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Midazolam

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667111/propofol-specifically-suppresses-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-but-increases-bacterial-survival-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-raw264-7-cells
#1
Ming-Shan Chen, Wen-Chun Lin, Hsuan-Te Yeh, Chia-Lin Hu, Shew-Meei Sheu
Anesthetics have immunomodulatory effects, but the use of different assay systems has contributed to inconsistent results in the literature. IL-1β and reactive oxygen species (ROS) secreted by phagocytes are important factors that protect against Staphylococcus aureus infection. In this study, the effects of four intravenous anesthetics (propofol, thiamylal sodium, midazolam, and ketamine) on IL-1β secretion, ROS, and bacterial survival in S. aureus-infected RAW264.7 cells were evaluated. S. aureus-infected RAW264...
April 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663428/midazolam-single-time-point-concentrations-to-estimate-exposure-and-cytochrome-p450-cyp-3a-constitutive-activity-utilizing-limited-sampling-strategy-with-a-population-pharmacokinetic-approach
#2
Jincheng Yang, Maulik Patel, Mina Nikanjam, Edmund V Capparelli, Shirley M Tsunoda, Howard E Greenberg, Scott R Penzak, S Aubrey Stoch, Joseph S Bertino, Anne N Nafziger, Joseph D Ma
Midazolam is the preferred probe to phenotype cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. This study evaluated a single-concentration, midazolam limited sampling strategy utilizing a population pharmacokinetic (PK) approach to estimate area under the curve, and thus CYP3A activity. Midazolam concentrations from adults during CYP3A constitutive conditions were obtained from previous studies after single, oral or intravenous administration. Population PK modeling was conducted by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Potential covariates of clearance, volume of distribution, and bioavailability were evaluated...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659506/in-vitro-inhibitory-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-eam-2201-on-cytochrome-p450-and-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-enzyme-activities-in-human-liver-microsomes
#3
Tae Yeon Kong, Soon-Sang Kwon, Jae Chul Cheong, Hee Seung Kim, Jin Young Kim, Hye Suk Lee
EAM-2201, a synthetic cannabinoid, is a potent agonist of the cannabinoid receptors that is widely abused as an illicit recreational drug in combination with other drugs. To evaluate the potential of EAM-2201 as a perpetrator of drug–drug interactions, the inhibitory effects of EAM-2201 on major drug-metabolizing enzymes, cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) were evaluated in pooled human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659211/ketamine-for-depression-6-effects-on-suicidal-ideation-and-possible-use-as-crisis-intervention-in-patients-at-suicide-risk
#4
Chittaranjan Andrade
A growing body of literature suggests that ketamine, administered in subanesthetic doses, has early-onset antidepressant action in patients with severe and even treatment-refractory depression. Many case reports, open-label studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that ketamine may have dramatic antisuicidal effects, as well. This article examines the benefits of ketamine in patients with suicidal ideation with particular focus on the findings of recent RCTs and meta-analyses. Important findings are that a single dose of ketamine is associated with antisuicidal benefits that emerge within an hour of administration and persist for up to a week...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653346/simple-and-sensitive-lc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-determination-of-crizotinib-and-its-major-oxidative-metabolite-in-human-plasma-application-to-a-clinical-pharmacokinetic-study
#5
Xiaoyan Qi, Lin Zhao, Qiuping Zhao, Qiaoxia Xu
In this study, a fast, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of crizotinib and its major oxidative metabolite crizotinib-lactam in human plasma. The plasma samples were deproteinated by using acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid as precipitant whereas the chromatographic separation was obtained on a C18 column with 0.1% formic acid aqueous and acetonitrile/methanol (v:v, 1:1) as mobile phase. The mass detector was operated in positive selected reaction monitoring mode...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652752/practice-change-from-intermittent-medication-boluses-to-bolusing-from-a-continuous-infusion-in-pediatric-critical-care-a-quality-improvement-project
#6
Jessica L Hochstetler, A Jill Thompson, Natalie M Ball, Melissa C Evans, Shaun C Frame, A Lauren Haney, Amelia K Little, Jaime L O'Donnell, Bryna M Rickett, Elizabeth H Mack
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether implementing a guideline to bolus medications from continuous infusions in PICUs affects nursing satisfaction, patient safety, central line entries, medication utilization, or cost. DESIGN: This is a pre- and postimplementation quality improvement study. SETTING: An 11-bed ICU and 14-bed cardiac ICU in a university-affiliated children's hospital. PATIENTS: Patients less than 18 years old admitted to the PICU or pediatric cardiac ICU receiving a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine, midazolam, fentanyl, morphine, vecuronium, or cisatracurium from May 2015 to May 2016, excluding November 2015 (washout period), were eligible for inclusion...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650892/-continuous-subcutaneous-injection-therapy-in-end-of-life-symptoms-of-cancer-and-non-cancer-patients
#7
Tatsuo Oshiro, Hisako Oshiro, Masahito Tanimizu
The significance of continuous subcutaneous injection(CSI)therapy was assessed in end-of-life symptoms of cancer and non-cancer home hospice patients. In a retrospective analysis of 106 advanced cancer patients who underwent opioid CSI therapy, the most frequent symptom was pain(65%), followed by dyspnea(46%), seizure(8%), ileus(8%), and other uncontrolled end-of-life symptoms(23%). The median oral morphine equivalent daily opioid dose was 90 mg(2.5-1,920 mg)and the median duration of CSI administration was 3 days(1-350 days)...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650431/-efficacy-safety-and-satisfaction-of-sedation-analgesia-in-spanish-emergency-departments
#8
Concepción Míguez Navarro, Niki Oikonomopoulou, Arístides Rivas García, Andrea Mora Capín, Gloria Guerrero Márquez
OBJECTIVES: To offer analgesia and sedation should be a priority in paediatric emergency departments. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of the sedation-analgesia procedure, as well as the satisfaction of the doctors, patients and parents. METHODS: A multicentre, observational, and prospective analytical study was conducted on the sedation-analgesia procedure performed on children younger than 18 years old in 18 paediatric emergency departments in Spain from February 2015 until January 2016...
April 9, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649848/-palliative-sedation-despite-guidelines-a-difficult-process-of-decisions
#9
Martin Kamprad, Ute Helm
A distinction needs to be made between intermediate and continuous sedation as well as between minimal, moderate and deep sedation. To gain ethical acceptance it is crucial that for palliative sedation (PS) minimally required doses are administered to decrease suffering. Intermittent PS is used for decreasing physical symptoms, whereas deep continuous PS is used to minimize intolerable suffering or psychological symptoms. Precise medical indication and education of patient and relatives are pre-requirements to any PS...
April 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649029/dexmedetomidine-sedation-for-paroxysmal-supraventricular-tachycardia-ablation-is-not-associated-with-alteration-of-arrhythmia-inducibility
#10
Andrew M Slupe, Jessica Minnier, Merritt H Raitt, Ignatius Gerardo E Zarraga, Karen S MacMurdy, Peter M Jessel
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is an attractive agent for procedural sedation due to its unique pharmacodynamic profile, specifically affording predictable sedation without concurrent respiratory depression. However, Dex has previously been reported to prevent or terminate arrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to investigate paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) inducibility and homeostatic stability during electrophysiology studies (EPSs) and ablation when a standardized Dex protocol was used as the primary sedation agent...
April 11, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643630/comparison-of-pretreatment-with-dexmedetomidine-with-midazolam-for-prevention-of-etomidate-induced-myoclonus-and-attenuation-of-stress-response-at-intubation-a-randomized-controlled-study
#11
Swarnendu Dey, Meenakshi Kumar
Background and Aims: Myoclonus is a common problem during induction of anesthesia with etomidate. A variety of drugs have been used to decrease the incidence of myoclonus. In this study we compared the effects of dexmedetomidine and midazolam pretreatment on the incidence of etomidate induced myoclonus. We also studied the effects of these drugs on attenuation of stress response at laryngoscopy and intubation on induction with etomidate. Material and Methods: Eighty adult patients (18 to 60 years age) of either sex, American Society of Anestheiologists physical status I and II undergoing elective general surgeries under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups...
January 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643618/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-intrathecal-magnesium-sulfate-versus-midazolam-with-epidural-administration-of-0-75-ropivacaine-for-patients-with-preeclampsia-scheduled-for-elective-cesarean-section
#12
Sophia Paleti, P Krishna Prasad, B Sowbhagya Lakshmi
Background and Aims: Magnesium sulfate and midazolam have been used as adjuvants to local anesthetics via intrathecal and epidural routes to augment the quality of block and prolong postoperative analgesia. This study compares addition of intrathecal magnesium sulfate versus intrathecal midazolam to epidurally administered isobaric ropivacaine as a part of combined spinal epidural technique in pre-eclamptic parturients undergoing elective cesarean section. Material and Methods: After institutional ethics committee approval and written informed consent, 50 pre-eclamptic parturients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups of 25 each to either receive intrathecal magnesium sulfate (50 mg) or intrathecal midazolam (1 mg) in combination with epidural ropivacaine (0...
January 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629881/propofol-a-safe-anaesthetic-drug-in-experimental-cardiac-surgery-in-rabbits
#13
Enrico Giuliani, Antonio Manenti, Alberto Barbieri, Alberto Farinetti, Anna Vittoria Mattioli
ACKGROUND: Experimental surgery needs a pharmacological approach that can interfere with cardiac function. CASE REPORT: In a animal model of regenerative medicine of myocardium we use an anaesthesiological protocol that included Propofol, a benzodiazepine (Midazolam) and an alpha-2 adrenergic agent. RESULTS: In a group of 15 rabbits undergoing cardiac surgery we reported 1 arrhythmic complication during stem cell injection. DISCUSSION: The functional cardio- respiratory depressor activity of Propofol was compensated by alpha-2 adrenergic drugs, avoiding serious complications...
2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628826/dexmedetomidine-vs-morphine-and-midazolam-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-delirium-after-adult-cardiac-surgery-a-randomized-double-blinded-clinical-trial
#14
Tamer M Abdel Azeem, Nahed E Yosif, Adel M Alansary, Ibrahim Mamdouh Esmat, Ahmed K Mohamed
Background: The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of neurobehavioral, hemodynamics and sedative characteristics of dexmedetomidine compared with morphine and midazolam-based regimen after cardiac surgery at equivalent levels of sedation and analgesia in improving clinically relevant outcomes such as delirium. Methods: Sixty patients were randomly allocated into one of two equal groups: group A = 30 patients received dexmedetomidine infusion (0...
April 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628576/comparison-of-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-compared-to-midazolam-as-a-premedication-in-pediatrics-with-congenital-heart-disease-undergoing-cardiac-catheterization
#15
Medhat M Messeha, Gamal Zakaria El-Morsy
Background: The intranasal route is a reliable way to administer preanesthetics and sedatives to children. The aim of this study was to compare the anxiolytic and sedative effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine and midazolam as a premedication in pediatrics with simple congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac catheterization. Patients and Methods: Sixty children 3-6 years old of either sex with simple congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac catheterization were randomly allocated into two groups: Dexmedetomidine group who received intranasal dexmedetomidine (0...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626346/propofol-for-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-implantation-in-patients-with-brugada-syndrome
#16
Hye-Mee Kw On, Sung-Hoon Kim, Se-Ung Pa Rk, Jin-Ho Rh Im, Hee-Su N Park, Wook-Jong Kim, Gi-Byou Ng Nam
AIMS: Avoiding propofol in patients with Brugada syndrome has been suggested because of the theoretical risk of provoking ventricular arrhythmias, although propofol may be selected for conscious sedation during electrophysiological procedures in catheterization laboratories. This study aimed to document peri-procedural electrocardiographic changes and adverse events in patients with Brugada syndrome undergoing implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation using propofol sedation...
April 6, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625917/alfaxalone-anaesthesia-in-lemur-catta-following-dexmedetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam-sedation
#17
Eugenio Gaudio, Laura Voltan, Giulia Maria De Benedictis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effects and quality of sedation, induction, maintenance and recovery in Lemur catta after dexmedetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam sedation and alfaxalone anaesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. ANIMALS: Six male L. catta weighing 3.0 ± 0.6 kg undergoing surgical castration. METHODS: Lemurs were sedated with intramuscular dexmedetomidine (0.015 mg kg-1 ), butorphanol (0...
February 3, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623620/economic-evaluation-of-midazolam-droperidol-combination-versus-droperidol-or-olanzapine-for-the-management-of-acute-agitation-in-the-emergency-department-a-within-trial-analysis
#18
Celene Y L Yap, Ya-Seng Arthur Hsueh, Jonathan C Knott, David McD Taylor, Esther W Chan, David C M Kong
BACKGROUND: The combination of midazolam and droperidol has proven superior to droperidol or olanzapine monotherapy in the management of acute agitation in emergency departments (EDs). OBJECTIVE: This is the first economic analysis to evaluate the cost-benefit and cost effectiveness of the midazolam-droperidol combination compared with droperidol or olanzapine for the management of acute agitation in EDs. METHODS: This analysis used data derived from a randomised, controlled, double-blind clinical trial conducted in two metropolitan Australian EDs between October 2014 and August 2015...
July 24, 2017: PharmacoEconomics open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622309/anesthetic-agents-commonly-used-by-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgeons
#19
REVIEW
Kyle J Kramer, Jason W Brady
Oral and maxillofacial surgeons have a variety of anesthetic agents that can be used to provide anesthesia safely and efficiently in the office-based environment. However, it is critical to have a thorough understanding of the particulars for each agent. Commonly used anesthetic agents, administered either individually or in combination, include diazepam, midazolam, propofol, ketamine, opioid agonists such as fentanyl or remifentanil, dexmedetomidine, and inhalational agents, including nitrous oxide and sevoflurane...
May 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618712/cytochrome-p450-dependent-drug-oxidation-activities-in-commercially-available-hepatocytes-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-cultured-for-3-weeks
#20
Norie Murayama, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are of great interest for applications in pharmacological research. For drug metabolism testing, commercially available hepatocytes derived from human iPS cells are generally recommended to be used 1 week after seeding on plates. In this study, however, after 3-4 weeks of culture according to the manufacturer's instructions, human cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C9- and 2C19-dependent diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation and omeprazole 5-hydroxylation activities of the iPS-derived hepatocytes had significantly increased above the activities at 1 week and had reached levels similar to those in HepaRG cells, a human hepatocyte-like cell line...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
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