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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938173/human-infants-understanding-of-social-imitation-inferences-of-affiliation-from-third-party-observations
#1
Lindsey J Powell, Elizabeth S Spelke
Imitation is ubiquitous in positive social interactions. For adult and child observers, it also supports inferences about the participants in such interactions and their social relationships, but the origins of these inferences are obscure. Do infants attach social significance to this form of interaction? Here we test 4- to 5.5-month-old infants' interpretation of imitation, asking if the imitative interactions they observe support inferences of social affiliation, across 10 experimental conditions that varied the modality of the imitation (movement vs...
September 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925538/maternal-intelligence-quotient-iq-predicts-iq-and-language-in-very-preterm-children-at-age-5%C3%A2-years
#2
Rachel E Lean, Rachel A Paul, Christopher D Smyser, Cynthia E Rogers
BACKGROUND: Sociodemographic factors are linked to cognitive outcomes in children born very preterm (VPT; ≤30 weeks gestation). The influence of maternal intellectual ability, a heritable trait, is unknown. Also undetermined is the extent to which associations between maternal and child intellectual ability vary according to parenting behaviors that target cognitive stimulation in the home. METHODS: At age 5 years, 84 VPT and 38 demographically matched full-term (FT) children underwent neurodevelopmental assessment...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915382/oxytocin-modulates-human-communication-by-enhancing-cognitive-exploration
#3
Miriam de Boer, Idil Kokal, Mark Blokpoel, Rui Liu, Arjen Stolk, Karin Roelofs, Iris van Rooij, Ivan Toni
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide known to influence how humans share material resources. Here we explore whether oxytocin influences how we share knowledge. We focus on two distinguishing features of human communication, namely the ability to select communicative signals that disambiguate the many-to-many mappings that exist between a signal's form and meaning, and adjustments of those signals to the presumed cognitive characteristics of the addressee ("audience design"). Fifty-five males participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled experiment involving the intranasal administration of oxytocin...
September 8, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905440/child-fosterage-and-sex-biased-nutritional-outcomes-among-namibian-pastoralists
#4
Sean P Prall, Brooke A Scelza
OBJECTIVES: Across cultures, fosterage has been shown to impact child health. Contextual factors, such as the reason for fosterage and the relationship between foster parent and child, are known to magnify variance in nutritional outcomes for foster children. Another important, but less studied, factor is the role of gender. Sex-biases in physiology and cultural norms are both known to affect child nutrition, and we posit these effects might be magnified in the presence of fosterage. In this study, we investigate how sex interacts with fosterage to affect nutritional outcomes among Namibian pastoralists...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899191/mental-representation-in-the-thought-of-sidney-blatt-developmental-processes
#5
John S Auerbach, Diana Diamond
Mental representation was a central construct in Sidney Blatt's contributions to psychology and psychoanalysis. This brief review demonstrates that Blatt's understanding of representation was always informed by basic psychoanalytic concepts like the centrality of early caregiver-infant relationships and of unconscious mental processes. Although Blatt's earlier writings were informed by psychoanalytic ego psychology and Piagetian cognitive developmental psychology, they focused nonetheless on how an individual uses bodily and relational experiences to construct an object world; they also consistently presented object representations as having significant unconscious dimensions...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881221/social-anxiety-in-pre-adolescent-children-what-do-we-know-about-maintenance
#6
Brynjar Halldorsson, Cathy Creswell
The cognitive theory of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most widely accepted accounts of the maintenance of the disorder in adults, yet it remains unknown if, or to what extent, the same cognitive and behavioral maintenance mechanisms that occur in adult SAD also apply to SAD among pre-adolescent children. In contrast to the adult literature, current models of SAD in children mostly account for etiology and maintenance processes are given limited attention. Consequently, their clinical utility for the treatment of SAD in children may be limited...
September 1, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874106/an-opportunity-view-of-child-sexual-offending-investigating-nonpersuasion-and-circumstances-of-offending-through-criminological-lens
#7
Benoit Leclerc, Jean Proulx
The empirical evidence indicating that sexual offenders against children manipulate their victims to participate in sexual activities dominates the literature on sex offenders and their modus operandi. However, recent evidence suggests that a high proportion of these offenders do not try to persuade their victims for sexual contact in the first place by using coercion or manipulation but simply assault them when an opportunity arises. Using self-reported data from a sample of incarcerated adult sexual offenders against children, we investigate whether sexual offenses against children committed by the use of nonpersuasion are characterized by little planning and by offense features that are indicative of opportunistic offending...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868588/maternal-vitamin-d-and-offspring-trabecular-bone-score
#8
N K Hyde, S L Brennan-Olsen, J D Wark, S M Hosking, K L Holloway, J A Pasco
No studies have explored the relationship with maternal vitamin D (25(OH)D) in pregnancy and offspring trabecular bone score (TBS). Our data suggest that maternal 25(OH)D in early pregnancy, but not late, may be associated with offspring TBS in boys. These data act as hypothesis-generating findings for confirmation in larger, longer-term studies. INTRODUCTION: Trabecular bone score (TBS), a novel tool derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), reflects the microarchitecture of the vertebrae...
September 3, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861011/narrative-constructions-for-the-organization-of-self-experience-proof-of-concept-via-embodied-robotics
#9
Anne-Laure Mealier, Gregoire Pointeau, Solène Mirliaz, Kenji Ogawa, Mark Finlayson, Peter F Dominey
It has been proposed that starting from meaning that the child derives directly from shared experience with others, adult narrative enriches this meaning and its structure, providing causal links between unseen intentional states and actions. This would require a means for representing meaning from experience-a situation model-and a mechanism that allows information to be extracted from sentences and mapped onto the situation model that has been derived from experience, thus enriching that representation. We present a hypothesis and theory concerning how the language processing infrastructure for grammatical constructions can naturally be extended to narrative constructions to provide a mechanism for using language to enrich meaning derived from physical experience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838751/effects-of-a-parenting-program-among-women-who-began-childbearing-as-adolescents-and-young-adults
#10
Rose M C Kagawa, Julianna Deardorff, Armando García-Guerra, Heather A Knauer, Lourdes Schnaas, Lynnette M Neufeld, Lia C H Fernald
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine whether access to an at-scale, group-based parenting education program ("Educación Inicial") had differential effects on parenting behaviors and child cognitive development according to mother's age at the birth of her first child, with a focus on adolescent mothers in rural Mexico. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial (n = 728 households, n = 106 communities). We conducted intent-to-treat analyses and examined the interaction between treatment group and mother's age at first birth...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831672/update-on-mental-health-of-infants-and-children-of-parents-affected-with-mental-health-issues
#11
REVIEW
Gisèle Apter, Anne Bobin, Marie-Camille Genet, Maya Gratier, Emmanuel Devouche
This paper highlights the most recent publications, in the field of psychiatry, on offspring of patients with psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and then summarizes what we know about the progeny of adults with mood disorders, the most prevalent of parental disorders. Studies examining personality disorders and contextual factors such as stress and trauma are examined with a focus on the crucial question of development and attachment status in children. Findings converge to reveal that offspring of parents (generally mothers) with most major psychiatric disorders present a higher risk for all mental disorders, and a wide range of disorders are also found in children, adolescent, and finally adult offspring of mothers with mood and anxiety disorders...
August 23, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827895/the-drosophila-foraging-gene-human-orthologue-prkg1-predicts-individual-differences-in-the-effects-of-early-adversity-on-maternal-sensitivity
#12
H Moriah Sokolowski, Oscar E Vasquez, Eva Unternaehrer, Dustin J Sokolowski, Stephanie D Biergans, Leslie Atkinson, Andrea Gonzalez, Patricia P Silveira, Robert Levitan, Kieran J O'Donnell, Meir Steiner, James Kennedy, Michael J Meaney, Alison S Fleming, Marla B Sokolowski
There is variation in the extent to which childhood adverse experience affects adult individual differences in maternal behavior. Genetic variation in the animal foraging gene, which encodes a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, contributes to variation in the responses of adult fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to early life adversity and is also known to play a role in maternal behavior in social insects. Here we investigate genetic variation in the human foraging gene (PRKG1) as a predictor of individual differences in the effects of early adversity on maternal behavior in two cohorts...
April 2017: Cognitive Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821214/the-construction-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-questionnaire-for-online-sexual-solicitation-and-interaction-of-minors-with-adults
#13
Manuel Gámez-Guadix, Patricia De Santisteban, Miguel Ángel Alcazar
The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess the online sexual solicitation and interactions of minors with adults in order to document the extent of this problem. The questionnaire was constructed in four phases: (a) a review of the previous literature; (b) interviews with convicted online child-sex offenders; (c) a review of the questionnaire items by experts; and (d) a pilot study of the questionnaire administered to adolescents. The validation sample consisted of 2,731 minors (12-15 years old, 50...
August 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800148/for-better-or-for-worse-positive-and-negative-parental-influences-on-young-children-s-executive-function
#14
Claire Hughes, Rory T Devine
Despite rapidly growing research on parental influences on children's executive function (EF), the uniqueness and specificity of parental predictors and links between adult EF and parenting remain unexamined. This 13-month longitudinal study of 117 parent-child dyads (60 boys; Mage at Time 1 = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53) included detailed observational coding of parent-child interactions and assessed adult and child EF and child verbal ability (VA). Supporting a differentiated view of parental influence, negative parent-child interactions and parental scaffolding showed unique and specific associations with child EF, whereas the home learning environment and parental language measures showed global associations with children's EF and VA...
August 11, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762886/using-the-socio-ecological-model-to-frame-agricultural-safety-and-health-interventions
#15
Barbara C Lee, Casper Bendixsen, Amy K Liebman, Susan S Gallagher
The Socio-Ecological Model (SEM) is a conceptual framework depicting spheres of influence over human behavior that has been applied in public health settings for nearly five decades. Core principles of all variations of the SEM are the multiple influences over an individual's behaviors, the interactions of those influences, and the multilevel approaches that can be applied to interventions intended to modify behaviors. A project team modified the standard SEM to address interventions for protecting children from agricultural disease and injury...
2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761970/-feeding-eating-and-swallowing-disorders-in-infants-and-children-an-overview
#16
REVIEW
C Schwemmle, C Arens
Swallowing is a dynamic process that requires more than 30 muscles in the recruitment/coordination of the lips, tongue, palate, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. The eating and swallowing procedure is learned in sensitive or critical periods: when a certain degree of maturation has been achieved, the appropriate stimulus permits a certain milestone of development to occur. The swallowing procedure occurs in three main stages oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Therefore, swallowing disorders may present in any, some, or all of these stages in addition to feeding problems...
July 31, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759284/effectiveness-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-reducing-anxiety-in-adults-and-children-with-asthma-a-systematic-review
#17
Eleni Pateraki, Paul Graham Morris
OBJECTIVE: Asthma and anxiety are known to interact, leading to exacerbations for both conditions. This systematic review summarised evidence regarding the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing anxiety for individuals with asthma, with results presented separately for adults and children. DATA SOURCES: PRISMA statement and CRD guidance was followed to conduct and report the current review. Three major electronic databases (Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) and manual searches were used to find relevant published and unpublished research...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752796/lay-listener-classification-and-evaluation-of-typical-and-atypical-children-s-speech
#18
Melissa A Redford, Vsevolod Kapatsinski, Jolynn Cornell-Fabiano
Verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often also have atypical speech. In the context of the many challenges associated with ASD, do speech sound pattern differences really matter? The current study addressed this question. Structured spontaneous speech was elicited from 34 children: 17 with ASD, whose clinicians reported unusual speech prosody; and 17 typically-developing, age-matched controls. Multiword utterances were excerpted from each child's speech sample and presented to young adult listeners, who had no clinical training or experience...
July 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745264/shared-genetic-influences-do-not-explain-the-association-between-parent-offspring-relationship-quality-and-offspring-internalizing-problems-results-from-a-children-of-twins-study
#19
L J Hannigan, F V Rijsdijk, J M Ganiban, D Reiss, E L Spotts, J M Neiderhiser, P Lichtenstein, T A McAdams, T C Eley
BACKGROUND: Associations between parenting and child outcomes are often interpreted as reflecting causal, social influences. However, such associations may be confounded by genes common to children and their biological parents. To the extent that these shared genes influence behaviours in both generations, a passive genetic mechanism may explain links between them. Here we aim to quantify the relative importance of passive genetic v. social mechanisms in the intergenerational association between parent-offspring relationship quality and offspring internalizing problems in adolescence...
July 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740473/bonding-pictures-affective-ratings-are-specifically-associated-to-loneliness-but-not-to-empathy
#20
Heraldo D Silva, Rafaela R Campagnoli, Bruna Eugênia F Mota, Cássia Regina V Araújo, Roberta Sônia R Álvares, Izabela Mocaiber, Vanessa Rocha-Rego, Eliane Volchan, Gabriela G L Souza
Responding to pro-social cues plays an important adaptive role in humans. Our aims were (i) to create a catalog of bonding and matched-control pictures to compare the emotional reports of valence and arousal with the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures; (ii) to verify sex influence on the valence and arousal of bonding and matched-control pictures; (iii) to investigate if empathy and loneliness traits exert a specific influence on emotional reports for the bonding pictures. To provide a finer tool for social interaction studies, the present work defined two new sets of pictures consisting of "interacting dyads" (Bonding: N = 70) and matched controls "non-interacting dyads" (Controls: N = 70)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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