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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145494/global-analysis-of-gene-expression-mediated-by-ox1-orexin-receptor-signaling-in-a-hypothalamic-cell-line
#1
Eric Koesema, Thomas Kodadek
The orexins and their cognate G-protein coupled receptors have been widely studied due to their associations with various behaviors and cellular processes. However, the detailed downstream signaling cascades that mediate these effects are not completely understood. We report the generation of a neuronal model cell line that stably expresses the OX1 orexin receptor (OX1) and an RNA-Seq analysis of changes in gene expression seen upon receptor activation. Upon treatment with orexin, several families of related transcription factors are transcriptionally regulated, including the early growth response genes (Egr), the Kruppel-like factors (Klf), and the Nr4a subgroup of nuclear hormone receptors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141671/inhibiting-the-microglia-activation-improves-the-spatial-memory-and-adult-neurogenesis-in-rat-hippocampus-during-48%C3%A2-h-of-sleep-deprivation
#2
Meetu Wadhwa, Amit Prabhakar, Koushik Ray, Koustav Roy, Punita Kumari, Prabhash Kumar Jha, Krishna Kishore, Sanjeev Kumar, Usha Panjwani
BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to cognitive impairment. Neuroinflammation could be a significant contributing factor in the same. An increase in regional brain pro-inflammatory cytokines induces cognitive deficits, however, the magnitude of the effect under SD is not apparent. It is plausible that microglia activation could be involved in the SD-induced cognitive impairment by modulation of neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and brain-derived neuronal factor (BDNF) level...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132973/mutual-influence-of-sleep-and-circadian-clocks-on-physiology-and-cognition
#3
REVIEW
Isabel Heyde, Jana-Thabea Kiehn, Henrik Oster
The 24-hour sleep-wake cycle is one of the most prominent outputs of the circadian clock system. At the same time, changes in sleep-wake behavior feedback on behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms, thus altering the coordination of the body's clock network. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption have similar physiological endpoints including metabolic, cognitive, and immunologic impairments. This raises the question to which extent these phenomena are causally linked. In this review, we summarize different physiologic outcomes of sleep deprivation and mistimed sleep and discuss the experimental evidence for a mediating role of the circadian clock machinery in this context...
November 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129126/chronic-circadian-misalignment-without-circadian-arrhythmicity-or-sleep-deprivation-does-not-impair-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#4
Phan Q Duy, Samer Hattar
Artificial light in modern society has led to the ubiquity of light exposure at night as individuals work night shifts and use light-emitting electronic devices before bedtime. These aberrant light conditions have detrimental consequences on cognitive and mental health, compelling the need to understand the mechanisms by which light affects brain functions. Although it was believed that aberrant light impairs health by first disrupting circadian rhythms and sleep, we showed that chronic exposure to a light cycle termed T7 (3...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128393/rem-sleep-deprivation-and-dopaminergic-d2-receptors-modulation-increase-recognition-memory-in-an-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Adriano D S Targa, Ana Carolina D Noseda, Lais S Rodrigues, Mariana F Aurich, Marcelo M S Lima
Cognitive impairment is an important non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuronal death in nigrostriatal pathway is the main factor for motor symptoms and recent studies indicate a possible influence in non-motor symptoms as well. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) and basal ganglia are closely related anatomically and functionally and, since they are affected by neurodegeneration in PD, they might be involved in recognition memory. To investigate this, we promoted an ibotenic acid lesion within the PPT or a rotenone lesion within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of Wistar rats, followed by 24h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD)...
November 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109678/identification-of-genes-that-maintain-behavioral-and-structural-plasticity-during-sleep-loss
#6
Laurent Seugnet, Stephane Dissel, Matthew Thimgan, Lijuan Cao, Paul J Shaw
Although patients with primary insomnia experience sleep disruption, they are able to maintain normal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. This observation suggests that insomnia may be a condition where predisposing factors simultaneously increase the risk for insomnia and also mitigate against the deleterious consequences of waking. To gain insight into processes that might regulate sleep and buffer neuronal circuits during sleep loss, we manipulated three genes, fat facet (faf), highwire (hiw) and the GABA receptor Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl), that were differentially modulated in a Drosophila model of insomnia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109237/sleep-deprivation-promotes-habitual-control-over-goal-directed-control-behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence
#7
Jie Chen, Jie Liang, Xiao Lin, Yang Zhang, Yan Zhang, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Sleep is one of the most fundamental processes of life, playing an important role in the regulation of brain function. The long-term lack of sleep can cause memory impairments, declines in learning ability, and executive dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation on instrumental learning behavior, particularly goal-directed and habitual actions in humans, and investigated the underlying neural mechanisms. Healthy college students of either gender were enrolled and randomly divided into sleep deprivation group and sleep control group...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109016/modifiable-predictors-of-insufficient-sleep-durations-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-youth-in-the-compass-study
#8
Karen A Patte, Wei Qian, Scott T Leatherdale
The purpose of the current study was to simultaneously examine commonly proposed risk and protective factors for sleep deprivation over time among a large cohort of Ontario and Alberta secondary school students. Using 4-year linked longitudinal data from youth in years 1 through 4 (Y1[2012/2013], Y2[2013/2014], Y3[2014/2015], Y4[2015/2016]) of the COMPASS study (n=26,205), the likelihood of students meeting contemporary sleep recommendations was tested based on their self-reported substance use, bullying victimization, physical activity, and homework and screen time...
November 9, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106402/selective-neuronal-lapses-precede-human-cognitive-lapses-following-sleep-deprivation
#9
Yuval Nir, Thomas Andrillon, Amit Marmelshtein, Nanthia Suthana, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi, Itzhak Fried
Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
November 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106308/sleep-quality-and-methylation-status-of-core-circadian-rhythm-genes-among-nurses-and-midwives
#10
Agnieszka Bukowska-Damska, Edyta Reszka, Pawel Kaluzny, Edyta Wieczorek, Monika Przybek, Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Beata Peplonska
ABSTARCT Poor sleep quality or sleep restriction is associated with sleepiness and concentration problems. Moreover, chronic sleep restriction may affect metabolism, hormone secretion patterns and inflammatory responses. Limited recent reports suggest a potential link between sleep deprivation and epigenetic effects such as changes in DNA methylation profiles. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential association between poor sleep quality or sleep duration and the levels of 5-methylcytosine in the promoter regions of PER1, PER2, PER3, BMAL1, CLOCK, CRY1 CRY2 and NPAS2 genes, taking into account rotating night work and chronotype as potential confounders or modifiers...
November 6, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097703/healthy-adults-display-long-term-trait-like-neurobehavioral-resilience-and-vulnerability-to-sleep-loss
#11
Laura E Dennis, Rachael J Wohl, Lauren A Selame, Namni Goel
Sleep loss produces well-characterized cognitive deficits, although there are large individual differences, with marked vulnerability or resilience among individuals. Such differences are stable with repeated exposures to acute total sleep deprivation (TSD) within a short-time interval (weeks). Whether such stability occurs with chronic sleep restriction (SR) and whether it endures across months to years in TSD, indicating a true trait, remains unknown. In 23 healthy adults, neurobehavioral vulnerability to TSD exposures, separated by 27-2,091 days (mean: 444 days; median: 210 days), showed trait-like stability in performance and subjective measures (82-95% across measures)...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095325/charcot-marie-tooth-disease-1x-simulating-paraparetic-guillain-barre-syndrome
#12
Dimitrios Parissis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Georgios Papadopoulos, Dimitrios Karacostas
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT 1X) is the second most common form of inherited demyelinating neuropathy. It is established that patients suffering from CMT 1X can have episodes of hemiparesis, paraparesis, quadriparesis, ataxia, aphasia, and dysarthria, which can be fully reversible, and 'trigger' factors for these episodes are usually febrile illness, high altitudes, hyperventilation, and physical activity. We describe a 22-year-old patient with a history of viral infection and sleep deprivation who presented to our department because of acute difficulty in walking and neurophysiological findings suggesting Guillain-Barre syndrome...
November 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094414/chronic-sleep-restriction-differentially-affects-implicit-biases-toward-food-among-men-and-women-preliminary-evidence
#13
Anna Alkozei, William D S Killgore, Ryan Smith, Natalie S Dailey, Sahil Bajaj, Adam C Raikes, Monika Haack
Chronic sleep restriction and obesity are two major public health concerns. This study investigated how chronic sleep restriction changes implicit attitudes towards low- and high-calorie foods. In a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design, 17 participants (eight females, nine males) underwent two laboratory testing sessions where they were either sleep-restricted for 3 weeks (i.e. underwent three weekly cycles of 5 nights of 4 h of sleep followed by 2 nights of 8 h of sleep opportunity) or received 3 weeks of control sleep (i...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079138/a-homer-1-gene-variant-influences-brain-structure-and-function-lithium-effects-on-white-matter-and-antidepressant-response-in-bipolar-disorder-a-multimodal-genetic-imaging-study
#14
Francesco Benedetti, Sara Poletti, Clara Locatelli, Elena Mazza, Cristina Lorenzi, Alice Vitali, Martina Riberto, Silvia Brioschi, Benedetta Vai, Irene Bollettini, Elisa Melloni, Veronica Aggio, Andrea Falini, Andrea De Bartolomeis, Cristina Colombo
BACKGROUND: The Homer family of postsynaptic scaffolding proteins plays a crucial role in glutamate-mediated synaptic plasticity, a phenotype associated with Bipolar Disorder (BD). Homer is a target for antidepressants and mood stabilizers. The AA risk genotype of the Homer rs7713917 A>G SNP has been associated with mood disorders and suicide, and in healthy humans with brain function. Despite the evidence linking Homer 1 gene and function to mood disorder, as well as its involvement in animal models of depression, no study has yet investigated the role of Homer in bipolar depression and treatment response...
October 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076400/the-cortisol-awakening-response-after-sleep-deprivation-is-the-cortisol-awakening-response-a-response-to-awakening-or-a-circadian-process
#15
Ivan Vargas, Nestor Lopez-Duran
This study tested whether the cortisol awakening response is dependent on the transition from sleep to awakening, or alternatively, a circadian-driven process that is independent of awakening. A total of 40 participants were randomly assigned to either a total sleep deprivation or a sleep condition. Salivary cortisol was also assessed. Participants in the sleep condition demonstrated a traditional cortisol awakening response, whereas participants in the total sleep deprivation condition showed no increases in morning cortisol...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074731/sleep-disturbance-in-family-caregivers-of-children-who-depend-on-medical-technology
#16
Krista Keilty, Eyal Cohen, Karen Spalding, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Robyn Stremler
OBJECTIVES: Family caregivers of children who depend on medical technology (CMT) provide highly skilled care up to 24 hours per day. Sleep disruption places family caregivers at risk for poor health and related outcomes that threaten their long-term caregiving capacity. Few studies exist that have measured sleep in family caregivers, and most have relied entirely on subjective measures. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, family caregivers of CMT (n=42) and caregivers of healthy children (n=43) were recruited...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073389/impact-of-extended-duty-hours-on-medical-trainees
#17
Pnina Weiss, Meir Kryger, Melissa Knauert
Many studies on resident physicians have demonstrated that extended work hours are associated with a negative impact on well-being, education, and patient care. However, the relationship between the work schedule and the degree of impairment remains unclear. In recent years, because of concerns for patient safety, national minimum standards for duty hours have been instituted (2003) and revised (2011). These changes were based on studies of the effects of sleep deprivation on human performance and specifically on the effect of extended shifts on resident performance...
December 2016: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073206/modeling-the-adenosine-system-as-a-modulator-of-cognitive-performance-and-sleep-patterns-during-sleep-restriction-and-recovery
#18
Andrew J K Phillips, Elizabeth B Klerman, James P Butler
Sleep loss causes profound cognitive impairments and increases the concentrations of adenosine and adenosine A1 receptors in specific regions of the brain. Time courses for performance impairment and recovery differ between acute and chronic sleep loss, but the physiological basis for these time courses is unknown. Adenosine has been implicated in pathways that generate sleepiness and cognitive impairments, but existing mathematical models of sleep and cognitive performance do not explicitly include adenosine...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072790/sleep-disturbance-in-men-receiving-androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer-the-role-of-hot-flashes-and-nocturia
#19
Brian D Gonzalez, Brent J Small, Mallory G Cases, Noelle L Williams, Mayer N Fishman, Paul B Jacobsen, Heather S L Jim
BACKGROUND: Patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are at risk of sleep disturbance; however, to the authors' knowledge, the mechanisms by which ADT may affect sleep are not well understood. The current study compared objective and subjective sleep disturbance in ADT recipients and controls and examined whether sleep disturbance in ADT recipients is attributable to the influence of ADT on hot flashes and nocturia. METHODS: Patients with prostate cancer were assessed before or within 1 month after the initiation of ADT as well as 6 months and 12 months later (78 patients)...
October 26, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072179/the-role-of-chronobiology-as-transdisciplinary-field-of-research-application-to-psychiatry
#20
Okan Çalıyurt
Chronobiology is a field that studies the effects of time on biological systems. Periodicity is of particular interest. The master biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus controls daily rhythms of core body temperature, rest-activity cycle, physiological and behavioral functions, psychomotor functions and mood in humans. The clock genes are involved in the generation of the circadian rhythms and the biological clock is synchronized to solar day by direct photic inputs. Various circadian rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in mood disorders such as unipolar depression, bipolar depression and seasonal affective disorder...
October 26, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
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