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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817805/ltp-at-hilar-mossy-cell-dentate-granule-cell-synapses-modulates-dentate-gyrus-output-by-increasing-excitation-inhibition-balance
#1
Yuki Hashimotodani, Kaoutsar Nasrallah, Kyle R Jensen, Andrés E Chávez, Daniel Carrera, Pablo E Castillo
Excitatory hilar mossy cells (MCs) in the dentate gyrus receive inputs from dentate granule cells (GCs) and project back to GCs locally, contralaterally, and along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus, thereby establishing an associative positive-feedback loop and connecting functionally diverse hippocampal areas. MCs also synapse with GABAergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition onto GCs. Surprisingly, although these circuits have been implicated in both memory formation (e.g., pattern separation) and temporal lobe epilepsy, little is known about activity-dependent plasticity of their synaptic connections...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817797/wrapped-to-adapt-experience-dependent-myelination
#2
REVIEW
Christopher W Mount, Michelle Monje
Activity of the nervous system has long been recognized as a critical modulator of brain structure and function. Influences of experience on the cytoarchitecture and functional connectivity of neurons have been appreciated since the classic work of Hubel and Wiesel (1963; Wiesel and Hubel, 1963a, 1963b). In recent years, a similar structural plasticity has come to light for the myelinated infrastructure of the nervous system. While an innate program of myelin development proceeds independently of nervous system activity, increasing evidence supports a role for activity-dependent, plastic changes in myelin-forming cells that influence myelin structure and neurological function...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817572/tissue-specific-insulin-signaling-mediates-female-sexual-attractiveness
#3
Tatyana Y Fedina, Devin Arbuthnott, Howard D Rundle, Daniel E L Promislow, Scott D Pletcher
Individuals choose their mates so as to maximize reproductive success, and one important component of this choice is assessment of traits reflecting mate quality. Little is known about why specific traits are used for mate quality assessment nor about how they reflect it. We have previously shown that global manipulation of insulin signaling, a nutrient-sensing pathway governing investment in survival versus reproduction, affects female sexual attractiveness in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here we demonstrate that these effects on attractiveness derive from insulin signaling in the fat body and ovarian follicle cells, whose signals are integrated by pheromone-producing cells called oenocytes...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816791/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-human-connectome-project-current-status-and-relevance-to-understanding-psychopathology
#4
Deanna M Barch
A key tenet of modern psychiatry is that psychiatric disorders arise from abnormalities in brain circuits that support human behavior. Our ability to examine hypotheses around circuit-level abnormalities in psychiatric disorders has been made possible by advances in human neuroimaging technologies. These advances have provided the basis for recent efforts to develop a more complex understanding of the function of brain circuits in health and of their relationship to behavior-providing, in turn, a foundation for our understanding of how disruptions in such circuits contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders...
August 16, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816678/adaptive-consensus-control-of-nonlinear-multiagent-systems-with-unknown-control-directions-under-stochastic-topologies
#5
Hamed Rezaee, Farzaneh Abdollahi
The consensus problem over high-order nonlinear multiagent systems with the Brunovsky-type model is studied. The model parameters and control directions of agents are supposed to be unknown. Hence, based on Nussbaum-type functions, an adaptive protocol is proposed, which guarantees achieving consensus in the network when the parameters and control directions of the agents are unknown and unidentical. The main contribution of this paper (compared with the existing similar results in the literature) is to guarantee achieving consensus in networks of agents when the communication topology is not connected constantly, and communication links stochastically switch over time...
August 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816545/role-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-post-traumatic-anosmia
#6
Lilla Bonanno, Silvia Marino, Simona De Salvo, Rosella Ciurleo, Antonio Costa, Daniele Bruschetta, Demetrio Milardi, Galletti Francesco, Placido Bramanti, Fabrizia Caminiti
INTRODUCTION: Anosmia is a possible complication of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Psychometric and electrophysiological methods of olfaction measure and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are the tools to evaluate the post-traumatic olfactory loss. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) provides useful data for a better understanding of etiopathogenesis TBI-related anosmia, in particular the loss of neural connections and their eventual recovery over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study describes a case of TBI-related anosmia...
August 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816410/new-insights-into-the-cellular-makeup-and-progenitor-potential-of-palatal-connective-tissues
#7
Emoke Pall, Mihai Cenariu, Adrian Kasaj, Adrian Florea, Andrada Soancă, Alexandra Roman, Carmen Georgiu
The present study investigated the regenerative potential of connective tissues harvested from two palatal areas widely used as donor sites for muco-gingival surgical approaches. Connective tissue grafts (CTGs) were obtained by de-epithelialisation of a free gingival graft (deCTG) and by a split flap approach from a previous donor site (reCTG). Two types of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) were isolated and were named de-epithelialised MSCs (deMSCs) and re-entry MSCs (reMSCs). The cells were characterised and cellular functionality was investigated...
August 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815625/association-of-transcallosal-motor-fibres-with-function-of-both-hands-after-unilateral-neonatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#8
Samuel Groeschel, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Matthieu Delion, Sébastien Loustau, Béatrice Husson, Manoelle Kossorotoff, Cyrille Renaud, Sylvie Nguyen The Tich, Stéphane Chabrier, Mickael Dinomais
AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of the motor fibres of the corpus callosum after unilateral neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) of the middle cerebral artery territory and the relationship to both ipsilesional and contralesional hand function. METHOD: Using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI, and magnetic resonance diffusion-tractography, we compared the midsagittal area of the motor part of the corpus callosum (defined by the fibres connecting the precentral gyri) between 33 7-year-old children after unilateral NAIS and 31 typically developing 7-year-old children...
August 17, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815589/tight-temporal-coupling-between-synaptic-rewiring-of-olfactory-glomeruli-and-the-emergence-of-odor-guided-behavior-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#9
Beatrice Terni, Paolo Pacciolla, Helena Masanas, Pau Gorostiza, Artur Llobet
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are chemoreceptors that establish excitatory synapses within glomeruli of the olfactory bulb. OSNs undergo continuous turnover throughout life, causing the constant replacement of their synaptic contacts. Using Xenopus tadpoles as an experimental system to investigate rewiring of glomerular connectivity, we show that novel OSN synapses can transfer information immediately after formation, mediating an olfactory-guided behavior. Tadpoles recover the ability to detect amino acids four days after bilateral olfactory nerve transection...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815528/alzheimer-disease
#10
Estela Area-Gomez, Eric A Schon
The most widely accepted hypothesis to explain the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the amyloid cascade, in which the accumulation of extraneuritic plaques and intracellular tangles plays a key role in driving the course and progression of the disease. However, there are other biochemical and morphological features of AD, including altered calcium, phospholipid, and cholesterol metabolism and altered mitochondrial dynamics and function that often appear early in the course of the disease, prior to plaque and tangle accumulation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815526/role-of-intra-and-inter-mitochondrial-membrane-contact-sites-in-yeast-phospholipid-biogenesis
#11
Yasushi Tamura, Toshiya Endo
Eukaryotic cells exhibit intracellular compartments called organelles wherein various specialized enzymatic reactions occur. Despite the specificity of the characteristic functions of organelles, recent studies have shown that distinct organelles physically connect and communicate with each other to maintain the integrity of their functions. In yeast, multiple inter- and intramitochondrial membrane contact sites (MCSs) were identified to date and were proposed to be involved in phospholipid biogenesis. In the present article, we focus on inter- and intra-organellar MCSs involving mitochondria and their tethering factors, such as the ERMES (endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria encounter structure) complex and EMC (conserved ER membrane protein complex) between mitochondria and the ER, vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch) between mitochondria and vacuoles, and the MICOS (mitochondrial contact site) complex between the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes (MOM and MIM)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815525/the-lipid-droplet-and-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#12
Yuki Ohsaki, Kamil Sołtysik, Toyoshi Fujimoto
Lipid droplets (LDs) are often found adjacent to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER-LD association may appear morphologically similar to the prototypical membrane contact sites found between the ER and other organelles, but the functional relationship between the ER and LDs is unique in that highly hydrophobic lipid esters are transported between them. This transportation is thought to occur through some form of membrane continuity, but its details are yet to be defined. Lipin, seipin, and FIT proteins, which are located at the ER-LD interface, may be involved in the lipid ester transport and probably play important roles for functional connectivity of the two organelles...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814976/analysis-of-proteomes-released-from-in-vitro-cultured-eight-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-revealed-specific-expression-in-pcr-ribotypes-027-and-176-confirming-their-genetic-relatedness-and-clinical-importance-at-the-proteomic-level
#13
Jiri Dresler, Marcela Krutova, Alena Fucikova, Jana Klimentova, Veronika Hruzova, Miloslava Duracova, Katerina Houdkova, Barbora Salovska, Jana Matejkova, Martin Hubalek, Petr Pajer, Libor Pisa, Otakar Nyc
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of C. difficile infection (CDI) that could be manifested by diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis or life-threatening toxic megacolon. The spread of certain strains represents a significant economic burden for health-care. The epidemic successful strains are also associated with severe clinical features of CDI. Therefore, a proteomic study has been conducted that comprises proteomes released from in vitro cultured panel of eight different PCR ribotypes (RTs) and employs the combination of shotgun proteomics and label-free quantification (LFQ) approach...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814928/love-as-a-modulator-of-pain
#14
REVIEW
Sofina Tamam, Asma Hayati Ahmad
Pain is modulated by various factors, the most notable of which is emotions. Since love is an emotion, it can also modulate pain. The answer to the question of whether it enhances or reduces pain needs to be determined. A review was conducted of animal and human studies in which this enigmatic emotion and its interaction with pain was explored. Recent advances in neuroimaging have revealed similarities in brain activation relating to love and pain. At the simplest level, this interaction can be explained by the overlapping network structure in brain functional connectivity, although the explanation is considerably more complex...
May 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814810/amygdala-centred-functional-connectivity-affects-daily-cortisol-concentrations-a-putative-link-with-anxiety
#15
Yuko Hakamata, Shotaro Komi, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Shuhei Izawa, Yuki Motomura, Eisuke Sato, Shinya Mizukami, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
The amygdala plays a critical role in emotion. Its functional coupling with the hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex extending to a portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is implicated in anxiogenesis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system regulation. However, it remains unclear how amygdala-centred functional connectivity (FC) affects anxiety and cortisol concentrations in everyday life. Here, we investigate the relationship between daily cortisol concentrations (dCOR) and amygdala-centred FC during emotional processing in forty-one healthy humans...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814713/gelsolin-dysfunction-causes-photoreceptor-loss-in-induced-pluripotent-cell-and-animal-retinitis-pigmentosa-models
#16
Roly Megaw, Hashem Abu-Arafeh, Melissa Jungnickel, Carla Mellough, Christine Gurniak, Walter Witke, Wei Zhang, Hemant Khanna, Pleasantine Mill, Baljean Dhillon, Alan F Wright, Majlinda Lako, Charles Ffrench-Constant
Mutations in the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator (RPGR) cause X-linked RP (XLRP), an untreatable, inherited retinal dystrophy that leads to premature blindness. RPGR localises to the photoreceptor connecting cilium where its function remains unknown. Here we show, using murine and human induced pluripotent stem cell models, that RPGR interacts with and activates the actin-severing protein gelsolin, and that gelsolin regulates actin disassembly in the connecting cilium, thus facilitating rhodopsin transport to photoreceptor outer segments...
August 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814701/-byoin-in-modern-japan-focusing-on-the-terminological-introduction-of-hospital-and-the-complex-formation-of-its-concept
#17
Youngsoo Kim
This paper aims to clarify when the term of Byoin (hospital) was introduced and how its concept was developed in modern Japan. The word "Byoin" was introduced in Japan in 1787 for the first time, but it had not been in use until early 1860s. Instead, various medical institutions performing the functions of modern medical facilities, such as Yojosho (A place for preserving health), Shijuku (private school), called by traditional names as ever. Japanese intellectuals already adopted the word Byoin and the concept of western hospital in early 1860s when their national delegates were dispatched to Europe to revise the treaties forged with western powers...
April 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814328/building-capacity-for-dissemination-and-implementation-research-one-university-s-experience
#18
Ross C Brownson, Enola K Proctor, Douglas A Luke, Ana A Baumann, Mackenzie Staub, Matthew T Brown, Mallory Johnson
BACKGROUND: While dissemination and implementation (D&I) science has grown rapidly, there is an ongoing need to understand how to build and sustain capacity in individuals and institutions conducting research. There are three inter-related domains for capacity building: people, settings, and activities. Since 2008, Washington University in St. Louis has dedicated significant attention and resources toward building D&I research capacity. This paper describes our process, challenges, and lessons with the goal of informing others who may have similar aims at their own institution...
August 16, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814282/alterations-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-an-fmri-study
#19
Moyi Li, Guohua Zheng, Yuhui Zheng, Zhenyu Xiong, Rui Xia, Wenji Zhou, Qin Wang, Shengxiang Liang, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by cognitive functional decline, especially in memory. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in neuroimaging studies that explore alterations between patients and normal individuals to elucidate the pathological mechanisms of different diseases. The current study was performed to investigate alterations in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in aMCI patients compared to healthy elderly controls, as well as further define the association between neurological alterations and memory function...
August 16, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814127/carbon-nanotubes-functionalized-with-folic-acid-attached-via-biomimetic-peptide-linker
#20
Justyna Fraczyk, Malgorzata Walczak, Lukasz Szymanski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Henryk Wrzosek, Ireneusz Majsterek, Karolina Przybylowska-Sygut, Zbigniew J Kaminski
AIM: Anchoring folic acid (FA) with a biomimetic peptidic linker resistant to proteolytic degradation to act as a homing device on functionalized carbon nanotubes. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ethylenediamine was attached to oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborate. FA was coupled with 6-aminohexanoic acid and derivatives of β-alanine, affording four intermediates, which connected to the MWNTs via peptidic linkers of various lengths...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
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