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Melanie A Jarrett, Kate M Bailey, Kristen M Messenger, Timo Prange, Brian Gaines, Lysa P Posner
OBJECTIVE To evaluate quality of recovery from general anesthesia in horses after induction with propofol and ketamine versus midazolam and ketamine. DESIGN Prospective randomized crossover study. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Horses were premedicated with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IV), and general anesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IV) or propofol (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], IV), followed by ketamine (3.0 mg/kg [1.36 mg/lb], IV). Horses were endotracheally intubated, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
M Shibuya, T Hojo, Y Hase, T Fujisawa
Oral surgery can be difficult in patients with chorea-like dyskinesia, which is common in those on long-term levodopa medication for Parkinson's disease, and we know of no conclusive evidence to indicate whether conscious sedation with midazolam is effective in such cases. We report a patient in whom levodopa-induced chorea-like dyskinesia disappeared when midazolam was given intravenously for conscious sedation.
June 13, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Laura Baumgartner, Nicole Townsend, Katie Winkelman, Robert MacLaren
Findings indicate that adjunctive low-dose ketamine was safe and provided pain relief. ABSTRACT: Objectives: Traditional analgesic regimens often fail to control the severe pain patients experience during burn wound care, and the drugs are frequently administered at doses that can cause oversedation and respiratory depression. Ketamine may be an ideal agent for adjunctive analgesia in such patients because of its unique mechanism of action and lack of association with respiratory depression...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Feng Guo, Ying Ding, Xue Yu, Xiujun Cai
Dexmedetomidine, midazolam and propofol are common sedative drugs used in the intensive care unit. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a potent inducer of human dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and survival, which induces cytokine production. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of sedative drugs on LPS-induced cytokine production in DCs. The mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic DC2.4 cell line was used in the present study. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to measure the viability of cells...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Turi K Aarnes, Phillip Lerche, Richard M Bednarski, John A E Hubbell
This study evaluated use of midazolam, ketamine, and xylazine (MKX) for total intravenous (IV) anesthesia (TIVA) in horses. Medical records of 46 horses undergoing a clinical procedure using MKX for TIVA were reviewed. Age, breed, procedure, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), pre-anesthetic drugs, induction drugs, and total volume of MKX were recorded. Duration of anesthesia, time to standing, number of attempts to stand, and recovery score were also recorded. All horses were premedicated with an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist and anesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam...
May 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Ying-Hong Wang, Dapeng Chen, Georgy Hartmann, Carolyn R Cho, Karsten Menzel
Letermovir is a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) terminase inhibitor for the prophylaxis of CMV infection in allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In vitro, letermovir is a time-dependent inhibitor and an inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A, and an inhibitor of CYP2C8 and organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B. A stepwise approach was taken to qualify the interaction model of an existing letermovir physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict letermovir interactions with CYP3A and OATP1B...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Johanna Kaartinen, Stéphane Lair, Michael T Walsh, Patrick Burns, Marion Desmarchelier, Jessica M Pang, Daniel S J Pang
  Walruses are a challenging species to anesthetize as a result of their large mass, limited access for drug delivery, unique physiology, and small number of reports describing anesthetic procedures. Three aquarium-housed walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus) ranging in age from 3 to 11 yr old (344-1,000 kg) were anesthetized for dental or ophthalmic surgical procedures, with one animal anesthetized twice and one anesthetized three times. Preanesthetic medication was with intramuscular midazolam (0.1-0.2 mg/kg) and meperidine (2-3 mg/kg)...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ira J Kallio-Kujala, Marja R Raekallio, Juhana Honkavaara, Rachel C Bennett, Heta Turunen, Mika Scheinin, Heidi Hautajärvi, Outi Vainio
OBJECTIVE: We determined the possible effects of a peripherally acting α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist, MK-467, on the absorption of intramuscularly (IM) coadministered medetomidine, butorphanol and midazolam. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, experimental, blinded crossover study. ANIMALS: Six healthy Beagle dogs. METHODS: Two IM treatments were administered: 1) medetomidine hydrochloride (20 μg kg-1 ) + butorphanol (100 μg kg-1 ) + midazolam (200 μg kg-1 ; MBM) and 2) MBM + MK-467 hydrochloride (500 μg kg-1 ; MBM-MK), mixed in a syringe...
February 3, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Wenjuan Cui, Qin Liu, Shan Xiong, Lujun Qiao
A simple, sensitive, and accurate LC-MS/MS method was established and validated for the simultaneous quantification of dexmedetomidine, dezocine, and midazolam in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 3  µ m) using a mobile phase composed of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile. The lower limits of quantification were 0.1, 0.1, and 0.2 ng/mL for dexmedetomidine, dezocine, and midazolam in rat plasma, respectively. The analytes were determined with selected reaction monitoring under positive ionization mode...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Lauren R Klein, Brian E Driver, James R Miner, Marc L Martel, Michelle Hessel, Jacob D Collins, Gabriella B Horton, Erik Fagerstrom, Rajesh Satpathy, Jon B Cole
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Agitation in the emergency department (ED) can pose a threat to patient and provider safety; therefore, treatment is indicated. The purpose of this study is to compare haloperidol, olanzapine, midazolam, and ziprasidone to treat agitation. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients receiving intramuscular medication to treat agitation in the ED. Medications were administered according to an a priori protocol in which the initial medication given was predetermined in the following 3-week blocks: haloperidol 5 mg, ziprasidone 20 mg, olanzapine 10 mg, midazolam 5 mg, and haloperidol 10 mg...
June 6, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Gerda A Zeilmaker-Roest, Annewil van Saet, Joost van Rosmalen, Soma Bahmany, Antony van Dijk, Enno D Wildschut, Dick Tibboel, Ad J J C Bogers
BACKGROUND: Use of donor blood in congenital cardiac surgery increases the risk for post-operative morbidity and mortality. To reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusion a technique for peri-operative mechanical red cell salvage is applied. Blood from the operation site is collected in a reservoir, processed, passed through a lipophilic filter and returned to the patient. Influence of this cellsaver system on coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammatory markers is known. To our knowledge no studies have been performed on the effects of autotransfusion on drug concentrations...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Mark T Astoria, Leroy Thacker, Karen D Hendricks-Muñoz
OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to assess the association of analgesics and sedatives on oral feeding function and need for feeding tube at discharge in the very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1,500 g) preterm infant. STUDY DESIGN:  A retrospective review of surviving inborn infants < 1,500 g and < 32 weeks' gestation ( n  = 209), discharged between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014, from the neonatal intensive care unit identified exposure to analgesic and sedative medications, demographics, medical course, and nasogastric or gastrostomy tube (GT) feeding at discharge...
June 8, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Maxine X Patel, Faisil N Sethi, Thomas Re Barnes, Roland Dix, Luiz Dratcu, Bernard Fox, Marina Garriga, Julie C Haste, Kai G Kahl, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Hamish McAllister-Williams, Aileen O'Brien, Caroline Parker, Brodie Paterson, Carol Paton, Sotiris Posporelis, David M Taylor, Eduard Vieta, Birgit Völlm, Charlotte Wilson-Jones, Laura Woods
The British Association for Psychopharmacology and the National Association of Psychiatric Intensive Care and Low Secure Units developed this joint evidence-based consensus guideline for the clinical management of acute disturbance. It includes recommendations for clinical practice and an algorithm to guide treatment by healthcare professionals with various options outlined according to their route of administration and category of evidence. Fundamental overarching principles are included and highlight the importance of treating the underlying disorder...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Kim Dao, Eric Giannoni, Manuel Diezi, Eliane Roulet-Perez, Sebastien Lebon
Midazolam is commonly used to treat refractory seizures in newborns and as a first-line anti-epileptic drug in children. Its use as first-line treatment of neonatal seizures has not been investigated so far. We retrospectively studied the tolerability of midazolam in 72 newborn infants who received i.v. or i.n. midazolam as first-line treatment for seizures. No major side-effect exclusively due to midazolam was reported. The i.n. route was used for 20 patients (27.8%). Effectiveness could not be formally evaluated due to the absence of systematic electroencephalogram recording while midazolam was administered...
May 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Laureen A Lammers, Roos Achterbergh, Johannes A Romijn, Ron A A Mathôt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that nutritional status can alter drug metabolism which may result in treatment failure or untoward side effects. This study assesses the effect of two nutritional conditions, short-term fasting, and a short-term high fat diet (HFD) on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) mediated drug metabolism by studying the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and its main metabolites. METHODS: In a randomized-controlled cross-over trial, nine healthy subjects received a single intravenous administration of 0...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Saba Jafarpour, Lawrence J Hirsch, Marina Gaínza-Lein, Christoph Kellinghaus, Kamil Detyniecki
PURPOSE: To summarize definitions, prevalence, risk factors, consequences, and acute management of seizure clusters using rescue medications. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for studies that assessed definitions, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and use of rescue medication for aborting seizure clusters. RESULTS: Different clinical and statistical definitions for seizure clusters have been proposed, including: ≥3 seizures in 24 h, ≥2 seizures in 24 h, and ≥2 seizures in 6 h...
May 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Joske Millecam, Laura De Clerck, Elisabeth Govaert, Mathias Devreese, Elke Gasthuys, Wim Schelstraete, Dieter Deforce, Lies De Bock, Jan Van Bocxlaer, Stanislas Sys, Siska Croubels
Since the implementation of several legislations to improve pediatric drug research, more pediatric clinical trials are being performed. In order to optimize these pediatric trials, adequate preclinical data are necessary, which are usually obtained by juvenile animal models. The growing piglet has been increasingly suggested as a potential animal model due to a high degree of anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. However, physiological data in pigs on the ontogeny of major organs involved in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs are largely lacking...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
L Eriksson, L Sand, T Gordh, Å Tegelberg
Aims Does pre-emptive single dose intravenous tramadol produce a safe and effective postoperative analgesia? Methods Randomized, placebo controlled, single blinded clinical trial of pre-emptive intravenous tramadol 1 mg/kg in combination with IV midazolam in patients with dental fear. A "Pain diary" evaluates the efficacy. The safety is evaluated perioperative monitoring (SpO2 and BP). Results Pain scored by VAS showed no differences between the groups. It took longer time to first rescue pill in tramadol vs...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Yiping Lin, Yanli Wei, Xiaoxia Hu, Meilling Wu, Xiaoqian Ying, Mingxing Ding
Oldenlandia diffusa has been used to treat various cancers. Cytochrome P450, a drug metabolic enzyme, might be influenced by herbal medicine. Currently, the problem that remains is the effective treatment in drug-drug interaction situation. Potential influences of Oldenlandia diffusa were elucidated on the CYP450 activities in rats using a cocktail method. Blood samples were precipitated by acetonitrile. Quantitative determination of target test object was done by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection...
2018: Biochemistry Research International
Mariana Rinaldi, Aline C B R Johann, Patrícia Vida Cassi Bettega, Fabio Rocha, Sergio Aparecido Ignacio, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Luciana Reis Azevedo Alanis, Yusuf Althobaiti, Silvana da Silva Sapelli, Ana Maria Trindade Grégio Hardy
To evaluated the apoptosis in parotid glands of rats treated with Midazolam associated or not with Pilocarpine, Sixty Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups: control group received saline solution for 30 days (S30) and 60 days (S60) and the other groups received Pilocarpine for 60 days (P60); Midazolam for 30 days (M30); Midazolam for 30 days and 30 days of saline (M30 + S30) and finally Midazolam for 30 days and 30 days of Midazolam and Pilocarpine (M30 + MP30). Histological sections were subjected to the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling (TUNEL) technique...
May 30, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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