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Midazolam

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219171/benzodiazepines-for-psychosis-induced-aggression-or-agitation
#1
REVIEW
Hadar Zaman, Stephanie J Sampson, Alison Ls Beck, Tarang Sharma, Fiona J Clay, Styliani Spyridi, Sai Zhao, Donna Gillies
BACKGROUND: Acute psychotic illness, especially when associated with agitated or violent behaviour, can require urgent pharmacological tranquillisation or sedation. In several countries, clinicians often use benzodiazepines (either alone or in combination with antipsychotics) for this outcome. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether benzodiazepines, alone or in combination with other pharmacological agents, is an effective treatment for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation when compared with placebo, other pharmacological agents (alone or in combination) or non-pharmacological approaches...
December 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218705/randomized-controlled-study-comparing-the-efficacy-of-rapid-and-slow-withdrawal-of-antiepileptic-drugs-during-long-term-video-eeg-monitoring
#2
Shambhu Kumar, Bhargavi Ramanujam, P S Chandra, Deepa Dash, Santosh Mehta, Sharma Anubha, Renjith Appukutan, Manit Kumar Rana, Manjari Tripathi
OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are routinely withdrawn during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (LTM), to record sufficient number of seizures. The efficacy of rapid and slow AED taper has never been compared in a randomized control trial (RCT), which was the objective of this study. METHODS: In this open-label RCT, patients aged 2-80 years with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) were randomly assigned (1:1) to rapid and slow AED taper groups...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218318/patient-comfort-scores-do-not-affect-endoscopist-behavior-during-colonoscopy-while-trainee-involvement-has-negative-effects-on-patient-comfort
#3
Brian P H Chan, Amanda Hussey, Natalie Rubinger, Lawrence C Hookey
Introduction : Patient comfort is an important part of endoscopy and reflects procedure quality and endoscopist technique. Using the validated, Nurse Assisted Patient Comfort Score (NAPCOMS), this study aimed to determine whether the introduction of NAPCOMS would affect sedation use by endoscopists. Patients and methods : The study was conducted over 3 phases. Phase One and Two consisted of 8 weeks of endoscopist blinded and aware data collection, respectively...
December 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212478/effect-of-butorphanol-midazolam-or-ketamine-on-romifidine-based-sedation-in-horses-during-standing-cheek-tooth-removal
#4
Theresa Maria Müller, Klaus Hopster, Astrid Bienert-Zeit, Karl Rohn, Sabine B R Kästner
BACKGROUND: Standing surgery, especially dental procedures, are commonly performed in horses. This leads to an increasing demand for reliable sedation protocols. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to investigate the influence of butorphanol, midazolam or ketamine on romifidine based sedation in horses during cheek tooth removal. METHODS: Forty horses presented for tooth extraction were divided in four groups using matched pair randomization. Group R was sedated with romifidine (bolus 0...
December 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209787/-different-levels-of-experience-with-anesthetic-agents-of-german-emergency-physicians-results-of-an-online-survey
#5
A Luckscheiter, M Fischer, W Zink
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In 2015 practice management guidelines on prehospital emergency anesthesia in adults were published in Germany. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether emergency physicians follow these guidelines in daily practice and to assess their level of experience with the use of anesthetic agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an online survey the way of induction of preclinical anesthesia (including preoxygenation time and applied monitoring techniques) was assessed with the help of virtual scenarios based on the guidelines...
December 5, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206695/drug-induced-sleep-endoscopy-from-obscure-technique-to-diagnostic-tool-for-assessment-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-for-surgical-interventions
#6
Joshua H Atkins, Jeff E Mandel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provide a practical update on drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) for anesthesia providers, which can also serve as a reference for those preparing to establish a DISE program. RECENT FINDINGS: New developments in surgical approaches to OSA and the growing global incidence of the condition have stimulated increased interest and demand for drug-induced sleep endoscopy. New techniques include transoral robotic surgery and hypoglossal nerve stimulation...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204052/pregnane-x-receptor-and-constitutive-androstane-receptor-modulate-differently-cyp3a-mediated-metabolism-in-early-and-late-stage-cholestasis
#7
Daniela Gabbia, Arianna Dalla Pozza, Laura Albertoni, Roberta Lazzari, Giorgia Zigiotto, Maria Carrara, Vincenzo Baldo, Tatjana Baldovin, Annarosa Floreani, Sara De Martin
AIM: To ascertain whether cholestasis affects the expression of two CYP3A isoforms (CYP3A1 and CYP3A2) and of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). METHODS: Cholestasis was induced by bile duct ligation in 16 male Wistar rats; whereas 8 sham-operated rats were used as controls. Severity of cholestasis was assessed on histological examination of liver sections, and serum concentrations of albumin, AST, ALT, GGT, ALPK and bilirubin...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203151/population-pharmacokinetic-evaluation-of-adv6209-an-innovative-oral-solution-of-midazolam-containing-cyclodextrin
#8
Frédéric Marçon, Catherine Guittet, Maria A Manso, Ingrid Burton, Luc-André Granier, Philippe Jacqmin, Hervé Dupont
INTRODUCTION: In the absence of a licensed formulation in many countries worldwide, ADV6209, an innovative 2mg/mL oral solution of midazolam containing cyclodextrin, has been developed for moderate sedation in paediatric patients. Population pharmacokinetics for ADV6209 is reported. METHODS: Plasma concentration data were collected from 37 paediatric patients and 12 healthy adults recruited in a single dose, open-label phase II pharmacokinetic study and in a single dose, randomised, open-label two-period crossover bioavailability study, respectively...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203057/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-revealing-autoimmune-encephalitis-due-to-gabaar-antibodies
#9
D Caputo, R Iorio, F Vigevano, L Fusco
BACKGROUND: Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) has been described as an epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology affecting previously healthy children following febrile illness. Despite large investigations on autoimmune pathogenesis no membrane antibodies has been associated since now. CASE STUDY: We report a 13 years-old girl with negative history for neurological or autoimmune disease that developed at the sixth day of high fever a super-refractory status epilepticus...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202655/ketamine-for-rapid-reduction-of-suicidal-thoughts-in-major-depression-a-midazolam-controlled-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Michael F Grunebaum, Hanga C Galfalvy, Tse-Hwei Choo, John G Keilp, Vivek K Moitra, Michelle S Parris, Julia E Marver, Ainsley K Burke, Matthew S Milak, M Elizabeth Sublette, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacotherapy to rapidly relieve suicidal ideation in depression may reduce suicide risk. Rapid reduction in suicidal thoughts after ketamine treatment has mostly been studied in patients with low levels of suicidal ideation. The authors tested the acute effect of adjunctive subanesthetic intravenous ketamine on clinically significant suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder. METHOD: In a randomized clinical trial, adults (N=80) with current major depressive disorder and a score ≥4 on the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI), of whom 54% (N=43) were taking antidepressant medication, were randomly assigned to receive ketamine or midazolam infusion...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201800/effect-of-different-sedation-regimes-on-cognitive-functions-in-colonoscopy
#11
Perihan Ekmekçi, Gulbanu Erkan, Hakan Yilmaz, Baturay K Kazbek, Ulku C Köksoy, Güler Doganay, Doganay Filiz Tüzüner
Aim: To compare the effects of propofol/remifentanil and meperidine/midazolam on postprocedure cognitive function. Materials and methods: A total of 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score I to III patients undergoing elective colonoscopy were taken into the study and divided into two groups. Exclusion criteria were patient refusal, mini mental test (MMT) <26, The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) >10, advanced cardiopulmonary or psychiatric disease, chronic alcohol abuse, morbid obesity, and known allergy to study drugs...
July 2017: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201797/effectiveness-of-sedoanalgesia-in-percutaneous-liver-biopsy-premedication
#12
Orhan Sezgin, Serkan Yaras, Fehmi Ates, Engin Altintas, Bunyamin Saritas
Aim: Percutaneous needle liver biopsy (PLB) is frequently associated with pain and anxiety. This may discourage the patients for biopsy, and rebiopsies, if needed. We planned a study to investigate the efficacy of additional analgesia or sedation for PLB. Materials and methods: The study has been designed as a single-center, prospective study. The PLB was planned for 18- to 65-year-old consecutive patients who were included in the study. The patients were divided into three premedication groups as control, Meperidine, and Midazolam...
July 2017: Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201257/muscle-power-during-intravenous-sedation
#13
REVIEW
Nobuyuki Matsuura
Intravenous sedation is effective to reduce fear and anxiety in dental treatment. It also has been used for behavior modification technique in dental patients with special needs. Midazolam and propofol are commonly used for intravenous sedation. Although there have been many researches on the effects of midazolam and propofol on vital function and the recovery profile, little is known about muscle power. This review discusses the effects of intravenous sedation using midazolam and propofol on both grip strength and bite force...
November 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200369/anesthetic-management-of-a-patient-with-a-history-of-rhabdomyolysis-for-dental-treatment
#14
Hitomi Terasaki, Shinichi Ito
When general anesthesia is administered for patients considered at high risk for rhabdomyolysis, appropriate precautions are warranted. The use of suitable anesthetics, with attention to intravenous fluid management, electrolyte balance, respiration, and metabolism, should be addressed. We performed general anesthesia for dental treatment and biopsy for fibrous hyperplasia of the buccal mucosa in a patient with a history of rhabdomyolysis. We utilized thiamylal sodium, midazolam, rocuronium bromide, nitrous oxide, fentanyl, and remifentanil without using volatile anesthetics and propofol for this case...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200367/anesthetic-management-in-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-a-case-report
#15
Toru Yamamoto, Noriko Miyazawa, Shinichi Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kawahara
We report on a morbidly obese 16-year-old boy (weight, 116 kg; height, 176 cm; body mass index, 35.5 kg/m2) with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and a history of cerebral infarction, epilepsy, and severe mental retardation. The patient was scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia for multiple dental caries and entropion of the left eye. Preoperative examination results, including an electrocardiogram, were normal. No obvious cardiac function abnormalities were observed on echocardiography. Midazolam (10 mg) was administered orally as premedication 30 minutes before transfer to the operating room; however, the patient was uncooperative, and his body movements were difficult to control upon entering the operating room...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196827/bone-marrow-aspirations-in-oncological-patients-experience-from-an-in-house-standard-in-paediatrics
#16
Harald Sauer, Stefan Graeber, Ulla Lieser, Juergen Foell
BACKGROUND: Nearly all paediatric patients require deep sedation when undergoing bone marrow aspiration (BMA). We analyzed the data from our protocols documented in a standardised procedure for bone marrow puncture over a period of 2 years. METHODS: Our standard included the documentation of personal data as well as vital parameters. In addition, we documented all medications administered, potential complications and required intervention measures, as necessary...
December 1, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191071/allosteric-activation-of-cytochrome-p450-3a4-by-efavirenz-facilitates-midazolam-binding
#17
Tomohiko Ichikawa, Hirofumi Tsujino, Takahiro Miki, Masaya Kobayashi, Chiaki Matsubara, Sara Miyata, Taku Yamashita, Kohei Takeshita, Yasushige Yonezawa, Tadayuki Uno
1. The purpose of this study is to investigate the heteroactivation mechanism of CYP3A4 by efavirenz, which enhances metabolism of midazolam in vivo, in terms of its binding to CYP3A4 with in vitro spectroscopic methods. 2. Efavirenz exhibited a type II spectral change with binding to CYP3A4 indicating a possible inhibitor. Although dissociation constant (Kd) was approximated as 550 μM, efavirenz enhanced binding affinity of midazolam as a co-existing drug with an estimated iKd value of 5.6 µM which is comparable to a clinical concentration...
December 1, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189541/a-comparison-of-retrobulbar-versus-topical-anesthesia-in-trabeculectomy-and-aqueous-shunt-surgery
#18
Alex Theventhiran, Muhammad Shabsigh, Carlos Gustavo V De Moraes, George A Cioffi, Mohammed Kamel, Dana Blumberg, Lama A Al-Aswad
PURPOSE: To compare the required supplemental anesthesia and postoperative patient pain score in individuals undergoing glaucoma surgery under topical anesthesia (TA) versus retrobulbar anesthesia (RB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, interventional, comparative cohort study. 259 eyes of 225 patients undergoing glaucoma and combined glaucoma with cataract surgery were included in the study. The main outcome measures were the amount of supplemental, systemic intraoperative anesthesia used and the postoperative pain scale between patients undergoing TA versus RB anesthesia...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184423/propofol-or-benzodiazepines-for-short-and-long-term-sedation-in-intensive-care-units-an-economic-evaluation-based-on-meta-analytic-results
#19
Lorenzo Pradelli, Massimiliano Povero, Hartmut Bürkle, Tim-Gerald Kampmeier, Giorgio Della-Rocca, Astrid Feuersenger, Jean-Francois Baron, Martin Westphal
Purpose: This evaluation compares propofol and benzodiazepine sedation for mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs) in order to identify the potential economic benefits from different payers' perspectives. Methods: The patient-level simulation model incorporated efficacy estimates from a structured meta-analysis and ICU-related costs from Italy, Germany, France, UK, and the USA. Efficacy outcomes were ICU length of stay (LOS), mechanical ventilation duration, and weaning time...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183321/effects-of-controlled-hypoxemia-or-hypovolemia-on-global-and-intestinal-oxygenation-and-perfusion-in-isoflurane-anesthetized-horses-receiving-an-alpha-2-agonist-infusion
#20
Klaus Hopster, Liza Wittenberg-Voges, Florian Geburek, Charlotte Hopster-Iversen, Sabine B R Kästner
BACKGROUND: Aim of this prospective experimental study was to assess effects of systemic hypoxemia and hypovolemia on global and gastrointestinal oxygenation and perfusion in anesthetized horses. Therefore, we anesthetized twelve systemically healthy warmblood horses using either xylazine or dexmedetomidine for premedication and midazolam and ketamine for induction. Anesthesia was maintained using isoflurane in oxygen with either xylazine or dexmedetomidine and horses were ventilated to normocapnia...
November 28, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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