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Nutrition microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906710/who-s-your-daddy-paternal-inheritance-of-metabolic-disease-risk
#1
Elvira Isganaitis, Harumi Suehiro, Connie Cardona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. RECENT FINDINGS: The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898282/comparative-fingerprinting-of-the-human-microbiota-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Emanuel Vamanu, Diana Pelinescu, Ionela Sarbu
Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and are associated with changes in the human gut microbiota. To better understand the relationships between diet, disease, and the colonic microbiome, we used the in vitro GIS1 system and repetitive element palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) to determine the microbial fingerprints in individuals with these diseases and compared them with the fingerprints in healthy controls. Clear differences were apparent in the three groups...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894162/partitioning-the-effects-of-mating-and-nuptial-feeding-on-the-microbiome-in-gift-giving-insects
#3
Chad C Smith, Robert B Srygley, Emma I Dietrich, Ulrich G Mueller
Mating is a ubiquitous social interaction with the potential to influence the microbiome by facilitating transmission, modifying host physiology, and in species where males donate nuptial gifts to females, altering diet. We manipulated mating and nuptial gift consumption in two insects that differ in nuptial gift size, the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex and the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus, with the expectation that larger gifts are more likely to affect the gut microbiome. Surprisingly, mating, but not nuptial gift consumption, affected the structure of bacterial communities in the gut, and only in Mormon crickets...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883906/infant-food-applications-of-complex-carbohydrates-structure-synthesis-and-function
#4
Dorothy L Ackerman, Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development...
November 11, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876765/pre-and-post-weaning-diet-alters-the-faecal-metagenome-in-the-cat-with-differences-vitamin-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-gene-abundances
#5
Wayne Young, Christina D Moon, David G Thomas, Nick J Cave, Emma N Bermingham
Dietary format, and its role in pet nutrition, is of interest to pet food manufacturers and pet owners alike. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre- and post-weaning diets (kibbled or canned) on the composition and function of faecal microbiota in the domestic cat by shotgun metagenomic sequencing and gene taxonomic and functional assignment using MG-RAST. Post-weaning diet had a dramatic effect on community composition; 147 of the 195 bacterial species identified had significantly different mean relative abundances between kittens fed kibbled and canned diets...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864534/microbiome-and-nutrition-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-current-knowledge-and-research-needs
#6
Kirsten Berding, Sharon M Donovan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported...
December 2016: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858116/host-microbiome-interactions-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-the-central-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Hae Ung Lee, Zachary E McPherson, Bryan Tan, Agata Korecka, Sven Pettersson
The microbiome located within a given host and its organs forms a holobiont, an intimate functional entity with evolutionarily designed interactions to support nutritional intake and reproduction. Thus, all organs in a holobiont respond to changes within the microbiome. The development and function of the central nervous system and its homeostatic mechanisms are no exception and are also subject to regulation by the gut microbiome. In order for the holobiont to function effectively, the microbiome and host must communicate...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856001/enteral-high-fat-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-blend-alters-the-pathogen-composition-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-premature-infants-with-an-enterostomy
#8
Noelle Younge, Qing Yang, Patrick C Seed
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of enteral fish oil and safflower oil supplementation on the intestinal microbiome in infants with an enterostomy born premature. STUDY DESIGN: Infants with an enterostomy born premature were randomized to receive early enteral supplementation with a high-fat polyunsaturated fatty acid (HF-PUFA) blend of fish oil and safflower oil vs standard nutritional therapy. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing for longitudinal profiling of the microbiome from the time of study entry until bowel reanastomosis...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832936/feeding-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-diet-microbiome-and-neuropsychiatry
#9
REVIEW
Kiran V Sandhu, Eoin Sherwin, Harriët Schellekens, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions...
October 21, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832763/a-comparison-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-a-population-of-low-risk-infants-exposed-and-not-exposed-to-intrapartum-antibiotics-the-baby-microbiota-of-the-intestine-cohort-study-protocol
#10
Julia Simioni, Eileen K Hutton, Elizabeth Gunn, Alison C Holloway, Jennifer C Stearns, Helen McDonald, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Lehana Thabane, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences metabolic, nutritional, and immunologic processes and has been associated with a broad range of adverse health outcomes including asthma, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Early life exposures may alter the course of gut microbial colonization leading to differences in metabolic and immune regulation throughout life. Although approximately 50 % of low-risk full-term infants born in Canada are exposed to intrapartum antibiotics, little is known about the influence of this common prophylactic treatment on the developing neonatal intestinal microbiota...
November 10, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817790/-research-advances-in-the-relationship-between-childhood-malnutrition-and-gut-microbiota
#11
Hui-Hui Wang, Fei-Qiu Wen, Ju-Rong Wei
Childhood malnutrition is an important disease threatening healthy growth of children worldwide. Gut microbiota has close links to food digestion, absorption and intestinal function. Current research considers that alterations in gut microbiota have been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. This review article addresses the latest understanding and evidence of interrelationship between gut microbiota and individual nutrition status, the changes of gut microbiota in different types of malnutrition, and the attribution of gut microbiota in the treatment and prognosis of malnutrition...
November 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808595/nutrition-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-elderly
#12
Nuria Salazar, Lorena Valdés-Varela, Sonia González, Miguel Gueimonde, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán
The gut microbiota is the assembly of microorganisms living in our intestine and their genomes are known as the microbiome. The correct composition and functionality of this microbiome is essential for maintaining a "healthy status." Aging is related to changes in the gut microbiota which are frequently associated with physiological modifications of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as, to changes in dietary patterns, together with a concomitant decline in cognitive and immune function, all together contributing to frailty...
November 3, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805918/early-changes-in-microbial-community-structure-are-associated-with-sustained-remission-after-nutritional-treatment-of-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#13
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew W Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Clinical remission achieved by exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is associated with marked microbiome changes. In this prospective study of exclusive enteral nutrition, we employ a hierarchical model of microbial community structure to distinguish between pediatric Crohn's disease patients who achieved sustained remission (SR) and those who relapsed early (non-SR), after restarting a normal diet. METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from 10 patients (age 10-16) and from 5 healthy controls (age 9-14)...
December 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797671/nutritional-correlates-of-human-oral-microbiome
#14
Ikuko Kato, Adrian Vasquez, Gregory Moyerbrailean, Susan Land, Zora Djuric, Jun Sun, Ho-Sheng Lin, Jeffrey L Ram
BACKGROUND: Despite many potential effects of the oral microbiome on oral and systemic health, scant information is available regarding the associations between diet and the oral microbiome. METHODS: Oral rinse DNA samples from 182 participants in a population-based case-control study for colorectal cancer were used to amplify a V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq paired end chemistry on 2 runs, yielding approximately 33 million filtered reads that were assigned to bacterial classes...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795310/allelochemicals-produced-by-the-brown-macroalga-lobophora-sp-are-active-against-coral-larvae-and-associated-bacteria-supporting-pathogenic-shifts-to-vibrio-dominance
#15
Kathleen M Morrow, Katrina Bromhall, Cherie A Motti, Colin B Munn, David G Bourne
: Pervasive environmental stressors on coral reefs are attributed with shifting the competitive balance in favour of alternative dominants such as macroalgae. Previous studies have demonstrated that macroalgae compete with corals via a number of mechanisms, including the production of potent primary and secondary metabolites that can influence coral-associated microbial communities. The present study investigates the effect of the Pacific brown macroalga, Lobophora sp., on coral bacterial isolates, coral larvae, and the microbiome associated with the coral Porites cylindrica...
October 21, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793223/gut-to-brain-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-central-role-for-the-microbiome
#16
A D Kraneveld, K Szklany, C G M de Theije, J Garssen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders, which occur in early childhood and persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to interplay in the development of ASD. Intestinal microbial dysbiosis, in prenatal and postnatal phases, is an important example of these environmental factors, and gastrointestinal problems including adverse reactions to foods are often reported in these children. In this review, we address the clinical and preclinical findings on the role of the intestinal microbiome in ASD and suggest possible underlying mechanisms...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790606/nutrition-a-primary-therapy-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Bryan Wilson, Katri Typpo
Appropriate nutrition is an essential component of intensive care management of children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is linked to patient outcomes. One out of every two children in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) will develop malnutrition or have worsening of baseline malnutrition and present with specific micronutrient deficiencies. Early and adequate enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with improved 60-day survival after pediatric critical illness, and, yet, despite early EN guidelines, critically ill children receive on average only 55% of goal calories by PICU day 10...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762069/an-introduction-to-microbiome-analysis-for-human-biology-applications
#18
Katherine R Amato
Research examining the gut microbiota is currently exploding, and results are providing new perspectives on human biology. Factors such as host diet and physiology influence the composition and function of the gut microbiota, which in turn affects human nutrition, health, and behavior via interactions with metabolism, the immune system, and the brain. These findings represent an exciting new twist on familiar topics, and as a result, gut microbiome research is likely to provide insight into unresolved biological mechanisms driving human health...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760077/the-gut-microbiome-of-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-patients-differs-from-healthy-controls-in-genes-that-can-influence-the-balance-between-a-healthy-and-dysregulated-immune-response
#19
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a first-line therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) thought to induce remission through changes in the gut microbiome. With microbiome assessment largely focused on microbial taxonomy and diversity, it remains unclear to what extent EEN induces functional changes that thereby contribute to its therapeutic effect. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 15 pediatric CD patients prior to and after EEN treatment, as well as from 5 healthy controls...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757756/free-fatty-acid-receptors-and-cancer-from-nutrition-to-pharmacology
#20
Mandi M Hopkins, Kathryn E Meier
The effects of fatty acids on cancer cells have been studied for decades. The roles of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and of microbiome-generated short-chain butyric acid, have been of particular interest over the years. However, the roles of free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) in mediating effects of fatty acids in tumor cells have only recently been examined. In reviewing the literature, the data obtained to date indicate that the long-chain FFARs (FFA1 and FFA4) play different roles than the short-chain FFARs (FFA2 and FFA3)...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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