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Adult child interaction

Kimberly D Neely, Kate Bunton, Brad H Story
Purpose: This study used a computational vocal tract model to investigate the relationship of diphthong duration and vocal tract movement magnitude to measures of the F2 trajectory in CV words. Method: Three words (bough, boy, and buy) were simulated on the basis of an adult female vocal tract model, in which the model parameters were estimated from audio recordings of a female talker. Model parameters were then modified to generate 35 simulations of each word corresponding to 7 different durations and 5 movement magnitude settings...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Rebecca C Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Roland von Känel, J Richard Jennings, Nanette Santoro, Doug P Landsittel, Karen A Matthews
OBJECTIVES: A childhood history of abuse or neglect may be associated with elevated adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. No studies have examined associations between child abuse/neglect and subclinical CVD using a validated measure of abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that midlife women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect would have increased subclinical CVD beyond standard CVD risk factors. We tested moderation of associations by sleep, hot flashes, and race/ethnicity...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Lisa M Schneper, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Daniel A Notterman, Stephen J Suomi
OBJECTIVE: Child-rearing environments have been associated with morbidity in adult rhesus monkeys. We examine whether such links are also seen with leukocyte telomere length. METHODS: To determine telomere length in leukocytes, blood was collected from 11 adult female monkeys aged 7 to 10 years who had been exposed to different rearing environments between birth and 7 months. Four had been reared with their mothers in typical social groups composed of other female monkeys, their offspring, and 1 to 2 adult male monkeys...
October 19, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Joshua Sparrow
The infant mental health field can amplify its effects when it extends its purview beyond the dyad to the larger contexts in which infants and adult caregivers interact and develop over time. Within health, mental health, education, and other human service organizations, the quality of relationships is a critical variable in the individual-level outcomes that such organizations seek. The goals of this work and the means for accomplishing them are highly dependent on human qualities and interactions that are shaped by organizational processes...
October 19, 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
A Bion, T Cascales, S Dubedout, N Bodeau, J P Olives, J P Raynaud
INTRODUCTION: Interest in the study of early feeding disorders (FD) has steadily increased during recent decades. During this period, research described the importance of the transactional relationships and the complex interplay between caregiver and child over time. On the basis of the previous studies, our study tried to explore the associations between the characteristics of the parents and the temperamental characteristics of the infants with early FD. GOALS: A first aim of the present study was to show if parental perception of child temperament (including ability for arousal self-regulation) and parental characteristics (emotional and eating attitudes) are associated with early FD...
October 11, 2016: L'Encéphale
Susannah Freebody, Gustav Kuhn
Joint attention forms an essential part of language development and human interaction. Several previous studies have reported own-age biases in younger and older adults in gaze following. We investigated own-age biases in social attentional processes between adults and children by focusing on two aspects of the joint attention process, namely the extent to which people attend towards an individual's face, and the extent to which they fixate objects that are looked at by this person (i.e. gaze following). Participants viewed images that always contained a child and an adult who either looked towards each other or they each looked at an object located to their side...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Daniel S Schechter, Dominik A Moser, Virginie C Pointet, Tatjana Aue, Ludwig Stenz, Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino, Wafae Adouan, Aurélia Manini, Francesca Suardi, Marylene Vital, Ana Sancho Rossignol, Maria I Cordero, Molly Rothenberg, François Ansermet, Sandra Rusconi Serpa, Alexandre G Dayer
BACKGROUND: Methylation of the serotonin 3A receptor gene (HTR3A) has been linked to child maltreatment and adult psychopathology. The present study examined whether HTR3A methylation might be associated with mothers' lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV), IPV-related psychopathology, child disturbance of attachment, and maternal neural activity. METHODS: Number of maternal lifetime IPV exposures and measures of maternal psychopathology including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression and aggressive behavior (AgB), and a measure of child attachment disturbance known as "secure base distortion" (SBD) were assessed in a sample of 35 mothers and children aged 12-42 months...
October 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Shinya Fujikawa, Shuntaro Ando, Shinji Shimodera, Shinsuke Koike, Satoshi Usami, Rie Toriyama, Sho Kanata, Tsukasa Sasaki, Kiyoto Kasai, Yuji Okazaki, Atsushi Nishida
Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12)...
2016: PloS One
Ingrid Nylander, Aniruddha Todkar, Linnea Granholm, Maria Vrettou, Megha Bendre, Wout Boon, Henrik Andershed, Catherine Tuvblad, Kent W Nilsson, Erika Comasco
Alcohol misuse has been linked to dysregulation of stress, emotion, and reward brain circuitries. A candidate key mediator of this association is the FK506-binding protein (FKBP5), a negative regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor. The aim of the present study was to further understand the Fkbp5/FKBP5-related genetic underpinnings underlying the relationship between early life social relations and alcohol drinking. The effect of maternal separation and voluntary alcohol drinking on Fkbp5 expression was investigated in the brain of young adult rats, whereas the interaction effect of the functional FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1360780 genotype and parent-child relationship on problematic drinking was examined in young adult humans...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Philip Hazell, Titia Sprague, Joanne Sharpe
BACKGROUND: It is preferable that children and adolescents requiring in-patient care for mental health problems are managed in age-appropriate facilities. To achieve this, nine specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in-patient units have been commissioned in New South Wales (NSW) since 2002. AIMS: To examine trends in child and adolescent in-patient admissions since the opening of these CAMHS units. METHOD: Analysis of separation data for under 18-year-olds to CAMHS, adult mental health and paediatric units for the period 2002 to 2013 in NSW, comparing districts with and without specialist CAMHS units...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
Aloise de Codt, Pauline Monhonval, Xavier Bongaerts, Ikram Belkacemi, Juan Martin Tecco
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
E Cléro, L Marie, C Challeton-De Vathaire, D Laurier, A Rannou
BACKGROUND: At the request of French public authorities, the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety has assessed the radiological situation of a house built on uranium ore residues in Haute-Vienne and the health risks induced from exposure to radon for all occupants. Classified as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization, radon is a proven cause of lung cancer in case of regular inhalation over a long period, and the risk increases with cumulative exposure. METHODS: Radon exposure was reconstructed for various standard profiles of house occupancy...
September 2016: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Bogdan Ludusan, Alejandrina Cristia, Andrew Martin, Reiko Mazuka, Emmanuel Dupoux
This study explores the long-standing hypothesis that the acoustic cues to prosodic boundaries in infant-directed speech (IDS) make those boundaries easier to learn than those in adult-directed speech (ADS). Three cues (pause duration, nucleus duration, and pitch change) were investigated, by means of a systematic review of the literature, statistical analyses of a corpus of Japanese, and machine learning experiments. The review of previous work revealed that the effect of register on boundary cues is less well established than previously thought, and that results often vary across studies for certain cues...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Hara Karamanolaki, Areti C Spyropoulou, Aggeliki Iliadou, Eleni Vousoura, Stamatia Vondikaki, Nikos Pantazis, Grigoris Vaslamatzis
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of recalled traumatic experiences, perceived parental rearing styles, and family parameters on the occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) versus other personality disorders (other-PDs). A total of 88 adult outpatients with personality disorders completed the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, which measures perceptions regarding parental rearing. Results indicated that incidence of traumatic childhood experiences was higher among those in the BPD group compared to those in the other-PD group...
2016: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
Nathalie MacKinnon, Ian Colman
OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a leading cause of death for transition-aged youth (TAY), and yet few studies examine correlates of suicidal ideation specifically in this age demographic (age 18-24 years). The transition to adulthood is a unique context, marked by novel stressors (e.g., joining the workforce) and increased independence, which may influence risk factors for suicidal ideation. This study examined correlates of suicidal ideation in TAY and adults and contrasted profiles across age...
August 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
David C Schwebel, Anna Johnston, Jenni Rouse
OBJECTIVE: A large portion of child restraint systems (car seats) are installed incorrectly, especially when first-time parents install infant car seats. Expert instruction greatly improves the accuracy of car seat installation but is labor-intensive and difficult to obtain for many parents. This study was designed to evaluate efficacy of three ways of communicating instructions for proper car seat installation: phone conversation; HelpLightning, a mobile application (app) that offers virtual interactive presence permitting both verbal and interactive (telestration) visual communication; and the manufacturer's user manual...
August 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
D Doltani, A Imran, J Saunders, D Harmon
BACKGROUND: Patients may be accompanied to the pain clinic consultation and these accompanying persons are relevant in the communication process. AIMS: We sought to characterize if patients were accompanied and by whom to the pain clinic. We also wished to determine the accompanying persons influence on the doctor-patient interaction. This has not been studied previously in this clinical setting. METHODS: Local ethics committee approval followed by written informed consent was obtained...
August 26, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Susan E Gans, Vanessa Kahen Johnson
Emerging adult (EA) cortisol response during family interaction predicts change in EA anxious behavior during the transition to college (Johnson & Gans, in press). In the present study, we take an initial step toward integrating family systems research and physiology by including assessment of EA salivary cortisol collected during a triadic (mother-father-EA offspring) family interaction task. Emerging adults (N = 101) between the ages of 17 and 19 were assessed at 3 time points across their first college year: the summer before college, Fall and Spring semesters...
October 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Christine N Lippard, Katie L Riley, Kere Hughes-Belding
This study investigated using the Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO; Roggman, Cook, Innocenti, Norman, & Christiansen, 2013a) measure to assess teacher-child interactions experienced by individual toddlers within their childcare classrooms. Forty toddlers were observed, each during three 10-min cycles, and all their interactions with adults in the classroom were coded using the PICCOLO. Results, in terms of psychometric properties, indicate promise for using this measure to observe toddlers' individual experiences of teacher-child interactions in group settings...
September 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Vanessa Kahen Johnson, Susan E Gans
Emerging-adult cortisol response during family interaction predicts change in emerging-adult anxious behavior during the transition to college (Gans & Johnson, in press). In the present study, we take an additional step toward integrating family systems research and physiology by including assessment of parent physiology. We collect salivary cortisol from parents and emerging adults during triadic family interaction. Emerging adults (N = 101) between the ages of 17 and 19 years were assessed at 3 time points across their first college year: the summer before college and the Fall and Spring semesters...
October 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
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