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Complexity theory emergence brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807408/cortical-neural-computation-by-discrete-results-hypothesis
#1
REVIEW
Carlos Castejon, Angel Nuñez
One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714662/personality-and-uveitis
#2
Ankush Kawali, Ringhoo Theresa Jose, Aishwarya, Mathew Kurian, Kushal Kacha, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Rohit Shetty
BACKGROUND: Psycho-immunology is an emerging branch of science which studies the interaction between the brain and the immune system. The purpose of this study is to identify the types of personality factors in patients with non-infectious uveitis and to find its association with a particular uveitic entity if any. This is a prospective, observational, case-control study of 186 patients with non-infectious uveitis (group A) and controls from general ophthalmology outpatient department (group B)...
December 2016: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617636/neurocognitive-predictors-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-in-children-6-months-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-study
#3
Xiaoyuan Guo, Shannon L Edmed, Vicki Anderson, Justin Kenardy
Objective: Various neurocognitive mechanisms have been proposed to explain the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying comorbid PTSD following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) have not been fully investigated, especially among children. This study prospectively examined the influence of theorized neurocognitive deficits at 3 months post pediatric TBI on the development of PTSD symptoms 6 months postinjury. Method: One hundred sixty-six children aged between 6 and 14 years were recruited after sustaining a TBI...
September 12, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547914/-i-ve-never-been-a-yes-person-decision-making-participation-and-self-conceptualization-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Lucy Knox, Jacinta M Douglas, Christine Bigby
PURPOSE: Although adults who sustain a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) require support to make decisions in their lives, little is known about their experience of this process. The aim of this study was to explore how participation in decision making contributes to self-conceptualization in adults with severe TBI. METHOD: We used constructivist grounded theory methods. Data included 20 in-depth interviews with adults with severe TBI. Through a process of constant comparison, analysis involved open and focused coding until clear categories emerged and data saturation was achieved...
August 22, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412020/-the-mind-brain-problem-i-onto-epistemological-foundations
#5
REVIEW
F Goni-Saez, J Tirapu-Ustarroz
INTRODUCTION: Throughout the history of thought, science and philosophy have addressed the problem of mind-brain from different epistemic perspectives. The first covers specific areas of reality and constructs hypotheses with limited scope and multiple inter-scientific connectivity with the aim of validating theoretical models; the second extends its systemic architecture to all that is real (including scientific activity). DEVELOPMENT: The complexity of the mind-brain problem requires the generation of a link connecting the disciplines of philosophy and science; our onto-epistemological presuppositions therefore fall within the framework of a scientifically-oriented philosophy (scientific philosophy)...
August 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340949/multiscale-modeling-of-brain-dynamics-from-single-neurons-and-networks-to-mathematical-tools
#6
REVIEW
Constantinos Siettos, Jens Starke
The extreme complexity of the brain naturally requires mathematical modeling approaches on a large variety of scales; the spectrum ranges from single neuron dynamics over the behavior of groups of neurons to neuronal network activity. Thus, the connection between the microscopic scale (single neuron activity) to macroscopic behavior (emergent behavior of the collective dynamics) and vice versa is a key to understand the brain in its complexity. In this work, we attempt a review of a wide range of approaches, ranging from the modeling of single neuron dynamics to machine learning...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271768/interplay-between-graph-topology-and-correlations-of-third-order-in-spiking-neuronal-networks
#7
Stojan Jovanović, Stefan Rotter
The study of processes evolving on networks has recently become a very popular research field, not only because of the rich mathematical theory that underpins it, but also because of its many possible applications, a number of them in the field of biology. Indeed, molecular signaling pathways, gene regulation, predator-prey interactions and the communication between neurons in the brain can be seen as examples of networks with complex dynamics. The properties of such dynamics depend largely on the topology of the underlying network graph...
June 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199823/intelligence-cognition-and-language-of-green-plants
#8
REVIEW
Anthony Trewavas
A summary definition of some 70 descriptions of intelligence provides a definition for all other organisms including plants that stresses fitness. Barbara McClintock, a plant biologist, posed the notion of the 'thoughtful cell' in her Nobel prize address. The systems structure necessary for a thoughtful cell is revealed by comparison of the interactome and connectome. The plant root cap, a group of some 200 cells that act holistically in responding to numerous signals, likely possesses a similar systems structure agreeing with Darwin's description of acting like the brain of a lower organism...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189581/activational-and-effort-related-aspects-of-motivation-neural-mechanisms-and-implications-for-psychopathology
#9
REVIEW
John D Salamone, Samantha E Yohn, Laura López-Cruz, Noemí San Miguel, Mercè Correa
Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli...
May 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126145/mapping-the-small-world-properties-of-brain-networks-in-deception-with-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#10
Jiang Zhang, Xiaohong Lin, Genyu Fu, Liyang Sai, Huafu Chen, Jianbo Yang, Mingwen Wang, Qi Liu, Gang Yang, Junran Zhang, Zhen Yuan
Deception is not a rare occurrence among human behaviors; however, the present brain mapping techniques are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism of deception under spontaneous or controlled conditions. Interestingly, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has emerged as a highly promising neuroimaging technique that enables continuous and noninvasive monitoring of changes in blood oxygenation and blood volume in the human brain. In this study, fNIRS was used in combination with complex network theory to extract the attribute features of the functional brain networks underling deception in subjects exhibiting spontaneous or controlled behaviors...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112129/scaling-in-topological-properties-of-brain-networks
#11
Soibam Shyamchand Singh, Budhachandra Khundrakpam, Andrew T Reid, John D Lewis, Alan C Evans, Romana Ishrat, B Indrajit Sharma, R K Brojen Singh
The organization in brain networks shows highly modular features with weak inter-modular interaction. The topology of the networks involves emergence of modules and sub-modules at different levels of constitution governed by fractal laws that are signatures of self-organization in complex networks. The modular organization, in terms of modular mass, inter-modular, and intra-modular interaction, also obeys fractal nature. The parameters which characterize topological properties of brain networks follow one parameter scaling theory in all levels of network structure, which reveals the self-similar rules governing the network structure...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898639/t-helper-17-cells-may-drive-neuroprogression-in-major-depressive-disorder-proposal-of-an-integrative-model
#12
REVIEW
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Cristiano A Köhler, George Anderson, João Quevedo, Gilberto S Alves, Michael Berk, Brisa S Fernandes, André F Carvalho
The exact pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains elusive. The monoamine theory, which hypothesizes that MDD emerges as a result of dysfunctional serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways, has guided the therapy of this illness for several decades. More recently, the involvement of activated immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways and of decreased levels of neurotrophic factors has provided emerging insights regarding the pathophysiology of MDD, leading to integrated theories emphasizing the complex interplay of these mechanisms that could lead to neuroprogression...
May 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844804/unlocking-neural-complexity-with-a-robotic-key
#13
Peter Stratton, Michael Hasselmo, Michael Milford
Complex brains evolved in order to comprehend and interact with complex environments in the real world. Despite significant progress in our understanding of perceptual representations in the brain, our understanding of how the brain carries out higher level processing remains largely superficial. This disconnect is understandable, since the direct mapping of sensory inputs to perceptual states is readily observed, while mappings between (unknown) stages of processing and intermediate neural states is not. We argue that testing theories of higher level neural processing on robots in the real world offers a clear path forward, since (1) the complexity of the neural robotic controllers can be staged as necessary, avoiding the almost intractable complexity apparent in even the simplest current living nervous systems; (2) robotic controller states are fully observable, avoiding the enormous technical challenge of recording from complete intact brains; and (3) unlike computational modelling, the real world can stand for itself when using robots, avoiding the computational intractability of simulating the world at an arbitrary level of detail...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26771046/network-science-and-the-human-brain-using-graph-theory-to-understand-the-brain-and-one-of-its-hubs-the-amygdala-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
David Mears, Harvey B Pollard
Over the past 15 years, the emerging field of network science has revealed the key features of brain networks, which include small-world topology, the presence of highly connected hubs, and hierarchical modularity. The value of network studies of the brain is underscored by the range of network alterations that have been identified in neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, depression, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and many others. Here we briefly summarize the concepts of graph theory that are used to quantify network properties and describe common experimental approaches for analysis of brain networks of structural and functional connectivity...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26720924/complete-firing-rate-response-of-neurons-with-complex-intrinsic-dynamics
#15
Maximilian Puelma Touzel, Fred Wolf
The response of a neuronal population over a space of inputs depends on the intrinsic properties of its constituent neurons. Two main modes of single neuron dynamics-integration and resonance-have been distinguished. While resonator cell types exist in a variety of brain areas, few models incorporate this feature and fewer have investigated its effects. To understand better how a resonator's frequency preference emerges from its intrinsic dynamics and contributes to its local area's population firing rate dynamics, we analyze the dynamic gain of an analytically solvable two-degree of freedom neuron model...
December 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26648839/criticality-as-a-set-point-for-adaptive-behavior-in-neuromorphic-hardware
#16
Narayan Srinivasa, Nigel D Stepp, Jose Cruz-Albrecht
Neuromorphic hardware are designed by drawing inspiration from biology to overcome limitations of current computer architectures while forging the development of a new class of autonomous systems that can exhibit adaptive behaviors. Several designs in the recent past are capable of emulating large scale networks but avoid complexity in network dynamics by minimizing the number of dynamic variables that are supported and tunable in hardware. We believe that this is due to the lack of a clear understanding of how to design self-tuning complex systems...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26572571/-the-biology-of-learning
#17
Gerardo Campo-Cabal
The effort to relate mental and biological functioning has fluctuated between two doctrines: 1) an attempt to explain mental functioning as a collective property of the brain and 2) as one relatied to other mental processes associated with specific regions of the brain. The article reviews the main theories developed over the last 200 years: phrenology, the psuedo study of the brain, mass action, cellular connectionism and distributed processing among others. In addition, approaches have emerged in recent years that allows for an understanding of the biological determinants and individual differences in complex mental processes through what is called cognitive neuroscience...
2012: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26536598/mapping-individual-brain-networks-using-statistical-similarity-in-regional-morphology-from-mri
#18
Xiang-zhen Kong, Zhaoguo Liu, Lijie Huang, Xu Wang, Zetian Yang, Guangfu Zhou, Zonglei Zhen, Jia Liu
Representing brain morphology as a network has the advantage that the regional morphology of 'isolated' structures can be described statistically based on graph theory. However, very few studies have investigated brain morphology from the holistic perspective of complex networks, particularly in individual brains. We proposed a new network framework for individual brain morphology. Technically, in the new network, nodes are defined as regions based on a brain atlas, and edges are estimated using our newly-developed inter-regional relation measure based on regional morphological distributions...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26465529/self-organized-dynamical-complexity-in-human-wakefulness-and-sleep-different-critical-brain-activity-feedback-for-conscious-and-unconscious-states
#19
Paolo Allegrini, Paolo Paradisi, Danilo Menicucci, Marco Laurino, Andrea Piarulli, Angelo Gemignani
Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity...
September 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26444360/emergence-of-consciousness-and-qualia-from-a-complex-brain
#20
Jakob Korf
Qualia are private conscious experiences of which the associated feelings can be reported to other people. Whether qualia are amenable to scientific exploration has often been questioned, which is challenged by the present article. The following arguments are given: 1. the configuration of the brain changes continuously and irreversibly, because of genetic and environmental influences and interhuman communication; 2. qualia and consciousness are processes, rather than states; 3. private feelings, including those associated with qualia, should be positioned in the context of a personal brain as being developed during life; 4...
October 2014: Folia Medica
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