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Hamed Momeni-Moghaddam, Abbas-Ali Yekta, James Kundart, Mohammad Etezad-Razavi, Farshad Askarizadeh
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of induced vertical disparity on horizontal fusional reserves at near. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 170 healthy subjects wearing best corrective refraction, the negative and positive horizontal fusional reserves were measured with base-in (BI) and base-out (BO) prisms, respectively, in the presence of 0.5 prism diopters (∆) and 1∆ vertical prisms placed in trial frames in front of the right eye. The prism power was slowly increased step by step until the subject reported sustained blur, break, and recovery...
December 13, 2017: Strabismus
Rahimah Othman, Goran T Vladisavljević, Elena Simone, Zoltan K Nagy, Richard G Holdich
Microcrystals of piroxicam (PRX) monohydrate with a narrow size distribution were prepared from acetone/PRX solutions by antisolvent crystallization via metallic membranes with ordered pore arrays. Crystallization was achieved by controlled addition of the feed solution through the membrane pores into a well-stirred antisolvent. A complete transformation of an anhydrous form I into a monohydrate form of PRX was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The size of the crystals was 7-34 μm and was controlled by the PRX concentration in the feed solution (15-25 g L-1), antisolvent/solvent volume ratio (5-30), and type of antisolvent (Milli-Q water or 0...
December 6, 2017: Crystal Growth & Design
In Jeong Lyu, Kyung-Ah Park, Sei Yeul Oh
BACKGROUD: To evaluate the manifestations of increased esodeviation under cycloplegia with 0.5% tropicamide and 0.5% phenylephrine in children with hyperopia and esotropia. METHODS: We reviewed the medical record of 34 children with hyperopia and esotropia who underwent a prism alternate cover test before and after instillation of mixed eye drops containing 0.5% tropicamide and 0.5% phenylephrine between November 2014 and October 2015. Increased angle of deviation was defined as 10 prism diopters (PD) or greater deviation after cycloplegia...
December 12, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Takashi Tonegawa, Eiichiro Araki, Toshinori Kimura, Takeshi Nakamura, Masaru Nakano, Kensuke Suzuki
A low-velocity zone (LVZ) has been detected by seismic exploration surveys within the Nankai accretionary prism toe off the Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan, and is considered to be a mechanically weak volume at depth. Such mechanical heterogeneities potentially influence seismic and tsunamigenic slips on megathrust earthquakes in the subduction zone. However, the spatial distribution of the LVZ along the trough-parallel direction is still elusive. Here we show sporadic LVZs in the prism toe from one-dimensional shear wave velocity (Vs) profiles obtained at 49 cabled ocean bottom stations, which were estimated by a nonlinear inversion technique, simulated annealing, using the displacement-pressure ratios of the Rayleigh wave...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
Yukinori Kano, Masatoshi Nakajima, Asami Aida, Naoko Seki, Richard M Foxton, Junji Tagami
This study aimed to investigate the influence of enamel prism orientations on color adjustment of resin composite restoration. The color measurements (L*, C*, or h* values) at the restored bovine enamel disk (1.0 mm-thick) with resin composite (Estelite Asteria, Estelite Pro, Kalore, Clearfil Majesty) were performed using a CIE XYZ camera (RC500). The color shifting rate and range at the coronal and cervical border were calculated. The coronal border was significantly lower L* and C* color shifting rate than the cervical border (p<0...
December 8, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
Takeyoshi Goto, Tomoya Kinugasa
The first electronic transition (A˜←X˜) and the hydrogen bonding state of an ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness between two α-alumina surfaces (0.5-20nm) were studied using far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopy in the wavelength range 140-180nm. The ultra-thin water layer of nanometer thickness was prepared by squeezing a water droplet (~1μL) between a highly polished α-alumina prism and an α-alumina plate using a high pressure clamp (~4.7MPa), and the FUV spectra of the water layer at different thicknesses were measured using the attenuated total reflection method...
December 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Zeyang Liu, Yajun Pang, Cheng Pan, Zhanhua Huang
Uniform illuminance over the expanded exit pupil is an important requirement for waveguide display systems with a wide field of view (FOV). To address this issue, we develop a monochromatic binocular waveguide display in this paper. Two surface-relief diffraction gratings are designed as in-couplers and out-couplers. The parameters of the gratings are optimized to achieve uniform diffraction efficiency distributions over a broad angular range. The grating couplers enable the system to realize a diagonal FOV of 40°...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
László Pálfalvi, György Tóth, Levente Tokodi, Zsuzsanna Márton, József András Fülöp, Gábor Almási, János Hebling
A hybrid-type terahertz pulse source is proposed for high energy terahertz pulse generation. It is the combination of the conventional tilted-pulse-front setup and a transmission stair-step echelon-faced nonlinear crystal with a period falling in the hundred-micrometer range. The most important advantage of the setup is the possibility of using plane parallel nonlinear optical crystal for producing good-quality, symmetric terahertz beam. Another advantage of the proposed setup is the significant reduction of imaging errors, which is important in the case of wide pump beams that are used in high energy experiments...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
Barbara Zulus, Gerda Grünbacher, Marcus E Kleber, Winfried März, Wilfried Renner
BACKGROUND: Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases 1A1 (UGT1A1) plays an essential role in detoxification and excretion of several endogenous and exogenous compounds. A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the UGT1A1 gene (TA repeat insertion, UGT1A1*28, rs3064744) has been associated with reduced UGT1A1 enzyme activity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of UGT1A1 genotypes in mortality. METHODS: UGT1A1 genotypes as well as baseline plasma bilirubin levels were analyzed in participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study (n=3316)...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Edward Nicol, Debbie Bradshaw, Jeannine Uwimana-Nicol, Lilian Dudley
BACKGROUND: Information-use is an integral component of a routine health information system and essential to influence policy-making, program actions and research. Despite an increased amount of routine data collected, planning and resource-allocation decisions made by health managers for managing HIV programs are often not based on data. This study investigated the use of information, and barriers to using routine data for monitoring the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in two high HIV-prevalence districts in South Africa...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Suk-Gyu Ha, Seung-Hyun Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the surgical outcome according to the angle of deviation at postoperative day 1 in patients with recurrent exotropia DESIGN: Retrospective case series METHODS: Surgical outcome in patients with recurrent exotropia for at least 1 year was analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into 3 subgroups according to the angle of deviation at postoperative day 1: overcorrection group (≥2 prism diopter [PD] of esodeviation), orthotropic group (orthotropia or <5 PD of exodeviation), and undercorrection group (≥5 PD of exodeviation)...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Tania Das, K Bhattacharya
A full-field polarization-based technique is presented for quantitative evaluation of the spatial distribution of the refractive index in macro and micro samples. The sample is mounted on a glass-air interface of a prism, illuminated by a linearly polarized collimated light beam, and two intensity frames are digitally recorded with specific orientations of an analyzer. The pair of intensity data frames captured with this simple setup is combined through an algorithm specially developed for the purpose, to yield the phase difference between the transverse electric and transverse magnetic components of the total internally reflected light field...
November 20, 2017: Applied Optics
He Yu, Xin Zhao, Xiaojie Wu, Yonggang Zou, Xiaohui Ma, Liang Jin, Yingtian Xu, He Zhang
The beam quality mismatch in the fast and slow axes of laser diode stacks limits their applications. An effective beam-shaping method was proposed based on a pair of step prisms. Using this technique, we can eliminate the lightless areas and achieve polarization multiplexing of laser diode stacks. Two laser diode stacks consisting of eight bars were coupled into a fiber with a core diameter of 200 μm and a numerical aperture of 0.22. The simulation results demonstrated that the output power can reach 1083 W and the optical-optical efficiency was 84...
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Elena Calzolari, Federica Albini, Nadia Bolognini, Giuseppe Vallar
Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA) is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs), as related to the sensory modality of the target...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Min Bao, Jing Xie, Aigars Piruska, Wilhelm T S Huck
Geometrical cues have been shown to alter gene expression and differentiation on 2D substrates. However, little is known about how geometrical cues affect cell function in 3D. One major reason for this lack of understanding is rooted in the difficulties of controlling cell geometry in a complex 3D setting and for long periods of culture. Here, we present a robust method to control cell volume and shape of individual human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) inside 3D microniches with a range of different geometries (e...
December 6, 2017: Nature Communications
V A Karlov, V S Zolovkina
The authors present a comparative analysis of the results of the study of 72 adolescent patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), which were published in 2010, and a new sample of patients over the last 5 years with the publications of domestic and foreign authors. Difficult clinical cases are described. These data indicate positive shifts in the diagnosis and treatment of JME. However, the question of diagnosis is still a hard problem for neurologists. The questions to be resolved are: gender aspect of the disease, to what extent levetiracetam could be a drug of first choice and to what extent valproats could be replaced; monitoring of children born to mothers with JME, a role of paternal inheritance...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Bertrand Glize, Marine Lunven, Yves Rossetti, Patrice Revol, Sophie Jacquin-Courtois, Evelyne Klinger, Pierre-Alain Joseph, Gilles Rode
Prism adaptation (PA) is responsible for an expansion of sensori-motor after-effects to cognitive domains for patients with spatial neglect. One important question is whether the cognitive after-effects induced by PA may also concern higher aspects of spatial cognition, such as navigation and topographic memory, which are critical in everyday life. The aim of this study was to assess whether multiple sessions of right PA can affect navigation and topographic memory. Seven right brain-damaged (RBD) patients with chronic neglect were included...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Kiran Kumar Patnaik, Sudeepa Das, Sachidananda Mohanty, Hemanta Panigrahi
Introduction: Homicide is the death of one human being as a result of conduct of another. Multiple assaults on the body are seen in 70% cases, which indicate determination on the part of the accused to end the life of the victim. Aim: To identify the pattern, distribution and means of inflicting fatal isolated mechanical injury on the body in cases of homicide. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on total 728 homicide deaths, out of which 63 cases had an isolated fatal mechanical injury over the body and the rest 665 cases had multiple injuries...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Udayakumar Karthika Priyadharshini, Radhakrishnan Latha, Ukkirapandian Kavitha, Natarajan Nirmala
Introduction: Indiscriminate use and improper handling of synthetic pesticides in agriculture have resulted in serious problems such as asthma, wheeze and chronic bronchitis among the farmers. Though number of studies have been done on pesticide exposure and its effect on cardiorespiratory parameters in Northern India, only few studies were done in Southern India, thus this study was chosen. Aim: To find the cardiorespiratory changes in farm workers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
John L Waddington, Stanislav Katina, Colm M P O'Tuathaigh, Adrian W Bowman
Purpose of Review: In the context of human developmental conditions, we review the conceptualisation of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, the status of craniofacial dysmorphology as a clinically accessible index of brain dysmorphogenesis, the ability of genetically modified mouse models of craniofacial dysmorphology to inform on the underlying dysmorphogenic process and how geometric morphometric techniques in mutant mice can extend quantitative analysis. Recent Findings: Mutant mice with disruption of neuregulin-1, a gene associated meta-analytically with risk for schizophrenia, constitute proof-of-concept studies of murine facial dysmorphology in a manner analogous to clinical studies in schizophrenia...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
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