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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532713/electroencephalography-after-a-single-unprovoked-seizure
#1
REVIEW
Derek B Debicki
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation of seizure disorders. In particular, EEG is used as an additional investigation for a single unprovoked seizure. Epileptiform abnormalities are related to seizure disorders and have been shown to predict recurrent unprovoked seizures (i.e., a clinical definition of epilepsy). Thus, the identification of epileptiform abnormalities after a single unprovoked seizure can inform treatment options. The current review addresses the relationship between EEG abnormalities and seizure recurrence...
April 25, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530229/deep-sleep-maintains-learning-efficiency-of-the-human-brain
#2
Sara Fattinger, Toon T de Beukelaar, Kathy L Ruddy, Carina Volk, Natalie C Heyse, Joshua A Herbst, Richard H R Hahnloser, Nicole Wenderoth, Reto Huber
It is hypothesized that deep sleep is essential for restoring the brain's capacity to learn efficiently, especially in regions heavily activated during the day. However, causal evidence in humans has been lacking due to the inability to sleep deprive one target area while keeping the natural sleep pattern intact. Here we introduce a novel approach to focally perturb deep sleep in motor cortex, and investigate the consequences on behavioural and neurophysiological markers of neuroplasticity arising from dedicated motor practice...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526620/evidence-for-cortical-structural-plasticity-in-humans-after-a-day-of-waking-and-sleep-deprivation
#3
Torbjørn Elvsåshagen, Nathalia Zak, Linn B Norbom, Per Ø Pedersen, Sophia H Quraishi, Atle Bjørnerud, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Ulrik F Malt, Inge R Groote, Lars T Westlye
Sleep is an evolutionarily conserved process required for human health and functioning. Insufficient sleep causes impairments across cognitive domains, and sleep deprivation can have rapid antidepressive effects in mood disorders. However, the neurobiological effects of waking and sleep are not well understood. Recently, animal studies indicated that waking and sleep are associated with substantial cortical structural plasticity. Here, we hypothesized that structural plasticity can be observed after a day of waking and sleep deprivation in the human cerebral cortex...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526252/determinants-of-sleep-behavior-in-adolescents-a-pilot-study
#4
Reut Gruber, Gail Somerville, Soukaina Paquin, Johanne Boursier
PURPOSE: To identify determinants of sleep behavior in adolescents of middle to high socioeconomic status. METHODS: Eighteen students (9 boys, 9 girls) with a mean age of 14.9±1.5years were interviewed using a standardized script inspired by the theory of planned behavior. Interviews were audio-recorded and anonymously transcribed verbatim. In addition, participants completed a survey assessing demographic and health characteristics and their sleep duration was measured using actigraphy...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523718/does-sleep-disturbance-affect-the-amyloid-clearance-mechanisms-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Burak Yulug, Lutfu Hanoglu, Ertugrul Kilic
Sleep is one of the important factors that play a key role in AD pathogenesis. However, it is still unclear whether poor quality sleep may overlap with sleep disturbances in the underlying dysfunctional mechanisms of amyloid beta (Aβ) clearance metabolism. Here, we aimed to evaluate the current evidence on the role of sleep deprivation in amyloid beta (Aβ) clearance metabolism. To that end, we discussed possible mechanisms underlying the bidirectional interaction between the sleep deprivation and amyloid beta (Aβ) clearance pathways...
May 18, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516391/denial-of-a-sleep-deprivation-message-situational-and-dispositional-influences-on-message-rejection
#6
Suzanne C Thompson, Haley W Marber, Laeesha N Cornejo, Bryn M Launer, Kimberly Ona Ayala
Two studies investigated situational and dispositional influences on rejection of a sleep deprivation warning message for young adults. The hassle of protection (Study 1) and the self-relevance of the problem (Study 2) were manipulated; the disposition to use denial (threat orientation) for warning messages was measured. In both studies, it was found that both dispositional denial and the situational manipulation (more protection-hassle or self-relevance) showed at least one denial effect by reducing perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, or credibility...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515838/passion-for-academics-and-problematic-health-behaviors
#7
Alexander T Bureau, Selen Razon, Bryan K Saville, Umit Tokac, Lawrence W Judge
According to the Dualistic Model of Passion (39), passion entails valuing, liking, and spending time on an activity. The Dualistic Model also posits two types of passion for activities: harmonious passion (individual voluntarily engages in the activity) and obsessive passion (individual is compelled to engage in the activity). The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible links between college students' passion for academic activities and problematic health behaviors including smoking, excessive drinking, exercise addiction, disordered eating, and sleepiness, which is a possible indicator of sleep deprivation...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515433/the-sleep-deprived-human-brain
#8
REVIEW
Adam J Krause, Eti Ben Simon, Bryce A Mander, Stephanie M Greer, Jared M Saletin, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Matthew P Walker
How does a lack of sleep affect our brains? In contrast to the benefits of sleep, frameworks exploring the impact of sleep loss are relatively lacking. Importantly, the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) do not simply reflect the absence of sleep and the benefits attributed to it; rather, they reflect the consequences of several additional factors, including extended wakefulness. With a focus on neuroimaging studies, we review the consequences of SD on attention and working memory, positive and negative emotion, and hippocampal learning...
May 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512397/leukocyte-expression-of-type-1-and-type-2-purinergic-receptors-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-during-total-sleep-deprivation-and-or-sleep-extension-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Mounir Chennaoui, Pierrick J Arnal, Catherine Drogou, Damien Leger, Fabien Sauvet, Danielle Gomez-Merino
The purinergic type P1 (adenosine A1 and A2A) receptors and the type P2 (X7) receptor have been suggested to mediate physiological effects of adenosine and adenosine triphosphate on sleep. We aimed to determine gene expression of A1R (receptor), A2AR, and P2RX7 in leukocytes of healthy subjects during total sleep deprivation followed by sleep recovery. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were also determined as they have been characterized as sleep regulatory substances, via P2RX7 activation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511919/the-debate-treatment-after-the-first-seizure-the-pro
#10
REVIEW
David G Olmes, Hajo M Hamer
According to current diagnosis criteria, first seizures constitute beginning epilepsy when they carry recurrence risks of ≥60% over the next 10 years. This is frequently the case and warrants AED treatment. Evidence argues against deferring treatment when provoking factors such as sleep deprivation are reported. There are several characteristics of first seizures which markedly increase recurrence risk but not clearly beyond 60%. This includes status epilepticus or seizure flurries at first manifestation or focal semiology indicating focal epilepsy...
May 4, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511822/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-and-the-dermatology-patient
#11
Madhulika A Gupta, Patricia Jarosz, Aditya K Gupta
Dermatologic symptoms can be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in several situations: (1) as features of some core PTSD symptoms, such as intrusion symptoms manifesting as cutaneous sensory flashbacks, as autonomic arousal manifesting as night sweats and idiopathic urticaria, and as dissociation manifesting as numbness and dermatitis artefacta; (2) the cutaneous psychosomatic effects of emotional and physical neglect and sexual abuse (eg, infantile eczema, cutaneous self-injury, and body-focused repetitive behaviors such as trichotillomania and skin picking disorder) and eating disorders, which can have dermatologic effects; (3) the direct effect of physical or sexual abuse or catastrophic life events (eg, earthquakes) on the skin; and (4) as a result of significant alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympatho-adrenal medullary axes, which can affect neuroendocrine and immune functions, and can lead to exacerbations of stress-reactive inflammatory dermatoses such as psoriasis, chronic urticaria, and atopic dermatitis...
May 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511588/an-evening-milk-drink-can-affect-word-recall-in-indonesian-children-with-decreased-sleep-efficiency-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Rini Sekartini, Dian Novita Chandra, Tiana Arsianti, Saptawati Bardosono, Tjhin Wiguna, Anne Schaafsma
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep is important for memory consolidation in children. This study intended to find out whether an evening milk-based drink could influence sleep efficiency and memory recall in a group of Indonesian children (5-6 years old) with sleep deprivation. METHODS: Children were randomly allocated to one of three interventions: Reference product, satiety-stimulating product, and a relaxing product. The intervention lasted for 6 weeks and children consumed two servings per day of each 200 ml, the serving in the morning being the same for all children...
May 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506620/bombesin-administration-impairs-memory-and-does-not-reverse-memory-deficit-caused-by-sleep-deprivation
#13
L B T Ferreira, S L B Oliveira, J Raya, L A Esumi, D C Hipolide
Sleep deprivation impairs performance in emotional memory tasks, however this effect on memory is not completely understood. Possible mechanisms may involve an alteration in neurotransmission systems, as shown by the fact that many drugs that modulate neural pathways can prevent memory impairment by sleep loss. Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that emerged as a regulatory molecule of emotional memory through the modulation of other neurotransmission systems. Thus, the present study addressed the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of bombesin (BB) (2...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503525/study-on-emotion-by-rest-time-in-mice-with-repetitive-sleep-deprivation
#14
Yun-Hee Sung
Sleep deprivation (SD) inhibits normal biorhythms, causing physical and mental problems. To solve the problems caused by SD, fundamental measures are needed. I investigated change of recovery by rest time in psychological aspect after repetitive SD. The mice were divided into four groups: control 24-hr rest after 24-hr SD group, 48-hr rest after 24-hr SD group, and 72-hr rest after 24-hr SD group (n=20 in each group). I carried out SD in the water cage included multiple platforms. Repetitive SD executes for 36 days...
April 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502838/sleep-quality-and-duration-are-associated-with-performance-in-maximal-incremental-test
#15
B M Antunes, E Z Campos, S S Parmezzani, R V Santos, E Franchini, F S Lira
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Inadequate sleep patterns may be considered a trigger to development of several metabolic diseases. Additionally, sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality can negatively impact performance in exercise training. However, the impact of sleep duration and sleep quality on performance during incremental maximal test performed by healthy men is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyze the association between sleep pattern (duration and quality) and performance during maximal incremental test in healthy male individuals...
May 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502597/determining-resident-sleep-during-and-after-call-with-commercial-sleep-monitoring-devices
#16
Duncan R Morhardt, Amy Luckenbaugh, Cathy Goldstein, Gary J Faerber
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that CAMDs are practical for monitoring resident sleep while on call. Studies that have directly monitored resident sleep are limited, likely due to both cost and difficulty in study interpretation. The advent of wearable commercial activity monitoring devices (CAMDs) that estimate sleep presents the opportunity to more readily evaluate resident sleep in physically active settings and "home call," an coverage arrangement familiar to urology programs. METHODS: Twelve urology residents were outfitted with Fitbit® Flex devices during "home call" for a total of 57 (of 64, or 89%) call/post-call night pairs...
May 10, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502410/performance-awareness-predicting-cognitive-performance-during-simulated-shiftwork-using-chronobiological-measures
#17
Drew M Morris, June J Pilcher, Joseph B Mulvihill, Melissa A Vander Wood
Physiological tracers of circadian rhythms and a performance awareness index were examined as predictors of cognitive performance during two sleep deprivation conditions common to occupational shiftwork. Study 1: Thirty-three sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated nightshift. Study 2: Thirty-two partially sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated dayshift. A standardized logic test was used to measure cognitive performance. Body temperature and heart rate were measured as chronobiological indices of endogenous circadian rhythms...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501499/sleep-in-vertebrate-and-invertebrate-animals-and-insights-into-the-function-and-evolution-of-sleep
#18
REVIEW
Shinichi Miyazaki, Chih-Yao Liu, Yu Hayashi
Many mammalian species, including humans, spend a substantial fraction of their life sleeping. Sleep deprivation in rats ultimately leads to death, indicating the essential role of sleep. Exactly why sleep is so essential, however, remains largely unknown. From an evolutionary point of view, almost all animal species that have been investigated exhibit sleep or sleep-like states, suggesting that sleep may benefit survival. In certain mammalian and avian species, sleep can be further divided into at least two stages, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM sleep...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493899/distinct-behavioral-and-brain-changes-after-different-durations-of-the-modified-multiple-platform-method-on-rats-an-animal-model-of-central-fatigue
#19
Chenxia Han, Feng Li, Jie Ma, Yan Liu, Weihong Li, Yingqiu Mao, Yuehan Song, Siyuan Guo, Jing Liu
The modified multiple platform method (MMPM) is a classical sleep deprivation model. It has been widely used in behavioral and brain research, due to its effects on physical and mental functions. However, different MMPM protocols can promote distinct effects in rats. Although the MMPM has been proved to induce central fatigue, the effects of different durations of subjection to the MMPM remain undetermined. This study aims to investigate the changes in behavior, N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor 1 (NR1) and 2A (NR2A), as well as the ultrastructural alteration in the hippocampus after different MMPM modelling, to compare the central fatigue effect induced by dynamic MMPM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491027/post-learning-sleep-transiently-boosts-context-specific-operant-extinction-memory
#20
Margarita Borquez, María P Contreras, Ennio Vivaldi, Jan Born, Marion Inostroza
Operant extinction is learning to supress a previously rewarded behavior. It is known to be strongly associated with the specific context in which it was acquired, which limits the therapeutic use of operant extinction in behavioral treatments, e.g., of addiction. We examined whether sleep influences contextual memory of operant extinction over time, using two different recall tests (Recent and Remote). Rats were trained in an operant conditioning task (lever press) in context A, then underwent extinction training in context B, followed by a 3-h retention period that contained either spontaneous morning sleep, morning sleep deprivation, or spontaneous evening wakefulness...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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