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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800148/for-better-or-for-worse-positive-and-negative-parental-influences-on-young-children-s-executive-function
#1
Claire Hughes, Rory T Devine
Despite rapidly growing research on parental influences on children's executive function (EF), the uniqueness and specificity of parental predictors and links between adult EF and parenting remain unexamined. This 13-month longitudinal study of 117 parent-child dyads (60 boys; Mage at Time 1 = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53) included detailed observational coding of parent-child interactions and assessed adult and child EF and child verbal ability (VA). Supporting a differentiated view of parental influence, negative parent-child interactions and parental scaffolding showed unique and specific associations with child EF, whereas the home learning environment and parental language measures showed global associations with children's EF and VA...
August 11, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762886/using-the-socio-ecological-model-to-frame-agricultural-safety-and-health-interventions
#2
Barbara C Lee, Casper Bendixsen, Amy K Liebman, Susan S Gallagher
The Socio-Ecological Model (SEM) is a conceptual framework depicting spheres of influence over human behavior that has been applied in public health settings for nearly five decades. Core principles of all variations of the SEM are the multiple influences over an individual's behaviors, the interactions of those influences, and the multi-level approaches that can be applied to interventions intended to modify behaviors. A project team modified the standard SEM to address interventions for protecting children from agricultural disease and injury...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761970/-feeding-eating-and-swallowing-disorders-in-infants-and-children-an-overview
#3
REVIEW
C Schwemmle, C Arens
Swallowing is a dynamic process that requires more than 30 muscles in the recruitment/coordination of the lips, tongue, palate, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. The eating and swallowing procedure is learned in sensitive or critical periods: when a certain degree of maturation has been achieved, the appropriate stimulus permits a certain milestone of development to occur. The swallowing procedure occurs in three main stages oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Therefore, swallowing disorders may present in any, some, or all of these stages in addition to feeding problems...
July 31, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759284/effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-reducing-anxiety-in-adults-and-children-with-asthma-a-systematic-review
#4
Eleni Pateraki, Paul Graham Morris
OBJECTIVE: Asthma and anxiety are known to interact, leading to exacerbations for both conditions. This systematic review summarised evidence regarding the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing anxiety for individuals with asthma, with results presented separately for adults and children. DATA SOURCES: PRISMA statement and CRD guidance was followed to conduct and report the current review. Three major electronic databases (Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and manual searches were used to find relevant published and unpublished research...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752796/lay-listener-classification-and-evaluation-of-typical-and-atypical-children-s-speech
#5
Melissa A Redford, Vsevolod Kapatsinski, Jolynn Cornell-Fabiano
Verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often also have atypical speech. In the context of the many challenges associated with ASD, do speech sound pattern differences really matter? The current study addressed this question. Structured spontaneous speech was elicited from 34 children: 17 with ASD, whose clinicians reported unusual speech prosody; and 17 typically-developing, age-matched controls. Multiword utterances were excerpted from each child's speech sample and presented to young adult listeners, who had no clinical training or experience...
July 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745264/shared-genetic-influences-do-not-explain-the-association-between-parent-offspring-relationship-quality-and-offspring-internalizing-problems-results-from-a-children-of-twins-study
#6
L J Hannigan, F V Rijsdijk, J M Ganiban, D Reiss, E L Spotts, J M Neiderhiser, P Lichtenstein, T A McAdams, T C Eley
BACKGROUND: Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence...
July 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740473/bonding-pictures-affective-ratings-are-specifically-associated-to-loneliness-but-not-to-empathy
#7
Heraldo D Silva, Rafaela R Campagnoli, Bruna Eugênia F Mota, Cássia Regina V Araújo, Roberta Sônia R Álvares, Izabela Mocaiber, Vanessa Rocha-Rego, Eliane Volchan, Gabriela G L Souza
Responding to pro-social cues plays an important adaptive role in humans. Our aims were (i) to create a catalog of bonding and matched-control pictures to compare the emotional reports of valence and arousal with the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures; (ii) to verify sex influence on the valence and arousal of bonding and matched-control pictures; (iii) to investigate if empathy and loneliness traits exert a specific influence on emotional reports for the bonding pictures. To provide a finer tool for social interaction studies, the present work defined two new sets of pictures consisting of "interacting dyads" (Bonding: N = 70) and matched controls "non-interacting dyads" (Controls: N = 70)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#8
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
July 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712831/maternal-prepregnancy-weight-and-children-s-behavioral-and-emotional-outcomes
#9
Julianna Deardorff, Louisa H Smith, Lucia Petito, Hyunju Kim, Barbara F Abrams
INTRODUCTION: This study investigated associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child behaviors at ages 9-11 years and examine interaction by race and gender. METHODS: The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Children and Young Adults surveys are U.S.-based, ongoing longitudinal studies, initiated in 1979 and 1986, respectively. Mothers (n=2,952) reported pregnancy and child (n=5,660) developmental information at multiple time points. Child total, internalizing, and externalizing problems at ages 9-11 years were assessed using the Behavior Problems Index (BPI), collected biennially until 2012...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674669/childhood-and-adult-socioeconomic-position-interact-to-predict-health-in-mid-life-in-a-cohort-of-british-women
#10
Daniel Nettle, Melissa Bateson
BACKGROUND: Low childhood socioeconomic position (cSEP) is associated with poorer adult health, even after adult socioeconomic position (aSEP) is adjusted for. However, whether cSEP and aSEP combine additively or non-additively in predicting adult health is less well studied. Some evidence suggests that the combination of low cSEP and low aSEP is associated with worse health than would be predicted from the sum of their individual effects. METHODS: Using data from female members of the British National Child Development Study cohort, we developed continuous quantitative measures of aSEP and cSEP, and used these to predict self-rated health at ages 23, 33, and 42...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673023/anemia-and-growth-retardation-associated-with-schistosoma-haematobium-infection-in-mali-a-possible-subtle-impact-of-a-neglected-tropical-disease
#11
Chalotte W Stecher, Moussa Sacko, Henry Madsen, Shona Wilson, Christian Wejse, Adama D Keita, Aly Landouré, Mamadou S Traoré, Per Kallestrup, Eskild Petersen, Birgitte Vennervald
Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate a possible association of Schistosoma haematobium with child growth development and describe a plausible schistosomiasis-related anemia in children and adults in a highly schistosomiasis endemic area of Mali. Methods: Urine, feces and blood samples from 399 participants of both sexes (2-40 years of age) were analyzed and supplemented by anthropometric measurements. Results: S...
April 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667568/family-communication-risk-perception-and-cancer-knowledge-of-young-adults-from-brca1-2-families-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Alison L Young, Phyllis N Butow, Janine Vetsch, Veronica F Quinn, Andrea F Patenaude, Katherine M Tucker, Claire E Wakefield
Understanding challenges in familial communication of cancer risk has informed genetic service delivery. Parent-child interactions have received considerable attention, but few studies focus on young adulthood experiences within BRCA1/2 families. Young adults are approaching, or at a life stage where awareness of hereditary cancer risk is vital for informed choice of risk management options. This review assesses family communication, risk perception and cancer knowledge held by 18-40 year old individuals who have a parent with a BRCA1/2 gene mutation or carry the gene mutation themselves...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653567/parental-health-and-psychosomatic-symptoms-in-preschool-children-a-cross-sectional-study-in-scania-sweden
#13
Marie Köhler, Maria Emmelin, Maria Rosvall
AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the association between parental self-rated health and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in preschool children. METHODS: A questionnaire, including questions about sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, lifestyle, parental and child health, was sent to parents of all 4-year-old children in Scania, Sweden. The response rate was 43.6%. The outcome was RAP and the main exposure was parental self-rated health (SRH). Covariates included sociodemographic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors...
June 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631023/the-influence-of-perceived-parenting-styles-on-socio-emotional-development-from-pre-puberty-into-puberty
#14
Min Yee Ong, Janna Eilander, Seang Mei Saw, Yuhuan Xie, Michael J Meaney, Birit F P Broekman
The relative impact of parenting on socio-emotional development of children has rarely been examined in a longitudinal context. This study examined the association between perceived parenting styles and socio-emotional functioning from childhood to adolescence. We hypothesized that optimal parenting associated with improvement in socio-emotional functioning from childhood into early adulthood, especially for those with more behavioral problems in childhood. Children between ages 7 and 9 years were recruited for the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM)...
June 19, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621480/analogy-and-abstraction
#15
Dedre Gentner, Christian Hoyos
A central question in human development is how young children gain knowledge so fast. We propose that analogical generalization drives much of this early learning and allows children to generate new abstractions from experience. In this paper, we review evidence for analogical generalization in both children and adults. We discuss how analogical processes interact with the child's changing knowledge base to predict the course of learning, from conservative to domain-general understanding. This line of research leads to challenges to existing assumptions about learning...
June 16, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589678/barriers-and-facilitators-to-young-children-s-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-a-systematic-review-and-synthesis-of-qualitative-literature
#16
REVIEW
K R Hesketh, R Lakshman, E M F van Sluijs
Positive activity behaviours (i.e. higher physical activity [PA]/lower sedentary behaviour [SB]) are beneficial from infancy, yet evidence suggests that young children (0- to 6-year-olds) are relatively inactive. To better understand the perceived influences on these behaviours and to aid intervention development, this paper systematically synthesizes the extensive qualitative literature regarding perceived barriers and facilitators to PA and SB in young children (0-6 years old). A search of eight electronic databases (July 2016) identified 43 papers for inclusion...
June 6, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572569/young-children-display-an-increase-in-prosocial-donating-in-response-to-an-upwards-shift-in-generosity-by-a-same-aged-peer
#17
Emily J E Messer, Vanessa Burgess, Michael Sinclair, Sarah Grant, Danielle Spencer, Nicola McGuigan
Adult humans frequently engage in the reciprocal exchange of resources with other individuals. However, despite the important role that reciprocity plays in maintaining co-operative exchange we know relatively little of when, and how, reciprocity develops. We first asked whether pairs of young children (M = 74 months) would engage in direct reciprocity in a 'prosocial choice test' where a donor could select either a higher, or a lower, value reward (1v 2) for a partner at no cost to themselves (1v 1). In a subsequent retest we asked, for the first time, whether young children increase their level of prosocial donating in response to an upwards shift in generosity from an initially selfish partner...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552100/health-anxiety-and-illness-behaviour-in-children-of-mothers-with-severe-health-anxiety
#18
Mette Viller Thorgaard
Excessive health anxiety, still designated as hypochondriasis in ICD-10, refers to worries and anxiety about harbouring serious illness. It is common in both primary and secondary health care with prevalence rates up to 9% and causes great suffering for the individual as well as high health care costs when untreated. Growing research suggests that health anxiety may originate in childhood, and studies have demonstrated that cognitive and behavioural features similar to those described for health anxiety in adults may be present...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543931/severe-asthma-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Andrew Bush, Louise Fleming, Sejal Saglani
Most children with asthma have their disease easily controlled if low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are regularly and correctly administered. If a child presents with asthma which is apparently resistant to therapy with high-dose ICS and other controllers, then they have problematic severe asthma. However, in light of the UK National Review of Asthma Deaths, definitions of severe asthma based solely on the levels of prescribed treatment are too narrow. A detailed assessment of all such children should be performed...
May 25, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530431/socioeconomic-status-and-parenting-during-adolescence-in-relation-to-ideal-cardiovascular-health-in-black-and-white-men
#20
Karen A Matthews, Jennifer M Boylan, Karen P Jakubowski, Jenny M Cundiff, Laisze Lee, Dustin A Pardini, J Richard Jennings
OBJECTIVE: American Heart Association (AHA) developed a new metric to evaluate ideal cardiovascular health based on optimal levels of 7 cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors. We evaluated the relationships of parenting characteristics and academic achievement in adolescence in relation to ideal cardiovascular health in midlife men. METHOD: We measured cardiovascular risk factors in 171 Black and 136 White men and their ideal cardiovascular health score was constructed based on AHA guidelines...
July 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
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