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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303094/child-robot-interactions-for-second-language-tutoring-to-preschool-children
#1
Paul Vogt, Mirjam de Haas, Chiara de Jong, Peta Baxter, Emiel Krahmer
In this digital age social robots will increasingly be used for educational purposes, such as second language tutoring. In this perspective article, we propose a number of design features to develop a child-friendly social robot that can effectively support children in second language learning, and we discuss some technical challenges for developing these. The features we propose include choices to develop the robot such that it can act as a peer to motivate the child during second language learning and build trust at the same time, while still being more knowledgeable than the child and scaffolding that knowledge in adult-like manner...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295454/home-and-the-social-worlds-beyond-exploring-influences-in-the-lives-of-children-of-mothers-with-intellectual-disability
#2
S Collings, G Llewellyn, R Grace
BACKGROUND: Mothers with intellectual disability are likely to raise their children in socially disadvantaged circumstances, and many face social isolation; however, the impact of a potentially restricted home context on children's social worlds has not been examined. This study was conducted to explore influences in the social worlds of children of mothers with intellectual disability from a child's perspective. METHODS: Seven children aged 7 to 11 years took part in at least two semi-structured interviews over a year...
March 10, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273865/a-review-of-the-field-on-children-s-exposure-to-environmental-contaminants-a-risk-assessment-approach
#3
REVIEW
Alesia Ferguson, Rosalind Penney, Helena Solo-Gabriele
Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child's body are considered less advanced than those of adults, making them more susceptible to disease outcomes following even small doses. Children's unique activities of crawling and practicing increased hand-to-mouth ingestion also make them vulnerable to greater exposures by certain contaminants within specific environments...
March 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262605/impulsivity-as-a-moderator-of-the-associations-between-child-maltreatment-types-and-body-mass-index
#4
Shaquanna Brown, Tarrah B Mitchell, Paula J Fite, Marco Bortolato
Child maltreatment has emerged as an important risk factor for adult obesity (Danese & Tan, 2014; Hemmingsson et al., 2014). However, there is a need for research delineating the factors that play a role in this association. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated with both child maltreatment (Brodsky et al., 2001) and body mass index (BMI; Cortese et al., 2008; Thamotharan et al., 2013). Further, given previous research showing that adverse events interact with impulsivity to predict hazardous drinking behaviors (Fox et al...
March 2, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261792/parasympathetic-reactivity-and-disruptive-behavior-problems-in-young-children-during-interactions-with-their-mothers-and-other-adults-a-preliminary-investigation
#5
Christine E Cooper-Vince, Mariah DeSerisy, Danielle Cornacchio, Amanda Sanchez, Katie A McLaughlin, Jonathan S Comer
Parasympathetic nervous system influences on cardiac functions-commonly indexed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-are central to self-regulation. RSA suppression during challenging emotional and cognitive tasks is often associated with better emotional and behavioral functioning in preschoolers. However, the links between RSA suppression and child behavior across various challenging interpersonal contexts remains unclear. The present study experimentally evaluated the relationship between child RSA reactivity to adult (mother vs...
March 6, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261122/reference-as-an-interactive-achievement-sequential-and-longitudinal-analyses-of-labeling-interactions-in-shared-book-reading-and-free-play
#6
Vivien Heller, Katharina J Rohlfing
The present study examines how young children and their caregivers establish reference by jointly developing stable patterns of bodily, perceptual, and interactive coordination. Our longitudinal investigation focuses on two mother-child dyads engaged in picture-book reading and play. The dyads were videotaped at home once every 6 weeks while the children aged from 9 to 24 months. Inspired by conversation analysis and multimodal analysis, our developmental approach builds on the insight that the situated and embodied production of reference is fundamentally an interactive achievement...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244277/atypical-physiological-orienting-to-direct-gaze-in-low-functioning-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Terhi M Helminen, Jukka M Leppänen, Kai Eriksson, Arto Luoma, Jari K Hietanen, Anneli Kylliäinen
Reduced use of eye contact is a prominent feature in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been proposed that direct gaze does not capture the attention of individuals with ASD. Experimental evidence is, however, mainly restricted to relatively high-functioning school-aged children or adults with ASD. This study investigated whether 2-5-year-old low-functioning children with severe ASD differ from control children in orienting to gaze stimuli, as measured with the heart rate deceleration response...
February 28, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243100/associations-among-depressive-symptoms-childhood-abuse-neuroticism-and-adult-stressful-life-events-in-the-general-adult-population
#8
Kotaro Ono, Yoshikazu Takaesu, Yukiei Nakai, Akiyoshi Shimura, Yasuyuki Ono, Akiko Murakoshi, Yasunori Matsumoto, Hajime Tanabe, Ichiro Kusumi, Takeshi Inoue
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire - Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241053/release-of-hiv-1-sequestered-in-the-vesicles-of-oral-and-genital-mucosal-epithelial-cells-by-epithelial-lymphocyte-interaction
#9
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207165/birth-order-and-preschool-children-s-cooperative-abilities-a-within-family-analysis
#10
Heather Prime, André Plamondon, Jennifer M Jenkins
There is evidence for a laterborn sibling advantage in some social skills, although this has not been investigated in children's early capacities for cooperation. Using a within-family design, this study compared firstborn and laterborn (i.e., middle and youngest) siblings on their cooperative abilities when they were aged around 3 years. Further, the study investigated whether the association between children's birth order and cooperative abilities was dependent on the prosocial behaviour of other siblings in the home...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185430/the-development-of-mentoring-relationship-quality-future-planning-style-and-career-goal-setting-among-adolescents-from-a-disadvantaged-background
#11
Wendy S Y Lau, Xiao-Chun Zhou, Simon M K Lai
Our behaviors are regulated by our perception of the future based on past experiences and knowledge. Children from a disadvantaged background might encounter obstacles more frequently when they plan their future. It is possible that a good relationship with an adult volunteer who provides assistance and guidance in the disadvantaged youth's development may facilitate their future-planning style and career goal setting. The present study investigated the role of a good mentoring relationship in promoting a disadvantaged youth's future-planning style and goal-setting ability...
February 9, 2017: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176409/missing-life-stories-the-narratives-of-palliative-patients-parents-and-physicians-in-paediatric-oncology
#12
E De Clercq, B S Elger, T Wangmo
Illness narratives have become very popular. The stories of children, however, are rarely ever studied. This paper aims to provide insight into how children, parents and physicians make sense of progressive childhood cancer. It also explores how this meaning-giving process interacts with cultural dominant stories on cancer and dying. The presented data come from 16 open-ended face-to-face interviews with palliative paediatric patients, their parents and physicians. The interviews were carried out in eight paediatric oncology centres in Switzerland...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166652/language-learning-recasts-and-interaction-involving-aac-background-and-potential-for-intervention
#13
Michael T Clarke, Gloria Soto, Keith Nelson
For children with typical development, language is learned through everyday discursive interaction. Adults mediate child participation in such interactions through the deployment of a range of co-constructive strategies, including repeating, questioning, prompting, expanding, and reformulating the child's utterances. Adult reformulations of child utterances, also known as recasts, have also been shown to relate to the acquisition of linguistic structures in children with language and learning disabilities and children and adults learning a foreign language...
March 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150059/conceptualizing-a-public-health-prevention-intervention-for-bridging-the-30-million-word-gap
#14
REVIEW
Charles R Greenwood, Judith J Carta, Dale Walker, Jomella Watson-Thompson, Jill Gilkerson, Anne L Larson, Alana Schnitz
Early childhood experience is a social determinant of children's health and well-being. The well-being of young children is founded on their relationships and interactions with parents and family members in the home, caregivers, and teachers in early education, and friends and families in the greater community. Unfortunately, the early language experience of infants and toddlers from low-income families is typically vastly different than children from middle- and higher-income families. Hart and Risley (Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children...
March 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145411/neurotypical-peers-are-less-willing-to-interact-with-those-with-autism-based-on-thin-slice-judgments
#15
Noah J Sasson, Daniel J Faso, Jack Nugent, Sarah Lovell, Daniel P Kennedy, Ruth B Grossman
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including those who otherwise require less support, face severe difficulties in everyday social interactions. Research in this area has primarily focused on identifying the cognitive and neurological differences that contribute to these social impairments, but social interaction by definition involves more than one person and social difficulties may arise not just from people with ASD themselves, but also from the perceptions, judgments, and social decisions made by those around them...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111092/the-knowledge-and-skills-related-to-sexual-abuse-prevention-among-chinese-children-with-hearing-loss-in-beijing
#16
Buyi Yu, Jingqi Chen, Yichen Jin, Wenjing Zhang, Yanan Feng, Xiaoxia Zhao
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of any child sexual abuse (CSA) experience before the age of 16 years ranges from 10.2 to 35.2% in China,(1-5) but there has been no research so far exploring the level of awareness of CSA prevention and self-protection skills among Chinese children with hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: The school based survey examines the CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills in Chinese children with hearing loss. METHODS: Fifty-one students (30 boys, 21 girls) from 10 to 16 years old participated in the study...
January 1, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103288/child-staff-ratios-in-early-childhood-education-and-care-settings-and-child-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Michal Perlman, Brooke Fletcher, Olesya Falenchuk, Ashley Brunsek, Evelyn McMullen, Prakesh S Shah
Child-staff ratios are a key quality indicator in early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs. Better ratios are believed to improve child outcomes by increasing opportunities for individual interactions and educational instruction from staff. The purpose of this systematic review, and where possible, meta-analysis, was to evaluate the association between child-staff ratios in preschool ECEC programs and children's outcomes. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were conducted up to July 3, 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057930/atypical-developmental-trajectory-of-local-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Xiaonan Guo, Heng Chen, Zhiliang Long, Xujun Duan, Youxue Zhang, Huafu Chen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by atypical trajectory of brain maturation, yet the developmental abnormalities in brain function remain unclear. The current study examined the effect of age on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in ASD and typical controls (TC) using a cross-sectional design. We classified all the participants into three age cohorts: child (<11 years, 18ASD/20TC), adolescent (11-18 years, 28ASD/26TC) and adult (≥18 years, 18ASD/18TC). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to ascertain main effects and interaction effects on whole brain ALFF maps...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042495/cortisol-reactions-during-family-conflict-discussions-influences-of-wives-and-husbands-exposure-to-family-of-origin-aggression
#19
Reout Arbel, Aubrey J Rodriguez, Gayla Margolin
OBJECTIVE: Though family-of-origin aggression (FOA) is a known risk for later emotional and physical problems in adulthood, little is known about how early exposure to aggression influences physiological reactivity in the domain-specific context of family conflict experienced as an adult. This study investigates whether report of FOA influences spouses' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses during conflict discussions with their family-of-procreation and also whether current hostilities, observed during a family discussion, moderate those responses...
October 2016: Psychology of Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041986/insomnia-symptoms-with-objective-short-sleep-duration-are-associated-with-systemic-inflammation-in-adolescents
#20
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Joshua H Baker, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Jordan Gaines, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
Inflammation has been suggested as a potential pathway by which insomnia and short sleep can affect risk of morbidity in adults. However, few studies have examined the association of insomnia with inflammation in adolescents, despite accumulating evidence that pathophysiologic changes may already occur during this critical developmental period. The present study sought to examine the association of insomnia symptoms with systemic inflammation and the role of objective sleep duration in this association. Participants were 378 adolescents (16...
March 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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