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Complexity theory emergence brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740366/human-consciousness-where-is-it-from-and-what-is-it-for
#1
REVIEW
Boris Kotchoubey
Consciousness is not a process in the brain but a kind of behavior that, of course, is controlled by the brain like any other behavior. Human consciousness emerges on the interface between three components of animal behavior: communication, play, and the use of tools. These three components interact on the basis of anticipatory behavioral control, which is common for all complex forms of animal life. All three do not exclusively distinguish our close relatives, i.e., primates, but are broadly presented among various species of mammals, birds, and even cephalopods; however, their particular combination in humans is unique...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729890/understanding-the-emergence-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders-with-network-neuroscience
#2
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Cedric Huchuan Xia, Theodore D Satterthwaite
Major neuropsychiatric disorders such as psychosis are increasingly acknowledged to be disorders of brain connectivity. Yet tools to map, model, predict, and change connectivity are difficult to develop, largely because of the complex, dynamic, and multivariate nature of interactions between brain regions. Network neuroscience (NN) provides a theoretical framework and mathematical toolset to address these difficulties. Building on areas of mathematics such as graph theory, NN in its simplest form summarizes neuroimaging data by treating brain regions as nodes in a graph and by treating interactions or connections between nodes as edges in the graph...
April 5, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455864/social-influence-on-positive-youth-development-a-developmental-neuroscience-perspective
#3
Eva H Telzer, Jorien van Hoorn, Christina R Rogers, Kathy T Do
Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory...
2018: Advances in Child Development and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378970/landau-ginzburg-theory-of-cortex-dynamics-scale-free-avalanches-emerge-at-the-edge-of-synchronization
#4
Serena di Santo, Pablo Villegas, Raffaella Burioni, Miguel A Muñoz
Understanding the origin, nature, and functional significance of complex patterns of neural activity, as recorded by diverse electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques, is a central challenge in neuroscience. Such patterns include collective oscillations emerging out of neural synchronization as well as highly heterogeneous outbursts of activity interspersed by periods of quiescence, called "neuronal avalanches." Much debate has been generated about the possible scale invariance or criticality of such avalanches and its relevance for brain function...
February 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347348/consciousness-as-a-global-property-of-brain-dynamic-activity
#5
D M Mateos, R Wennberg, R Guevara, J L Perez Velazquez
We seek general principles of the structure of the cellular collective activity associated with conscious awareness. Can we obtain evidence for features of the optimal brain organization that allows for adequate processing of stimuli and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness? Analyzing brain recordings in conscious and unconscious states, we followed initially the classic approach in physics when it comes to understanding collective behaviours of systems composed of a myriad of units: the assessment of the number of possible configurations (microstates) that the system can adopt, for which we use a global entropic measure associated with the number of connected brain regions...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304112/a-complex-network-approach-reveals-a-pivotal-substructure-of-genes-linked-to-schizophrenia
#6
Alfonso Monaco, Anna Monda, Nicola Amoroso, Alessandro Bertolino, Giuseppe Blasi, Pasquale Di Carlo, Marco Papalino, Giulio Pergola, Sabina Tangaro, Roberto Bellotti
Research on brain disorders with a strong genetic component and complex heritability, such as schizophrenia, has led to the development of brain transcriptomics. This field seeks to gain a deeper understanding of gene expression, a key factor in exploring further research issues. Our study focused on how genes are associated amongst each other. In this perspective, we have developed a novel data-driven strategy for characterizing genetic modules, i.e., clusters of strongly interacting genes. The aim was to uncover a pivotal community of genes linked to a target gene for schizophrenia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142759/forced-migrants-involved-in-setting-the-agenda-and-designing-research-to-reduce-impacts-of-complex-emergencies-combining-swarm-with-patient-and-public-involvement
#7
Julii Suzanne Brainard, Enana Al Assaf, Judith Omasete, Steve Leach, Charlotte C Hammer, Paul R Hunter
Plain English summary: The UK's National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response was asked to undertake research on how to reduce the impact of complex national/international emergencies on public health. How to focus the research and decide on priority topics was challenging, given the nature of complex events. Using a type of structured brain-storming, the researchers identified the ongoing UK, European and international migration crisis as both complex and worthy of deeper research...
2017: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033810/cooperation-and-competition-with-hyperscanning-methods-review-and-future-application-to-emotion-domain
#8
REVIEW
Michela Balconi, Maria E Vanutelli
Cooperation and competition, as two common and opposite examples of interpersonal dynamics, are thought to be reflected by different cognitive, neural, and behavioral patterns. According to the conventional approach, they have been explored by measuring subjects' reactions during individual performance or turn-based interactions in artificial settings, that don't allow on-line, ecological enactment of real-life social exchange. Considering the importance of these factors, and accounting for the complexity of such phenomena, the hyperscanning approach emerged as a multi-subject paradigm since it allows the simultaneous recording of the brain activity from multiple participants interacting...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883789/static-and-dynamic-measures-of-human-brain-connectivity-predict-complementary-aspects-of-human-cognitive-performance
#9
Aurora I Ramos-Nuñez, Simon Fischer-Baum, Randi C Martin, Qiuhai Yue, Fengdan Ye, Michael W Deem
In cognitive network neuroscience, the connectivity and community structure of the brain network is related to measures of cognitive performance, like attention and memory. Research in this emerging discipline has largely focused on two measures of connectivity-modularity and flexibility-which, for the most part, have been examined in isolation. The current project investigates the relationship between these two measures of connectivity and how they make separable contribution to predicting individual differences in performance on cognitive tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760864/reconfiguration-of-brain-network-architectures-between-resting-state-and-complexity-dependent-cognitive-reasoning
#10
Luke J Hearne, Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky, Jason B Mattingley
Our capacity for higher cognitive reasoning has a measurable limit. This limit is thought to arise from the brain's capacity to flexibly reconfigure interactions between spatially distributed networks. Recent work, however, has suggested that reconfigurations of task-related networks are modest when compared with intrinsic "resting-state" network architecture. Here we combined resting-state and task-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how flexible, task-specific reconfigurations associated with increasing reasoning demands are integrated within a stable intrinsic brain topology...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734836/criticality-in-the-brain-a-synthesis-of-neurobiology-models-and-cognition
#11
REVIEW
Luca Cocchi, Leonardo L Gollo, Andrew Zalesky, Michael Breakspear
Cognitive function requires the coordination of neural activity across many scales, from neurons and circuits to large-scale networks. As such, it is unlikely that an explanatory framework focused upon any single scale will yield a comprehensive theory of brain activity and cognitive function. Modelling and analysis methods for neuroscience should aim to accommodate multiscale phenomena. Emerging research now suggests that multi-scale processes in the brain arise from so-called critical phenomena that occur very broadly in the natural world...
November 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687740/organization-and-hierarchy-of-the-human-functional-brain-network-lead-to-a-chain-like-core
#12
Rossana Mastrandrea, Andrea Gabrielli, Fabrizio Piras, Gianfranco Spalletta, Guido Caldarelli, Tommaso Gili
The brain is a paradigmatic example of a complex system: its functionality emerges as a global property of local mesoscopic and microscopic interactions. Complex network theory allows to elicit the functional architecture of the brain in terms of links (correlations) between nodes (grey matter regions) and to extract information out of the noise. Here we present the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from forty healthy humans at rest for the investigation of the basal scaffold of the functional brain network organization...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559379/neural-entrainment-to-the-beat-the-missing-pulse-phenomenon
#13
Idan Tal, Edward W Large, Eshed Rabinovitch, Yi Wei, Charles E Schroeder, David Poeppel, Elana Zion Golumbic
Most humans have a near-automatic inclination to tap, clap, or move to the beat of music. The capacity to extract a periodic beat from a complex musical segment is remarkable, as it requires abstraction from the temporal structure of the stimulus. It has been suggested that nonlinear interactions in neural networks result in cortical oscillations at the beat frequency, and that such entrained oscillations give rise to the percept of a beat or a pulse. Here we tested this neural resonance theory using MEG recordings as female and male individuals listened to 30 s sequences of complex syncopated drumbeats designed so that they contain no net energy at the pulse frequency when measured using linear analysis...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491032/topological-filtering-of-dynamic-functional-brain-networks-unfolds-informative-chronnectomics-a-novel-data-driven-thresholding-scheme-based-on-orthogonal-minimal-spanning-trees-omsts
#14
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Christos Salis, Ioannis Tarnanas, David E Linden
The human brain is a large-scale system of functionally connected brain regions. This system can be modeled as a network, or graph, by dividing the brain into a set of regions, or "nodes," and quantifying the strength of the connections between nodes, or "edges," as the temporal correlation in their patterns of activity. Network analysis, a part of graph theory, provides a set of summary statistics that can be used to describe complex brain networks in a meaningful way. The large-scale organization of the brain has features of complex networks that can be quantified using network measures from graph theory...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445589/a-network-engineering-perspective-on-probing-and-perturbing-cognition-with-neurofeedback
#15
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Ankit N Khambhati
Network science and engineering provide a flexible and generalizable tool set to describe and manipulate complex systems characterized by heterogeneous interaction patterns among component parts. While classically applied to social systems, these tools have recently proven to be particularly useful in the study of the brain. In this review, we describe the nascent use of these tools to understand human cognition, and we discuss their utility in informing the meaningful and predictable perturbation of cognition in combination with the emerging capabilities of neurofeedback...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375650/emerging-frontiers-of-neuroengineering-a-network-science-of-brain-connectivity
#16
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Ankit N Khambhati, Scott T Grafton
Neuroengineering is faced with unique challenges in repairing or replacing complex neural systems that are composed of many interacting parts. These interactions form intricate patterns over large spatiotemporal scales and produce emergent behaviors that are difficult to predict from individual elements. Network science provides a particularly appropriate framework in which to study and intervene in such systems by treating neural elements (cells, volumes) as nodes in a graph and neural interactions (synapses, white matter tracts) as edges in that graph...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351973/model-of-brain-activation-predicts-the-neural-collective-influence-map-of-the-brain
#17
Flaviano Morone, Kevin Roth, Byungjoon Min, H Eugene Stanley, Hernán A Makse
Efficient complex systems have a modular structure, but modularity does not guarantee robustness, because efficiency also requires an ingenious interplay of the interacting modular components. The human brain is the elemental paradigm of an efficient robust modular system interconnected as a network of networks (NoN). Understanding the emergence of robustness in such modular architectures from the interconnections of its parts is a longstanding challenge that has concerned many scientists. Current models of dependencies in NoN inspired by the power grid express interactions among modules with fragile couplings that amplify even small shocks, thus preventing functionality...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343985/functional-connectivity-dynamically-evolves-on-multiple-time-scales-over-a-static-structural-connectome-models-and-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Joana Cabral, Morten L Kringelbach, Gustavo Deco
Over the last decade, we have observed a revolution in brain structural and functional Connectomics. On one hand, we have an ever-more detailed characterization of the brain's white matter structural connectome. On the other, we have a repertoire of consistent functional networks that form and dissipate over time during rest. Despite the evident spatial similarities between structural and functional connectivity, understanding how different time-evolving functional networks spontaneously emerge from a single structural network requires analyzing the problem from the perspective of complex network dynamics and dynamical system's theory...
March 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195556/how-neuroscience-can-inform-the-study-of-individual-differences-in-cognitive-abilities
#19
REVIEW
Dennis J McFarland
Theories of human mental abilities should be consistent with what is known in neuroscience. Currently, tests of human mental abilities are modeled by cognitive constructs such as attention, working memory, and speed of information processing. These constructs are in turn related to a single general ability. However, brains are very complex systems and whether most of the variability between the operations of different brains can be ascribed to a single factor is questionable. Research in neuroscience suggests that psychological processes such as perception, attention, decision, and executive control are emergent properties of interacting distributed networks...
May 24, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195025/the-depth-of-fields-managing-focus-in-the-epistemic-subcultures-of-mind-and-brain-science
#20
David Peterson
The 'psy' sciences emerged from the tangled roots of philosophy, physiology, biology and medicine, and these origins have produced heterogeneous fields. Scientists in these areas work in a complex, overlapping ecology of fields that results in the constant co-presence of dissonant theories, methods and research objects. This raises questions regarding how conceptual clarity is maintained. Using the optical metaphor 'depth of field', I show how researchers in all fields marginalize potential threats to routine scientific work by framing them as either too broad and imprecise or too narrow and technical...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
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