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Child interaction

Mayara Caroline Barbieri, Gabriela Van Der Zwaan Broekman, Renata Olzon Dionysio de Souza, Regina Aparecida Garcia de Lima, Monika Wernet, Giselle Dupas
This study aimed to understand the interactions established between social support networks and families that have children and adolescents with visual impairment, in two different cities in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. This was a qualitative, descriptive study with symbolic interactionism as a theoretical framework. A genogram, ecomap and semi-structured interviews with 18 families were used. The method adopted for data analysis was narrative analysis. Two themes were found: potentials derived from the relationship with the support network, and, counterpoints in the support network...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Manuela Merli, Concetta Torromeo, Michela Giusto, Gianna Iacovone, Oliviero Riggio, Paolo Emilio Puddu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy (CC) may interact with the clinical course of liver cirrhosis and can be implicated in the development of several complications in advanced liver disease. The best and easiest parameters which should define a condition of reduced cardiac reserve in cirrhosis are still controversial. The current study was aimed at selecting the cardiac parameters, derived by Doppler echocardiography, predictive of survival during follow-up. METHODS: The study included cirrhotic patients without cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases...
October 26, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
N J Fox, P Alldred
OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews the sociology of environment and health and makes the case for a postanthropocentric approach based on new materialist theory. This perspective fully incorporates humans and their health into 'the environment', and in place of human-centred concerns considers the forces that constrain or enhance environmental capacities. STUDY DESIGN: This is not an empirical study. The paper uses a hypothetical vignette concerning child health and air pollution to explore the new materialist model advocated in the paper...
October 22, 2016: Public Health
Josef Reznicek, Martina Ceckova, Lenka Tupova, Frantisek Staud
INTRODUCTION: All HIV positive pregnant women should receive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of the virus. It has recently been shown that fetal exposure of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and abacavir is decreased by placental ABC transporters p-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and BCRP (ABCG2). The aim of this study was to evaluate transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDI) between etravirine (TMC125), a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in cART, and the NRTIs and to assess the relevance of such DDI for transplacental pharmacokinetics of TDF and abacavir...
November 2016: Placenta
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti, Bryan Y Choi
BACKGROUND: Given growing numbers of older adults with mental and substance use disorders (MSUDs), this study examined the association between ten types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and lifetime MSUDs among those aged 50+. METHODS: Data (N = 14,738 for the 50+ age group) came from the 2012 to 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Using multivariable binary logistic regression analyses, we examined relationships between ten ACEs and six lifetime MSUDs (major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety, post-traumatic stress, alcohol use, drug use, and nicotine use disorders)...
October 26, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Kathryn S Carpentier, Nicolle M Esparo, Stephanie J Child, Adam P Geballe
During millions of years of coevolution with their hosts, cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have succeeded in adapting to overcome host-specific immune defenses, including the protein kinase R (PKR) pathway. Consequently, these adaptations may also contribute to the inability of CMVs to cross species barriers. Here, we provide evidence that the evolutionary arms race between the antiviral factor PKR and its CMV antagonist TRS1 has led to extensive differences in the species-specificity of primate CMV TRS1 proteins. Moreover, we identify a single residue in human PKR that when mutated to the amino acid present in African green monkey (Agm) PKR (F489S) is sufficient to confer resistance to HCMVTRS1...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Ruby Charak, Brianna M Byllesby, Michelle E Roley, Meredith A Claycomb, Tory A Durham, Jana Ross, Cherie Armour, Jon D Elhai
The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e...
October 22, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jessica S Dalley, Patricia R Creary, Tiffany Durzi, C Meghan McMurtry
Although there are existing guidelines for teaching and learning skillful client communication, there remains a need to integrate a developmental focus into veterinary medical curricula to prepare students for interactions with children who accompany their companion animals. The objectives of this Teaching Tip are (1) to describe the use of a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour as an innovative, applied practice method for teaching veterinary students about clinical communication with children, and (2) to provide accompanying resources to enable use of this method to teach clinical communication at other facilities...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Glen Nielsen, Erik Mygind, Mads Bølling, Camilla Roed Otte, Mikkel Bo Schneller, Jasper Schipperijn, Niels Ejbye-Ernst, Peter Bentsen
BACKGROUND: Education Outside the Classroom (EOTC) is a teaching method that aims to promote schoolchildren's learning, physical activity (PA), social relations, motivation, and well-being. EOTC activities are characterized by teachers using the local environment in their teaching, and involve innovative teaching methods, child-led approaches to problem-solving, experimentation, cooperation, PA, and play. EOTC has become common practice for many teachers in Scandinavia; however, only case studies have evaluated its impacts...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Virginia Lope, Nerea Fernández de Larrea, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Vicente Martín, Victor Moreno, Laura Costas, Federico Longo, José Juan Jiménez-Moleón, Javier Llorca, Nieves Ascunce, Rosana Peiró-Pérez, Jone M Altzibar, Adonina Tardón, Juan Alguacil, Carmen Navarro, Ángeles Sierra, Ana Belén Vega, Amaya Villafañe, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Manolis Kogevinas, Marina Pollán, Nuria Aragonés
BACKGROUND: Sex hormones play a role in gastric cancer and colorectal cancer etiology, however, epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. This study examines the influence of menstrual and reproductive factors over the risk of both tumors. METHODS: In this case-control study 128 women with gastric cancer and 1293 controls, as well as 562 female and colorectal cancer cases and 1605 controls were recruited in 9 and 11 Spanish provinces, respectively. Population controls were frequency matched to cases by age and province...
2016: PloS One
Andrés Palacio Chaverra
OBJECTIVE(S): Colombia has the third largest black population in the Americas after Brazil and the USA. In 2005 mortality rate under 5 in Colombia was 21.5 per 1000, with a reduction of 82% between 2005 and 1955. That rate is not in line with rates for Cuba (6.8), Chile (9.1) or Costa Rica (10.4). Here we aim to provide evidence that a further reduction of child mortality relates to the unspoken racial gap in a pioneering country in family planning and praised in the 2000 WHO report as having the world's fairest health care reform in terms of coverage and financial access...
October 24, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
Despite impaired mother-child interactions noted in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is no such information for their siblings. This study aimed to test whether the affected and unaffected siblings, like youth with ADHD, also encountered impaired mothering and mother-child relationships as compared to typically developing youth (TD). The sample consisted of 122 probands (107 males, 87.7 %), aged 10-16, with DSM-IV ADHD, 44 affected (26 males, 59.1 %) and 78 unaffected (28 males, 35...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Emily M Carrigan, Marie Coppola
Constructivist accounts of language acquisition maintain that the language learner aims to match a target provided by mature users. Communicative problem solving in the context of social interaction and matching a linguistic target or model are presented as primary mechanisms driving the language development process. However, research on the development of homesign gesture systems by deaf individuals who have no access to a linguistic model suggests that aspects of language can develop even when typical input is unavailable...
October 20, 2016: Cognition
Gem Mohan, Julius X Scott, Rizwana Nasrin, Latha Sneha, Rakesh Manohar, Lalitha Subramanian, Sowmiya Narayani, Aruna Rajendran
BACKGROUND: The first counseling or the exchange between the physician and the parent(s) of children with cancer is of vital importance as it sets the tone for the rest of the treatment. The goal of our study was to find out the preferences among parents of Indian children with cancer regarding communication and breaking of bad news when fully informed about the diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 60 parents who had been counseled within 3 months from diagnosis were interviewed with a prepared questionnaire directed at eliciting their experiences with the physicians who broke the bad news to them and also suggestions to improve the exchange...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
William M Jackson, Nicholas Davis, Stephen A Sands, Robert A Whittington, Lena S Sun
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? CONTEXT: The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Brittany L Zastrow, Michelle M Martel, Thomas A Widiger
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is conceptualized as a disorder of negative affect and low effortful control. Yet empirical tests of trait associations with ODD remain limited. The current study examined the relationship between temperament and personality traits and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.) ODD symptom domains and related impairment in a preschool-age sample. Participants were 109 children ages 3-6 (59% male), overrecruited for ODD from the community, and their primary caregivers (87% mothers)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Lisa J Meltzer
Research in the field of pediatric sleep has grown significantly in the past 25 years. However, because much remains to be learned about the complex and dynamic relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology, this special issue of the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology was created to provide an influx of cutting-edge research on this important topic. This introduction provides an overview of the special issue, with articles focusing on what different measurement approaches tells us about the intersection of sleep and developmental psychopathology; the overlap between interventions for sleep and anxiety; sleep as a potential mechanism for the development of social, emotional, and behavioral problems; and how population-based studies can be used to consider the interaction between sleep, well-being, and symptoms of psychopathology...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Kimberly D Neely, Kate Bunton, Brad H Story
Purpose: This study used a computational vocal tract model to investigate the relationship of diphthong duration and vocal tract movement magnitude to measures of the F2 trajectory in CV words. Method: Three words (bough, boy, and buy) were simulated on the basis of an adult female vocal tract model, in which the model parameters were estimated from audio recordings of a female talker. Model parameters were then modified to generate 35 simulations of each word corresponding to 7 different durations and 5 movement magnitude settings...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Nathan R Unger, Marylee V Worley, Jamie J Kisgen, Elizabeth M Sherman, Lindsey M Childs-Kean
Current antiretrovirals (ARVs) have demonstrated the ability to prolong the life of an HIV infected individual via suppression of the virus and subsequent restoration of immune function. Despite significant advancement, there remains an opportunity for improvement. One ARV that attempts to fill global HIV therapeutic needs by balancing convenience, safety, and efficacy is elvitegravir (EVG). Areas covered: Using MEDLINE/PubMed, a literature search was conducted for published articles on the safety and efficacy of EVG in the treatment of HIV infection...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Christian Kärgel, Claudia Massau, Simone Weiß, Martin Walter, Viola Borchardt, Tillmann H C Krueger, Gilian Tenbergen, Jonas Kneer, Matthias Wittfoth, Alexander Pohl, Hannah Gerwinn, Jorge Ponseti, Till Amelung, Klaus M Beier, Sebastian Mohnke, Henrik Walter, Boris Schiffer
Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. Using a go/nogo paradigm in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men matched for age and IQ: pedophiles with (N = 40) and without (N = 37) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (N = 40)...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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