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Functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935476/a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study-of-amino-acid-selectivity-of-leurs-editing-domain-from-thermus-thermophilus
#1
Alexey Rayevsky, Mohsen Sharifi, Michael Tukalo
The accuracy of protein synthesis is provided by the editing functions of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), a mechanism that eliminates misactivated amino acids or mischarged tRNAs. Despite research efforts, some molecular bases of these mechanisms are still unclear. The post-transfer editing pathway of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) carried out in a special insertion domain (the Connective Polypeptide 1 or CP1), as editing domain. Recently, it was shown by in vivo studies and was supported by mutagenesis, and the kinetics approaches that the CP1 domain of LeuRS has discriminatory power for different substrates...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935415/the-hippocampal-longitudinal-axis-relevance-for-underlying-tau-and-tdp-43-pathology
#2
Albert Lladó, Adrià Tort-Merino, Raquel Sánchez-Valle, Neus Falgàs, Mircea Balasa, Beatriz Bosch, Magda Castellví, Jaume Olives, Anna Antonell, Michael Hornberger
Recent studies suggest that hippocampus has different cortical connectivity and functionality along its longitudinal axis. We sought to elucidate the possible different pattern of atrophy in longitudinal axis of hippocampus between Amyloid/Tau pathology and TDP-43-pathies. Seventy-three presenile subjects were included: Amyloid/Tau group (33 Alzheimer's disease with confirmed cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] biomarkers), probable TDP-43 group (7 semantic variant progressive primary aphasia, 5 GRN and 2 C9orf72 mutation carriers) and 26 healthy controls...
June 1, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935269/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-prefrontal-cortex-investigated-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-a-longitudinal-and-cross-sectional-study
#3
Shijing Wu, Lantian Gao, Changshui Chen, Jun Li, Sailing He
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate the stability of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the prefrontal cortex. In a longitudinal study for investigating the stability of RSFC with time, we recruited 6 healthy adult subjects to undergo a 10-min resting state fNIRS scan once per day for 7 consecutive days. In a cross-sectional study, 62 healthy subjects underwent a single 10-min RSFC measurement. Three regions-of-interest (ROIs) were studied, the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
June 20, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934977/the-prestimulus-default-mode-network-state-predicts-cognitive-task-performance-levels-on-a-mental-rotation-task
#4
Tabea Kamp, Bettina Sorger, Caroline Benjamins, Lars Hausfeld, Rainer Goebel
BACKGROUND: Linking individual task performance to preceding, regional brain activation is an ongoing goal of neuroscientific research. Recently, it could be shown that the activation and connectivity within large-scale brain networks prior to task onset influence performance levels. More specifically, prestimulus default mode network (DMN) effects have been linked to performance levels in sensory near-threshold tasks, as well as cognitive tasks. However, it still remains uncertain how the DMN state preceding cognitive tasks affects performance levels when the period between task trials is long and flexible, allowing participants to engage in different cognitive states...
June 22, 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934951/effects-of-coeliacomesenteric-blood-flow-reduction-on-intestinal-barrier-function-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#5
H Sundh, A Gräns, J Brijs, E Sandblom, M Axelsson, C Berg, K Sundell
The aim of the current work was to elucidate if there is a connection between stress-induced decrease in coeliacomesenteric artery blood flow (i.e. gastrointestinal blood flow; GBF) and disruption of the intestinal primary barrier in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Upon initiation of a 15 min acute chasing stress, the GBF decreased instantly by c. 92%. The GBF then slowly increased and reached c. 28% of resting values at the end of the stress protocol. After the stress was ceased, the GBF slowly increased and returned to resting values within c...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934941/the-role-of-the-cerebellum-in-skin-picking-disorder
#6
Albert Wabnegger, Anne Schienle
Previous research indicated that the cerebellum is involved in psychopathologies with body-focused repetitive behaviors. The present study investigated whether patients with a diagnosis of skin-picking disorder (SPD) also show altered cerebellar structure and function. Structural as well as functional MRI data from 30 SPD patients and 31 controls were analyzed. The fMRI approach compared cerebellar activity and connectivity between the two groups during scratching and caressing of a small skin area on the arm...
June 22, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934729/optical-mapping-of-brain-activation-and-connectivity-in-occipitotemporal-cortex-during-chinese-character-recognition
#7
Zhishan Hu, Juan Zhang, Tania Alexandra Couto, Shiyang Xu, Ping Luan, Zhen Yuan
In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to examine the brain activation and connectivity in occipitotemporal cortex during Chinese character recognition (CCR). Eighteen healthy participants were recruited to perform a well-designed task with three categories of stimuli (real characters, pseudo characters, and checkerboards). By inspecting the brain activation difference and its relationship with behavioral data, the left laterality during CCR was clearly identified in the Brodmann area (BA) 18 and 19...
June 22, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934588/atlantic-salmon-skin-barrier-functions-gradually-enhance-after-seawater-transfer
#8
Christian Karlsen, Elisabeth Ytteborg, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Vibeke Høst, Sigurd Handeland, Sven Martin Jørgensen, Aleksei Krasnov
Atlantic salmon farming operates with high production intensities where skin integrity is recognized as a central factor and indicator for animal health and welfare. In the described trial, the skin development and its immune status in healthy Atlantic salmon reared in two different systems, a traditional open net-pen system and a semi-closed containment system, were investigated. Freshwater smolts were compared to post-smolts after 1 and 4 months in seawater. Growth performance, when adjusted for temperature, was equal between the systems...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934542/population-genetic-signatures-of-a-climate-change-driven-marine-range-extension
#9
Jorge E Ramos, Gretta T Pecl, Natalie A Moltschaniwskyj, Jayson M Semmens, Carla A Souza, Jan M Strugnell
Shifts in species distribution, or 'range shifts', are one of the most commonly documented responses to ocean warming, with important consequences for the function and structure of ecosystems, and for socio-economic activities. Understanding the genetic signatures of range shifts can help build our knowledge of the capacity of species to establish and persist in colonised areas. Here, seven microsatellite loci were used to examine the population connectivity, genetic structure and diversity of Octopus tetricus, which has extended its distribution several hundred kilometres polewards associated with the southwards extension of the warm East Australian Current along south-eastern Australia...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934350/distinct-populations-of-motor-thalamic-neurons-encode-action-initiation-action-selection-and-movement-vigor
#10
Matt Gaidica, Amy Hurst, Christopher Cyr, Daniel K Leventhal
Motor thalamus (Mthal) comprises the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral medial thalamic nuclei in rodents. This subcortical hub receives input from the basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, and reticular thalamus in addition to connecting reciprocally with motor cortical regions. Despite the central location of Mthal, the mechanisms by which it influences movement remain unclear. To determine its role in generating ballistic, goal-directed movement, we recorded single unit Mthal activity as male rats performed a two-alternative forced choice task...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934298/network-modelling-unravels-mechanisms-of-crosstalk-between-ethylene-and-salicylate-signalling-in-potato
#11
Živa Ramšak, Anna Coll, Tjaša Stare, Oren Tzfadia, Špela Baebler, Yves Van de Peer, Kristina Gruden
To develop novel crop-breeding strategies, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying the interaction between plants and their pathogens. Network modelling represents a powerful tool that can unravel properties of complex biological systems. In this study, we aimed to use network modelling to better understand immune signalling in potato. For this, we first built on a reliable Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) immune signalling model, extending it with the information from diverse publicly available resources...
June 22, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934174/yellow-lupin-lupinus-luteus-l-polysaccharides-antioxidant-immunomodulatory-and-prebiotic-activities-and-their-structural-characterisation
#12
Solomon Rajesh Thambiraj, Michael Phillips, Sundar Rao Koyyalamudi, Narsimha Reddy
Yellow lupin polysaccharides (YLP-1, YLP-2 and YLP-3) were isolated from the whole seeds of Lupinus luteus L. Their antioxidant activities were evaluated by ABTS+ and hydroxyl radical scavenging, and Fe2+ chelating assays. Immunostimulatory activities were measured by their ability to activate macrophages to produce TNF-α and NO. Four strains of probiotic bacteria were used to measure their prebiotic activities. YLP-2 with largest galactose content displayed the best activity amongst the three isolated polysaccharides...
November 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933643/neural-indicators-of-fatigue-in-chronic-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-mri-studies
#13
REVIEW
María Goñi, Neil Basu, Alison D Murray, Gordon D Waiter
While fatigue is prevalent in chronic diseases, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom remain unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to enable us to characterize this symptom. The aim of this review was to gather and appraise the current literature on MRI studies of fatigue in chronic diseases. We systematically searched the following databases: MedLine, PsycInfo, Embase and Scopus (inception to April 2016). We selected studies according to a predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
June 21, 2018: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933060/systematic-modifications-of-amino-acid-based-organogelators-for-the-investigation-of-structure-property-correlations-in-drug-delivery-system
#14
Beibei Hu, Wei Sun, Haiting Li, Helin Sui, Sanming Li
Thermogels, used as multi-functional drug-loading materials, have properties that mainly rely on their gelator structure. Although a large variety of organogel systems are used as drug delivery carriers, relatively few have been investigated in terms of their structure-property correlations based on amino acid derivative gelators. Here, a series of amino acid based gelators were synthesized to explore the role of the gelator structure on functional properties, with the aim of establishing a connection between the molecular parameters and gel properties...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932365/changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-in-pediatric-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Fabio Grassia, Andrew V Poliakov, Sandra L Poliachik, Kaitlyn Casimo, Seth D Friedman, Hillary Shurtleff, Carlo Giussani, Edward J Novotny, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Jason S Hauptman
OBJECTIVE Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) is a form of fMRI that allows for analysis of blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes within a task-free, resting paradigm. This technique has been shown to have efficacy in evaluating network connectivity changes with epilepsy. Presurgical data from patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy were evaluated using the fcMRI technique to define connectivity changes within and between the diseased and healthy temporal lobes using a within-subjects design...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932246/mir-490-5p-inhibits-the-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-down-regulating-e2f2-and-ect2
#16
Zheng-Qing Fang, Mao-Chun Li, Yu-Qin Zhang, Xiang-Guo Liu
We intended to evaluate miR-490-5p expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and detect the potential targets of miR-490-5p. In vitro experiments were conducted to further investigate the biological function of miR-490-5p on HCC cell metastasis. We investigated the abnormally expressed miRNAs in HCC tissues, and the miR-490-5p expression level was detected by qRT-PCR. E2F2 and ECT2 were proved to be the potential targets of miR-490-5p by luciferase reporter assay. The expression levels of E2F2 and ECT2 were determined using Western blot...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932107/protective-effect-of-aqueous-extract-from-the-leaves-of-justicia-tranquebariesis-against-thioacetamide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-hepatic-fibrosis-in-rats
#17
Kumeshini Sukalingam, Kumar Ganesan, Baojun Xu
The present study aims to examine the protective effect of Justicia tranquebariesis on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis. Male Wister albino rats (150⁻200 g) were divided into five groups. Group 1 was normal control. Group 2 was J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw/p.o.)-treated control. Group 3 was TAA (100 mg/kg bw/s.c.)-treated control. Groups 4 and 5 were orally administered with the leaf extract of J. tranquebariensis (400 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) daily for 10 days with a subsequent administration of a single dose of TAA (100 mg/kg/s...
June 22, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931998/fundamental-or-forgotten-is-pierre-paul-broca-still-relevant-in-modern-neuroscience
#18
Patrick Friedrich, Catrona Anderson, Judith Schmitz, Caroline Schlüter, Stephanie Lor, Martin Stacho, Felix Ströckens, Gina Grimshaw, Sebastian Ocklenburg
The ability to speak is a unique human capacity, but where is it located in our brains? This question is closely connected to the pioneering work of Pierre Paul Broca in the 1860s. Based on post-mortem observations of aphasic patients' brains, Broca located language production in the 3rd convolution of the left frontal lobe and thus reinitiated the localizationist view of brain functions. However, contemporary neuroscience has partially rejected this view in favor of a network-based perspective. This leads to the question, whether Broca's findings are still relevant today...
June 22, 2018: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931980/tuning-photophysical-and-electroluminescence-properties-in-asymmetrically-tetrasubstituted-bipolar-carbazoles-by-functional-group-disposition
#19
Rajendra Kumar Konidena, K R Justin Thomas, Ambika Pathak, Deepak Kumar Dubey, Snehasis Sahoo, Jwo-Huei Jou
Carbazole decorated with both donor and acceptor fragments offer a classical way to optimize bipolar functional properties. In this work, a series of carbazoles featuring triphenylamine donor and cyano acceptor are synthesized and their structure‒property relationship studied. The effects of connectivity and the chromophore number density on photophysical and electroluminescence properties are investigated. The position of triphenylamine donor on the 3,6-dicyanocarbazole nucleus significantly affected the photophysical and electroluminescent properties...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931835/neural-functional-architecture-and-modulation-during-decision-making-under-uncertainty-in-individuals-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#20
Michal Assaf, Liron Rabany, Luis Zertuche, Laura Bragdon, David Tolin, John Goethe, Gretchen Diefenbach
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Cognitive models of GAD highlight the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in precipitating and maintaining worry, and it has been hypothesized that patients with GAD exhibit decision-making deficits under uncertain conditions. Improving understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits associated with IU may lead to the identification of novel rTMS treatment targets and optimization of treatment parameters...
June 21, 2018: Brain and Behavior
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