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Functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667905/essential-role-of-mohawk-for-tenogenic-tissue-homeostasis-including-spinal-disc-and-periodontal-ligament
#1
Ryo Nakamichi, Kensuke Kataoka, Hiroshi Asahara
Tendons and ligaments play essential roles in connecting muscle and bone and stabilizing the connections between bones. The damage to tendons and ligaments caused by aging, injury, and arthritis induces the dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system and reduces the quality of life. Current therapy for damaged tendons and ligaments depends on self-repair; however, it is difficult to reconstruct normal tissue. Regeneration therapy for tendons and ligaments has not been achieved, partly because the mechanism, cell biology, and pathophysiology of tendon and ligament development remain unclear...
April 18, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667272/different-brain-networks-underlying-intelligence-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#2
Emmanuel Peng Kiat Pua, Charles B Malpas, Stephen C Bowden, Marc L Seal
There has been sustained clinical and cognitive neuroscience research interest in how network correlates of brain-behavior relationships might be altered in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. As previous work has mostly focused on adults, the nature of whole-brain connectivity networks underlying intelligence in pediatric cohorts with abnormal neurodevelopment requires further investigation. We used network-based statistics (NBS) to examine the association between resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) connectivity and fluid intelligence ability in male children (n = 50) with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; M = 10...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667267/the-cerebellum-after-trauma-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-cerebellum-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#3
Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Ruth A Lanius
The cerebellum plays a key role not only in motor function but also in affect and cognition. Although several psychopathological disorders have been associated with overall cerebellar dysfunction, it remains unclear whether different regions of the cerebellum contribute uniquely to psychopathology. Accordingly, we compared seed-based resting-state functional connectivity of the anterior cerebellum (lobule IV-V), of the posterior cerebellum (Crus I), and of the anterior vermis across posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 65), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS; n = 37), and non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; n = 47)...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667159/physical-activity-throughout-the-adult-life-span-and-domain-specific-cognitive-function-in-old-age-a-systematic-review-of-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-data
#4
REVIEW
Tobias Engeroff, Tobias Ingmann, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggests that physical activity might alleviate the age-related neurodegeneration and decline of cognitive function. However, most of this evidence is based on data investigating the association of exercise interventions or current physical activity behavior with cognitive function in elderly subjects. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and hypothesize that physical activity during the adult life span is connected with maintained domain-specific cognitive functions during late adulthood defined as age 60+ years...
April 17, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667043/abnormalities-in-thalamo-cortical-connections-in-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-two-tensor-tractography-study
#5
Hesham M Hamoda, A T Makhlouf, J Fitzsimmons, Y Rathi, N Makris, R I Mesholam-Gately, J D Wojcik, J Goldstein, R W McCarley, L J Seidman, M Kubicki, M E Shenton
The "cognitive dysmetria" hypothesis suggests that impairments in cognition and behavior in patients with schizophrenia can be explained by disruptions in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical circuit. In this study we examine thalamo-cortical connections in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ). White matter pathways are investigated that connect the thalamus with three frontal cortex regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), and lateral oribitofrontal cortex (LOFC)...
April 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666978/spike-timing-precision-of-neuronal-circuits
#6
Deniz Kilinc, Alper Demir
Spike timing is believed to be a key factor in sensory information encoding and computations performed by the neurons and neuronal circuits. However, the considerable noise and variability, arising from the inherently stochastic mechanisms that exist in the neurons and the synapses, degrade spike timing precision. Computational modeling can help decipher the mechanisms utilized by the neuronal circuits in order to regulate timing precision. In this paper, we utilize semi-analytical techniques, which were adapted from previously developed methods for electronic circuits, for the stochastic characterization of neuronal circuits...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666752/pathways-of-topological-rank-analysis-potra-a-novel-method-to-detect-pathways-involved-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Chaoxing Li, Li Liu, Valentin Dinu
Complex diseases such as cancer are usually the result of a combination of environmental factors and one or several biological pathways consisting of sets of genes. Each biological pathway exerts its function by delivering signaling through the gene network. Theoretically, a pathway is supposed to have a robust topological structure under normal physiological conditions. However, the pathway's topological structure could be altered under some pathological condition. It is well known that a normal biological network includes a small number of well-connected hub nodes and a large number of nodes that are non-hubs...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666636/modulating-brain-connectivity-by-simultaneous-dual-mode-stimulation-over-bilateral-primary-motor-cortices-in-subacute-stroke-patients
#8
Jungsoo Lee, Eunhee Park, Ahee Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Dae-Shik Kim, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used for the modulation of stroke patients' motor function. Recently, more challenging approaches have been studied. In this study, simultaneous stimulation using both rTMS and tDCS (dual-mode stimulation) over bilateral primary motor cortices (M1s) was investigated to compare its modulatory effects with single rTMS stimulation over the ipsilesional M1 in subacute stroke patients. Twenty-four patients participated; 12 participants were assigned to the dual-mode stimulation group while the other 12 participants were assigned to the rTMS-only group...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666632/decoding-pigeon-behavior-outcomes-using-functional-connections-among-local-field-potentials
#9
Yan Chen, Xinyu Liu, Shan Li, Hong Wan
Recent studies indicate that the local field potential (LFP) carries information about an animal's behavior, but issues regarding whether there are any relationships between the LFP functional networks and behavior tasks as well as whether it is possible to employ LFP network features to decode the behavioral outcome in a single trial remain unresolved. In this study, we developed a network-based method to decode the behavioral outcomes in pigeons by using the functional connectivity strength values among LFPs recorded from the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL)...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666567/the-neural-correlates-of-grasping-in-left-handers-when-handedness-does-not-matter
#10
Chiara Begliomini, Luisa Sartori, Maria G Di Bono, Sanja Budisavljević, Umberto Castiello
Neurophysiological studies showed that in macaques, grasp-related visuomotor transformations are supported by a circuit involving the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus, the ventral and the dorsal region of the premotor area. In humans, a similar grasp-related circuit has been revealed by means of neuroimaging techniques. However, the majority of "human" studies considered movements performed by right-handers only, leaving open the question of whether the dynamics underlying motor control during grasping is simply reversed in left-handers with respect to right-handers or not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666508/intrinsic-mechanisms-of-neuronal-axon-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
Marcus Mahar, Valeria Cavalli
Permanent disabilities following CNS injuries result from the failure of injured axons to regenerate and rebuild functional connections with their original targets. By contrast, injury to peripheral nerves is followed by robust regeneration, which can lead to recovery of sensory and motor functions. This regenerative response requires the induction of widespread transcriptional and epigenetic changes in injured neurons. Considerable progress has been made in recent years in understanding how peripheral axon injury elicits these widespread changes through the coordinated actions of transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers and, to a lesser extent, microRNAs...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666283/the-origin-dynamic-morphology-and-pi4p-independent-formation-of-encephalomyocarditis-virus-replication-organelles
#12
C E Melia, H M van der Schaar, A W M de Jong, H R Lyoo, E J Snijder, A J Koster, F J M van Kuppeveld, M Bárcena
Picornaviruses induce dramatic rearrangements of endomembranes in the cells that they infect to produce dedicated platforms for viral replication. These structures, termed replication organelles (ROs), have been well characterized for the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae However, it is unknown whether the diverse RO morphologies associated with enterovirus infection are conserved among other picornaviruses. Here, we use serial electron tomography at different stages of infection to assess the three-dimensional architecture of ROs induced by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a member of the Cardiovirus genus of the family of picornaviruses that is distantly related...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666271/desynchronization-of-slow-oscillations-in-the-basal-ganglia-during-natural-sleep
#13
Aviv D Mizrahi-Kliger, Alexander Kaplan, Zvi Israel, Hagai Bergman
Slow oscillations of neuronal activity alternating between firing and silence are a hallmark of slow-wave sleep (SWS). These oscillations reflect the default activity present in all mammalian species, and are ubiquitous to anesthesia, brain slice preparations, and neuronal cultures. In all these cases, neuronal firing is highly synchronous within local circuits, suggesting that oscillation-synchronization coupling may be a governing principle of sleep physiology regardless of anatomical connectivity. To investigate whether this principle applies to overall brain organization, we recorded the activity of individual neurons from basal ganglia (BG) structures and the thalamocortical (TC) network over 70 full nights of natural sleep in two vervet monkeys...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666143/truncated-c-terminus-of-fibrillin-1-induces-marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy-mpl-syndrome-in-rabbit
#14
Mao Chen, Bing Yao, Qiangbing Yang, Jichao Deng, Yuning Song, Tingting Sui, Lina Zhou, HaoBing Yao, Yuanyuan Xu, Hongsheng Ouyang, Daxin Pang, Zhanjun Li, Liangxue Lai
Various clinical differences have been observed between patients with the FBN1 gene mutation and those with the classical Marfan phenotype. Although FBN1 knockout (KO) or dominant-negative mutant mice are widely used as an animal model for Marfan syndrome (MFS), these mice cannot recapitulate the genotype/phenotype relationship of Marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy (MPL) syndrome, which is caused by a mutation in the C-terminus of fibrillin-1, the penultimate exon of the FBN1 gene. Here, we describe the generation of a rabbit MPL model with C-terminal truncation of fibrillin-1 using a CRISPR/Cas9 system...
April 9, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665967/structural-and-functional-changes-in-the-heart-of-adult-patients-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta-case-control-study
#15
Verónica Hernández Jiménez, Jesús Saavedra Falero, María Teresa Alberca Vela, Rebeca Mata Caballero, José Antonio Rosado Sierra, Isabel Pavón de Paz
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disease characterised by an anomalous synthesis of type i collagen. Little is known about the cardiovascular affectation suffered by these patients. The most frequently described are valvular dysfunction and dilatation of the aorta. We wanted to analyse the structural and functional changes of the heart in adult patients with OI. METHODS: We prospectively studied 82 patients with OI and compared them with 60 healthy subjects matched for age and sex...
April 14, 2018: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665811/recombinant-mouse-periostin-ameliorates-coronal-sutures-fusion-in-twist1-mice
#16
Shanshan Bai, Dong Li, Liang Xu, Huichuan Duan, Jie Yuan, Min Wei
BACKGROUND: Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by mutations in the twist family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1) gene. Surgical procedures are frequently required to reduce morphological and functional defects in patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Therefore, the development of noninvasive procedures to treat Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is critical. We identified that periostin, which is an extracellular matrix protein that plays an important role in both bone and connective tissues, is downregulated in craniosynostosis patients...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665711/is-rest-really-rest-resting-state-functional-connectivity-during-rest-and-motor-task-paradigms
#17
Michael T Jurkiewicz, Adrian P Crawley, David J Mikulis
Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665699/characterizing-signals-within-lesions-and-mapping-brain-network-connectivity-after-traumatic-axonal-injury-a-7-tesla-resting-state-fmri-study
#18
Seul Lee, Jonathan R Polimeni, Collin M Price, Brian L Edlow, Jennifer A McNab
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-FMRI) has been widely used to map brain functional connectivity, but it is unclear how to probe connectivity within and around lesions. Here we characterize RS-FMRI signal time-course properties and evaluate different seed placements within and around hemorrhagic traumatic axonal injury lesions. RS-FMRI was performed on a 7 Tesla scanner in a patient who recovered consciousness after traumatic coma and in three healthy controls. Eleven lesions in the patient were characterized in terms of: 1) temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR); 2) physiological noise, through comparison of noise regressors derived from the white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and gray matter (GM); and 3) seed-based functional connectivity...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665429/autophagy-in-mammalian-neurodevelopment-and-implications-for-childhood-neurological-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Derek Marsh, Joanna M Dragich
Here we explore the neurodevelopmental aspects of macroautophagy (henceforth known as autophagy), the process by which cells remove and remodel their structure in a regulated and spatially restricted manner. Autophagy is a catabolic pathway in which cytosolic substances, such as protein complexes, lipids, and organelles, are engulfed by an autophagic vesicle. Degradation occurs once an autophagosome fuses with a lysosome, allowing the macromolecular cargo sequestered within the autophagic vesicle to be recycled...
April 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665216/peak-visual-gamma-frequency-is-modified-across-the-healthy-menstrual-cycle
#20
Rachael L Sumner, Rebecca L McMilllan, Alexander D Shaw, Krish D Singh, Fred Sundram, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
Fluctuations in gonadal hormones over the course of the menstrual cycle are known to cause functional brain changes and are thought to modulate changes in the balance of cortical excitation and inhibition. Animal research has shown this occurs primarily via the major metabolite of progesterone, allopregnanolone, and its action as a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor. Our study used EEG to record gamma oscillations induced in the visual cortex using stationary and moving gratings. Recordings took place during twenty females' mid-luteal phase when progesterone and estradiol are highest, and early follicular phase when progesterone and estradiol are lowest...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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