Here we enrolled 29 sighted adults into a nine-month tactile Braille-reading training, and used voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to describe the resulting anatomical changes. In addition, we collected resting-state fMRI data to relate these changes to functional connectivity between visual and somatosensory-motor cortices...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233891/the-ftslb-sub-complex-of-the-bacterial-divisome-is-tetramer-with-an-uninterrupted-ftsl-helix-linking-the-transmembrane-and-periplasmic-regions
#19
Samson G F Condon, Deena-Al Mahbuba, Claire R Armstrong, Gladys Díaz-Vázquez, Samuel J Craven, Loren M LaPointe, Ambalika S Khadria, Rahul Chadda, John A Crooks, Nambirajan Rangarajan, Douglas B Weibel, Aaron A Hoskins, Janice L Robertson, Qiang Cui, Alessandro Senes
In Escherichia coli, FtsLB plays a central role in the initiation of cell division, possibly transducing a signal that will eventually lead to the activation of peptidoglycan remodeling at the forming septum. The molecular mechanisms by which FtsLB operates in the divisome, however, are not understood. Here we present a structural analysis of the FtsLB complex - performed with biophysical, computational and in vivo methods - that establishes the organization of the transmembrane region and proximal coiled coil of the complex...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233863/cobl-like-promotes-actin-filament-formation-and-dendritic-branching-using-only-a-single-wh2-domain
#20
Maryam Izadi, Dirk Schlobinski, Maria Lahr, Lukas Schwintzer, Britta Qualmann, Michael M Kessels
Local actin filament formation powers the development of the signal-receiving arbor of neurons that underlies neuronal network formation. Yet, little is known about the molecules that drive these processes and may functionally connect them to the transient calcium pulses observed in restricted areas in the forming dendritic arbor. Here we demonstrate that Cordon-Bleu (Cobl)-like, an uncharacterized protein suggested to represent a very distantly related, evolutionary ancestor of the actin nucleator Cobl, despite having only a single G-actin-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein Homology 2 (WH2) domain, massively promoted the formation of F-actin-rich membrane ruffles of COS-7 cells and of dendritic branches of neurons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
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