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Nutrition microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433995/precision-nutrition-for-prevention-and-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Precision nutrition aims to prevent and manage chronic diseases by tailoring dietary interventions or recommendations to one or a combination of an individual's genetic background, metabolic profile, and environmental exposures. Recent advances in genomics, metabolomics, and gut microbiome technologies have offered opportunities as well as challenges in the use of precision nutrition to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes. Nutrigenomics studies have identified genetic variants that influence intake and metabolism of specific nutrients and predict individuals' variability in response to dietary interventions...
February 9, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432297/should-fecal-microbial-transplantation-be-used-in-the-icu
#2
Stephen A McClave, Jayshil Patel, Neal Bhutiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maintaining gut barrier defenses, modulating immune responses, and supporting the role of commensal microbiota are major factors influencing outcome in critical illness. Of these, maintaining a commensal 'lifestyle' and preventing the emergence of a virulent pathobiome may be most important in reducing risk of infection and multiple organ failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The polymeric formulas utilized for enteral nutrition in the ICU are absorbed high in the gastrointestinal tract and may not reach the microbial burden in the cecum where their effect is most needed...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432296/gut-microbiota-puppeteer-of-the-host-juvenile-growth
#3
Martin Schwarzer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent discoveries about the impact of intestinal microbiota on mammalian host juvenile growth. RECENT FINDINGS: Intestinal microbiota is a powerful modulator of many facets of multicellular host's physiology. Recent results from human field studies and animal research have clearly shown that not only the nutrition, but also the intestinal microbiota impacts host postnatal growth kinetics. Absence of microbiome leads to stunted growth in mammalian gnotobiotic models and changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can impact the postnatal growth kinetics both positively and negatively under normal nutritional conditions as well as in undernutrition...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429126/individual-susceptibility-to-arsenic-induced-diseases-the-role-of-host-genetics-nutritional-status-and-the-gut-microbiome
#4
REVIEW
Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Pengcheng Tu, Chih-Wei Liu, Jingchuan Xue, Yunjia Lai, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Arsenic (As) contamination in water or food is a global issue affecting hundreds of millions of people. Although As is classified as a group 1 carcinogen and is associated with multiple diseases, the individual susceptibility to As-related diseases is highly variable, such that a proportion of people exposed to As have higher risks of developing related disorders. Many factors have been found to be associated with As susceptibility. One of the main sources of the variability found in As susceptibility is the variation in the host genome, namely, polymorphisms of many genes involved in As transportation, biotransformation, oxidative stress response, and DNA repair affect the susceptibility of an individual to As toxicity and then influence the disease outcomes...
February 10, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428334/biotechnology-challenges-to-in-vitro-maturation-of-hepatic-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Chen Chen, Alejandro Soto-Gutierrez, Pedro M Baptista, Bart Spee
The incidence of liver disease is increasing globally. The only curative therapy for severe end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation, is limited by the shortage of organ donors. In vitro models of liver physiology have been developed and new technologies and approaches are rapidly progressing. Stem cells might be used as a source of liver tissue for development of models, therapies, and tissue engineering applications. However, we have been unable to generate and maintain stable and mature adult liver cells ex vivo...
February 8, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427903/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-novel-regulator-of-cardiovascular-function-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Micah L Battson, Dustin M Lee, Tiffany L Weir, Christopher L Gentile
The gut microbiome has emerged as a critical regulator of human physiology. Deleterious changes to the composition or number of gut bacteria, commonly referred to as gut dysbiosis, has been linked to the development and progression of numerous diet-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most CVD risk factors, including aging, obesity, certain dietary patterns, and a sedentary lifestyle, have been shown to induce gut dysbiosis. Dysbiosis is associated with intestinal inflammation and reduced integrity of the gut barrier, which in turn increases circulating levels of bacterial structural components and microbial metabolites that may facilitate the development of CVD...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417604/effects-of-alcohol-on-the-brain-in-cirrhosis-beyond-hepatic-encephalopathy
#7
Brian C Davis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Recent advances have led to a greater understanding of how alcohol alters the brain, both in acute stages (intoxication and alcohol withdrawal) and in chronic misuse. This review focuses on the current understanding of how alcohol affects the brain in cirrhosis patients with and without hepatic encephalopathy. Chronic alcohol use is associated with nutritional deficiencies, dementia, cirrhosis, and decompensating events such as hepatic encephalopathy. Direct toxicity on brain tissue, induction of neuro-inflammation, and alcohol's alterations of the gut microbiome are possible mechanisms for the clinical features of hepatic encephalopathy associated with alcohol use...
February 8, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413010/nutritional-interventions-in-the-patient-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Berkeley N Limketkai, Andrea Wolf, Alyssa M Parian
Nutritional strategies have been explored as primary or adjunct therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Exclusive enteral nutrition is effective for the induction of remission in Crohn disease and is recommended as a first-line therapy for children. Dietary strategies focus on adjusting the ratio of consumed nutrients that are proinflammatory or antiinflammatory. Treatments with dietary supplements focus on the antiinflammatory effects of the individual supplements (eg, curcumin, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) or their positive effects on the intestinal microbiome (eg, prebiotics, probiotics)...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410981/diet-and-microbiota-linked-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
T Requena, M C Martínez-Cuesta, C Peláez
Diet has shaped microbiota profiles through human evolution. Traditional gut microbiomes are described to be driven by high levels of Prevotella. In the present, however, it is consistently described a lower microbial richness in urban industrialized populations compared with individuals living in rural settings, Bacteroides being predominant among urban-industrial gut microbiomes. Components of diet are highly influential in shaping the gut microbiota, being fiber, fat, proteins, polyphenols and micronutrients differentially metabolized by generalist and specialized microorganisms alone or through the phenomenon of cross-feeding...
February 7, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409860/feeding-the-developing-brain-juvenile-rats-fed-diet-rich-in-prebiotics-and-bioactive-milk-fractions-exhibit-reduced-anxiety-related-behavior-and-modified-gene-expression-in-emotion-circuits
#10
Agnieszka Mika, Michelle Gaffney, Rachel Roller, Abigail Hills, Courtney A Bouchet, Kristina A Hulen, Robert S Thompson, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Early life nutrition is critical for brain development. Dietary prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions support brain development by increasing plasticity and altering activity in brain regions important for cognition and emotion regulation, perhaps through the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Here we examined the impact of a diet containing prebiotics, lactoferrin, and milk fat globule membrane (test diet) on beneficial gut bacteria, basal gene expression for activity and plasticity markers within brain circuits important for cognition and anxiety, and anxiety-related behavior in the open field...
January 30, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398336/exclusive-enteral-nutrition-in-crohn-s-disease-evidence-and-practicalities
#11
REVIEW
James J Ashton, Joan Gavin, R Mark Beattie
Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the first line therapy for paediatric Crohn's disease, providing a complete nutritional feed whilst simultaneously inducing remission in up to 80% of cases. The effect of EEN on systemic/local intestinal immune function and subsequent inflammation (including barrier permeability, direct anti-inflammatory effects and cytokine signalling pathways), alongside changes in the microbiome (specific species and broad taxonomic shifts, functional changes) are becoming clearer, however the exact mechanism for induction of remission in Crohn's disease remains uncertain...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382608/metabolic-syndrome-autoimmunity-and-rheumatic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Gabriela Medina, Olga Vera-Lastra, Ana Lilia Peralta-Amaro, María Pilar Jiménez-Arellano, Miguel Angel Saavedra, María Pilar Cruz-Domínguez, Luis J Jara
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including obesity and visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension contributing to CV mortality. The interface between the metabolic and immune systems has been of great interest recently. These interactions are regulated through genetics, nutritional status, and the intestinal microbiome. Alterations in the immune-metabolic cross-talk contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. Adipokines exert a variety of metabolic activities contributing to the ethiopathogenesis of MetS and are involved in the regulation of both inflammatory processes and autoimmunity occurring in rheumatic diseases...
January 27, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380873/annotation-of-gut-bacterial-taxonomic-and-functional-diversity-in-spodoptera-litura-and-spilosoma-obliqua
#13
Kiran G Bapatla, Arjun Singh, Srujana Yeddula, Ramanagouda H Patil
The insect gut has been the house of many taxonomically and physiologically diverse groups of microbial colonizers as symbionts and commensals, which are evolving to support the physiological requirement of insects. Lepidoptera is one of the important family of class hexapoda, comprising agriculture insect pest Spodoptera litura and Spilosoma obliqua. Information on gut microbiota and their functional role in these insects was meager to elucidate the wide-ranging survivalist mechanisms. In this context, we analyzed the composition, diversity and functional role of gut bacteria in S...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377173/prospective-evaluation-of-antibody-response-to-streptococcus-gallolyticus-and-risk-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
Julia Butt, Mazda Jenab, Martina Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Angelika Michel, Michael Pawlita, Cecilie Kyrø, Anne Tjønneland, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Franck Carbonnel, Gianluca Severi, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Carlo la Vecchia, Anna Karakatsani, Salvatore Panico, Rosario Tumino, Claudia Agnoli, Domenico Palli, Carlotta Sacerdote, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Elisabete Weiderpass, Maria-José Sánchez, Catalina Bonet Bonet, JoséMaría Huerta, Eva Ardanaz, Kathryn Bradbury, Marc Gunter, Neil Murphy, Heinz Freisling, Elio Riboli, Kostas Tsilidis, Dagfinn Aune, Tim Waterboer, David Hughes
The gut microbiome is increasingly implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. A subgroup of patients diagnosed with CRC show high antibody responses to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG). However, it is unclear whether the association is also present pre-diagnostically. We assessed the association of antibody responses to SGG proteins in pre-diagnostic serum samples with CRC risk in a case-control study nested within a prospective cohort. Pre-diagnostic serum samples from 485 first incident CRC cases (mean time between blood draw and diagnosis 3...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358405/assembly-and-ecological-function-of-the-root-microbiome-across-angiosperm-plant-species
#15
Connor R Fitzpatrick, Julia Copeland, Pauline W Wang, David S Guttman, Peter M Kotanen, Marc T J Johnson
Across plants and animals, host-associated microbial communities play fundamental roles in host nutrition, development, and immunity. The factors that shape host-microbiome interactions are poorly understood, yet essential for understanding the evolution and ecology of these symbioses. Plant roots assemble two distinct microbial compartments from surrounding soil: the rhizosphere (microbes surrounding roots) and the endosphere (microbes within roots). Root-associated microbes were key for the evolution of land plants and underlie fundamental ecosystem processes...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354879/metagenomic-signatures-of-microbial-communities-in-deep-sea-hydrothermal-sediments-of-azores-vent-fields
#16
Teresa Cerqueira, Cristina Barroso, Hugo Froufe, Conceição Egas, Raul Bettencourt
The organisms inhabiting the deep-seafloor are known to play a crucial role in global biogeochemical cycles. Chemolithoautotrophic prokaryotes, which produce biomass from single carbon molecules, constitute the primary source of nutrition for the higher organisms, being critical for the sustainability of food webs and overall life in the deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. The present study investigates the metabolic profiles of chemolithoautotrophs inhabiting the sediments of Menez Gwen and Rainbow deep-sea vent fields, in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge...
January 21, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353922/modeling-host-microbiome-interactions-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Teklu K Gerbaba, Luke Green-Harrison, Andre G Buret
The microbiome influences host processes including nutritional availability, development, immunity, and behavioral responses. Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model to study molecular mechanisms of host-microbial interactions. Recent efforts have been made to profile the natural microbiome of C. elegans, laying a foundation for mechanistic studies of host-microbiome interactions in this genetically tractable model system. Studies using single-species microbes, multi-microbial systems, and humanized worm-microbiome interaction studies reveal metabolic and microbial-microbial interactions relevant in higher organisms...
December 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353752/steam-explosion-enhances-digestibility-and-fermentation-of-corn-stover-by-facilitating-ruminal-microbial-colonization
#18
Shengguo Zhao, Guodong Li, Nan Zheng, Jiaqi Wang, Zhongtang Yu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate steam explosion as a pretreatment to enhance degradation of corn stover by ruminal microbiome. The steam explosion conditions were first optimized, and then the efficacy of steam explosion was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Steam explosion altered the physical and chemical structure of corn stover as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively, and increased its cellulose content while decreasing hemicellulose content...
January 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350290/the-microbiology-and-treatment-of-human-mastitis
#19
REVIEW
Angeliki Angelopoulou, Des Field, C Anthony Ryan, Catherine Stanton, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Mastitis, which is generally described as an inflammation of breast tissue, is a common and debilitating disease which frequently results in the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and affects up to 33% of lactating women. The condition is a primary cause of decreased milk production and results in organoleptic and nutritional alterations in milk quality. Recent studies employing culture-independent techniques, including metagenomic sequencing, have revealed a loss of bacterial diversity in the microbiome of mastitic milk samples compared to healthy milk samples...
January 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348256/flavonoids-dairy-foods-and-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-health-a-review-of-emerging-biologic-pathways
#20
REVIEW
Dariush Mozaffarian, Jason H Y Wu
A growing body of nutritional science highlights the complex mechanisms and pleiotropic pathways of cardiometabolic effects of different foods. Among these, some of the most exciting advances are occurring in the area of flavonoids, bioactive phytochemicals found in plant foods; and in the area of dairy, including milk, yogurt, and cheese. Many of the relevant ingredients and mechanistic pathways are now being clarified, shedding new light on both the ingredients and the pathways for how diet influences health and well-being...
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
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