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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636942/extensive-proliferation-of-human-cancer-cells-with-ever-shorter-telomeres
#1
Rebecca A Dagg, Hilda A Pickett, Axel A Neumann, Christine E Napier, Jeremy D Henson, Erdahl T Teber, Jonathan W Arthur, C Patrick Reynolds, Jayne Murray, Michelle Haber, Alexander P Sobinoff, Loretta M S Lau, Roger R Reddel
Acquisition of replicative immortality is currently regarded as essential for malignant transformation. This is achieved by activating a telomere lengthening mechanism (TLM), either telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres, to counter normal telomere attrition. However, a substantial proportion of some cancer types, including glioblastomas, liposarcomas, retinoblastomas, and osteosarcomas, are reportedly TLM-negative. As serial samples of human tumors cannot usually be obtained to monitor telomere length changes, it has previously been impossible to determine whether tumors are truly TLM-deficient, there is a previously unrecognized TLM, or the assay results are false-negative...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628837/the-influence-of-essential-oils-from-xiang-fu-si-wu-decoction-on-its-non-volatile-components-and-its-application-for-pharmacokinetics-in-normal-rats
#2
Ying Pan, Dawei Qian, Pei Liu, Yang Zhang, Zhenhua Zhu, Li Zhang, Jin-Ao Duan
Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD) has been used to treat gynecology diseases in clinical practice for hundreds of years in China, especially for primary dysmenorrheal of QiZhi Type. In previous researches, both essential oils (XEO) and non-volatile components (NXEO) extracted from XFSWD showed significant pharmacological activities, but the influence of XEO on NXEO was unclear. The purpose of this paper was to develop a validated analytical method for simultaneous determination of ten components including Vanillic acid, Ferulic acid, Caffeic acid, Gallic acid, Paeoniflorin, Albiflorin, Tetrahydropalmatine, Protopine, Berberine and Tetrahydrocolumbamine, and to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of these components to illustrate the influences of XEO on NXEO in normal rats...
June 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625883/tcr-cd3-cd4-cd8-effector-t-cells-in-psoriasis
#3
D Brandt, M Sergon, S Abraham, K Mäbert, C M Hedrich
The autoimmune/inflammatory disorder psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and immune cell infiltration of the skin. TCR(+)CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) "double negative" (DN) T cells can derive from CD8(+) T cells through the down-regulation of CD8. The inhibitory molecule programmed death (PD-)1 is expressed on activated T cells and plays a role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. A subset of DN T cells, characterized by the expression of PD-1, has recently been demonstrated to be self-reactive...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619037/ifn-%C3%AE-1-with-th17-axis-cytokines-and-ifn-%C3%AE-define-different-subsets-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle
#4
Vilija Oke, Susanna Brauner, Anders Larsson, Johanna Gustafsson, Agneta Zickert, Iva Gunnarsson, Elisabet Svenungsson
BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-α is thought to have a pivotal role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and type III IFNs (IFN-λ) were recently also associated with SLE. In this study, we measured levels of IFN-α, IFN-λ1, and related cytokines, such as IL-17A, IL-23, and interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), in a Karolinska University Hospital cohort of patients with SLE and control subjects. The objective of the study was to investigate if cytokine measurements could identify different subsets of patients with active SLE and higher disease damage...
June 15, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612484/ph-sensing-properties-of-flexible-bias-free-graphene-microelectrodes-in-complex-fluids-from-phosphate-buffer-solution-to-human-serum
#5
Jinglei Ping, Jacquelyn E Blum, Ramya Vishnubhotla, Amey Vrudhula, Carl H Naylor, Zhaoli Gao, Jeffery G Saven, Alan T Charlie Johnson
Advances in techniques for monitoring pH in complex fluids can have a significant impact on analytical and biomedical applications. This study develops flexible graphene microelectrodes (GEs) for rapid (<5 s), very-low-power (femtowatt) detection of the pH of complex biofluids by measuring real-time Faradaic charge transfer between the GE and a solution at zero electrical bias. For an idealized sample of phosphate buffer solution (PBS), the Faradaic current is varied monotonically and systematically with the pH, with a resolution of ≈0...
June 14, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604385/differential-requirements-for-myeloid-leukemia-ifn-%C3%AE-conditioning-determine-graft-versus-leukemia-resistance-and-sensitivity
#6
Catherine Matte-Martone, Jinling Liu, Meng Zhou, Maria Chikina, Douglas R Green, John T Harty, Warren D Shlomchik
The graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is potent against chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CP-CML), but blast crisis CML (BC-CML) and acute myeloid leukemias (AML) are GVL resistant. To understand GVL resistance, we studied GVL against mouse models of CP-CML, BC-CML, and AML generated by the transduction of mouse BM with fusion cDNAs derived from human leukemias. Prior work has shown that CD4+ T cell-mediated GVL against CP-CML and BC-CML required intact leukemia MHCII; however, stem cells from both leukemias were MHCII negative...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602646/the-effects-of-glycine-on-auditory-mismatch-negativity-in-schizophrenia
#7
Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Sumie Leung, Patricia T Michie, Amity Green, Pradeep J Nathan, Paul Fitzgerald, Patrick Johnston, Nadia Solowij, Jayashri Kulkarni, Rodney J Croft
Glycine increases N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) mediated glutamatergic function. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a proposed biomarker of glutamate-induced improvements in clinical symptoms, however, the effect of glycine-mediated NMDAR activation on MMN in schizophrenia is not well understood. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute and 6-week chronic glycine administration on MMN in schizophrenia patients. MMN amplitude was compared at baseline between 22 patients (schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder; receiving stable antipsychotic medication; multi-centre recruitment) and 21 age- and gender-matched controls...
June 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601084/can-psychobiotics-intake-modulate-psychological-profile-and-body-composition-of-women-affected-by-normal-weight-obese-syndrome-and-obesity-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Antonino De Lorenzo, Micaela Costacurta, Giuseppe Merra, Paola Gualtieri, Giorgia Cioccoloni, Massimiliano Marchetti, Dimitrios Varvaras, Raffaella Docimo, Laura Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). METHODS: 60 women were enrolled...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590364/neurophysiological-effects-of-bitopertin-in-schizophrenia
#9
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Karen A Nolan, Michael L Epstein, Nayla Lehrfeld, Constance Shope, Eva Petkova, Daniel C Javitt
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Deficits in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function contribute to symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and are associated with impaired generation of event-related potential measures including auditory mismatch negativity. Parallel studies of the NMDAR agonist d-serine have suggested that sensitivity of these measures to glutamate-based interventions is related to symptomatic and cognitive response. Bitopertin is a selective inhibitor of glycine transport...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590362/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-oxytocin-or-galantamine-for-the-treatment-of-negative-symptoms-and-cognitive-impairments-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#10
Robert W Buchanan, Deanna L Kelly, Elaine Weiner, James M Gold, Gregory P Strauss, Maju M Koola, Robert P McMahon, William T Carpenter
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms and cognitive impairments tend to co-occur in people with schizophrenia. If their association with each other is due, in part, to shared pathophysiology, then this suggests that a single drug could potentially be effective for both domains. The current study was designed to examine this hypothesis. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Fifty-eight participants with either Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder entered into a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, randomized clinical trial of intranasal oxytocin and galantamine...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588726/pathogenic-mechanism-of-mir-21-in-autoimmune-lymphoid-hyperplasia-syndrome
#11
Yonglong Yan, Xinna Deng, Xiaoran Ning, Fang Li, Jingjing Cao
miR-21 plays an important role in immune responses and inflammatory diseases, but the mechanism of action of miR-21 in autoimmune lymphoid hyperplasia syndrome still remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanism of miR-21 in autoimmune disease, particularly, the autoimmune lymphoid hyperplasia syndrome. The pathology and immunity-related phenotypes of miR-21 transgenic mice, and the lymphocyte subsets were analyzed. The related T cell subsets and germinal center B (GCB) cells generated at the germinal center were detected with flow cytometry...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584140/safety-tolerability-systemic-exposure-and-metabolism-of-crs3123-a-methionyl-trna-synthetase-inhibitor-developed-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-a-phase-i-study
#12
Seema U Nayak, J McLeod Griffiss, Jeffrey Blumer, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Wesley Gray, Robin McKenzie, Robert A Jurao, Amanda T An, Melissa Le, Stacie J Bell, Urs A Ochsner, Thale C Jarvis, Nebojsa Janjic, Jonathan M Zenilman
Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic associated diarrhea and is a major public health concern. Current therapies disrupt the protective intestinal flora, do not reliably prevent recurrent infections and will be decreasingly effective should less susceptible strains emerge. CRS3123 is an oral agent that inhibits bacterial methionyl-tRNA synthetase, has potent activity against C. difficile and aerobic Gram positive bacteria, but little activity against Gram negative bacteria, including anaerobes. This first-in-human, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and systemic exposure of CRS3123 after a single oral dose in healthy adults...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581380/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-corticoviridae
#13
Hanna M Oksanen, Ictv Report Consortium
The Corticoviridae is a family of icosahedral, internal-membrane-containing viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes of approximately 10 kb. Only one species, Pseudoalteromonas virus PM2, has been recognized. Pseudoalteromonas virus PM2 infects Gram-negative bacteria and was isolated from seawater in 1968. Pseudoalteromonas virus PM2 is the first bacterial virus in which the presence of lipids in the virion has been demonstrated. Viral lipids are acquired selectively during virion assembly from the host cytoplasmic membrane...
May 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579851/transformation-of-follicular-lymphoma-to-a-high-grade-b-cell-lymphoma-with-myc-and-bcl2-translocations-and-overlapping-features-of-burkitt-lymphoma-and-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Alina M Bischin, Russell Dorer, David M Aboulafia
Most commonly, histologic transformation (HT) from follicular lymphoma (FL) manifests as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL, NOS). Less frequently, HT may result in a high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL) with MYC and B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (BCL2) and/or BCL6 gene rearrangements, also known as "double-hit" or "triple-hit" lymphomas. In the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms, the category B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable was eliminated due to its vague criteria and limiting diagnostic benefit...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577940/trends-practice-patterns-and-underuse-of-surgery-in-the-treatment-of-early-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
E Wakeam, T K Varghese, N B Leighl, M Giuliani, S R G Finlayson, G E Darling
BACKGROUND: Practice guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the American Society of Clinical Oncology recommend pathologic mediastinal staging and surgical resection for patients with clinically node-negative T1/T2 small cell lung cancer (SCLC), but the extent to which surgery is used is unknown. We sought to assess trends and practice patterns in the use of surgery for SCLC. METHODS: T1 or T2N0M0 SCLC cases were identified in the National Cancer Database (NCDB), 2004-2013...
July 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571672/targeting-cd147-for-t-to-nk-lineage-reprogramming-and-tumor-therapy
#16
Jie-Jie Geng, Juan Tang, Xiang-Min Yang, Ruo Chen, Yang Zhang, Kui Zhang, Jin-Lin Miao, Zhi-Nan Chen, Ping Zhu
CD147 is highly expressed on the surface of numerous tumor cells to promote invasion and metastasis. Targeting these cells with CD147-specific antibodies has been validated as an effective approach for lung and liver cancer therapy. In the immune system, CD147 is recognized as a co-stimulatory receptor and impacts the outcome of thymic selection. Using T cell-specific deletion, we showed here that in thymus CD147 is indispensable for the stable αβ T cell lineage commitment: loss of CD147 biases both multipotent DN (double negative) and fully committed DP (double positive) cells into innate NK-like lineages...
May 18, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570392/primary-cutaneous-small-cell-variant-of-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Cynthia M Magro, Shabnam Momtahen, Maija Kiuru
Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), similar to systemic ALCL, has as its histomorphologic hallmarks cohesive sheets of large lymphoid cells expressing CD30. Several morphologic variants of systemic ALCL have been reported, including the common (classic) type, lymphohistiocytic, and small cell variants. The small cell variant of ALCL is characterized by a predominant cytomorphology which is unexpected for ALCL, being in the context of a small- to medium-sized hyperchromatic atypical lymphocyte...
May 22, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562184/in-silico-probe-based-detection-of-citrus-viruses-in-ngs-data
#18
T L Jooste, M Visser, G Cook, J T Burger, H J Maree
The conservation of plant biosecurity relies on the rapid identification of pathogenic organisms, including viruses. With next-generation sequencing (NGS), it is possible to identify multiple viruses within a metagenomic sample. In this study, we explored the use of electronic probes (e-probes) for the simultaneous detection of 11 recognized citrus viruses. E-probes were designed and screened against raw sequencing data to minimize the bioinformatic processing time required. The e-probes were able to accurately detect their cognate viruses in simulated datasets, without any false negatives or positives...
May 30, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559769/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-a-nonsense-mutation-p-arg364ter-in-mre11a-gene-in-an-indian-patient-with-familial-breast-cancer
#19
Pratibha Sharma Bhai, Deepak Sharma, Renu Saxena, Ishwar C Verma
BACKGROUND: The MRN complex consisting of MRE11A-RAD50-NBS1 proteins is involved in the repair of double-strand breaks, and mutations in genes coding for the MRN complex have been identified in families with breast and ovarian cancer. CASE REPORT: In a BRCA-negative family with positive history of breast and endometrial cancer, next-generation sequencing-based panel testing identified a mutation in the MRE11A gene (NM_005590 c.1090C>T: p.Arg364Ter). This mutation results in a shorter mutated protein lacking 2 DNA binding domains (the GAR domain and the RAD50 binding site), abolishing the function of protein...
May 2017: Breast Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553210/evidence-for-a-priori-existence-of-attentional-bias-subgroups-in-emotional-processing-of-aversive-stimuli
#20
Casper H van Heck, Joukje M Oosterman, Kim M A de Kleijn, Marijtje L A Jongsma, Clementina M van Rijn
Little is known regarding inter-individual differences in attentional biases for pain-related information; more knowledge is crucial, since these biases have been associated with differences in pain processing as well as in predicting the risk of postoperative pain. The present study investigated EEG correlates of attentional bias patterns for pain-related information, with specific focus on avoidance- and vigilance-like behavior. Forty-one participants performed a dot-probe task, where neutral and pain-related words were used to create neutral, congruent, incongruent, and double (two pain-related words) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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