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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679735/age-dependent-effects-of-brain-stimulation-on-network-centrality
#1
Daria Antonenko, Till Nierhaus, Marcus Meinzer, Kristin Prehn, Axel Thielscher, Bernd Ittermann, Agnes Flöel
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that advanced age may mediate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain function. However, studies directly comparing neural tDCS effects between young and older adults are scarce and limited to task-related imaging paradigms. Resting-state (rs-) fMRI, that is independent of age-related differences in performance, is well suited to investigate age-associated differential neural tDCS effects. Three "online" tDCS conditions (anodal, cathodal, sham) were compared in a cross-over, within-subject design, in 30 young and 30 older adults...
April 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678937/identification-of-a-specific-functional-network-altered-in-poststroke-cognitive-impairment
#2
Clément Bournonville, Hilde Hénon, Thibaut Dondaine, Christine Delmaire, Stephanie Bombois, Anne-Marie Mendyk, Charlotte Cordonnier, Solène Moulin, Xavier Leclerc, Régis Bordet, Renaud Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between poststroke cognitive impairment and defining a specific resting functional marker. METHODS: The resting-state functional connectivity 6 months after an ischemic stroke in 56 patients was investigated. Twenty-nine of the patients who had an impairment of one or several cognitive domains were compared to 27 without any cognitive deficit. We studied the whole-brain connectivity using 2 complementary approaches: graph theory to study the functional network organization and network-based statistics to explore connectivity between brain regions...
April 20, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678195/does-sensorimotor-upper-limb-therapy-post-stroke-alter-behavior-and-brain-connectivity-differently-compared-to-motor-therapy-protocol-of-a-phase-ii-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Nele De Bruyn, Bea Essers, Liselot Thijs, Annick Van Gils, Lisa Tedesco Triccas, Sarah Meyer, Kaat Alaerts, Geert Verheyden
BACKGROUND: The role of somatosensory feedback in motor performance has been warranted in the literature. Although sensorimotor deficits are common after stroke, current rehabilitation approaches primarily focus on restoring upper limb motor ability. Evidence for integrative sensorimotor rehabilitation approaches is scarce, as is knowledge about neural correlates of somatosensory impairments after stroke and the effect of rehabilitation on brain connectivity level. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in sensorimotor function and brain connectivity following a sensorimotor therapy program compared to an attention-matched motor therapy program for the upper limb after stroke...
April 20, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677469/multidomain-control-over-tec-kinase-activation-state-tunes-the-t-cell-response
#4
Amy H Andreotti, Raji E Joseph, James M Conley, Janet Iwasa, Leslie J Berg
Signaling through the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) activates a series of tyrosine kinases. Directly associated with the TCR, the SRC family kinase LCK and the SYK family kinase ZAP-70 are essential for all downstream responses to TCR stimulation. In contrast, the TEC family kinase ITK is not an obligate component of the TCR cascade. Instead, ITK functions as a tuning dial, to translate variations in TCR signal strength into differential programs of gene expression. Recent insights into TEC kinase structure have provided a view into the molecular mechanisms that generate different states of kinase activation...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677346/reduced-functional-and-anatomic-interhemispheric-homotopic-connectivity-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-a-combined-resting-state-fmri-and-dti-study
#5
Qian Wang, Weiwei Chen, Huaizhou Wang, Xun Zhang, Xiaoxia Qu, Ying Wang, Ting Li, Ningli Wang, Junfang Xian
Purpose: To investigate if abnormal interhemispheric homotopic functional connectivity were accompanied by corresponding anatomic connectivity changes in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients, and to relate connectivity changes with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed in 16 POAG patients and 19 healthy controls...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676536/core-networks-and-their-reconfiguration-patterns-across-cognitive-loads
#6
Nianming Zuo, Zhengyi Yang, Yong Liu, Jin Li, Tianzi Jiang
Different cognitively demanding tasks recruit globally distributed but functionally specific networks. However, the configuration of core networks and their reconfiguration patterns across cognitive loads remain unclear, as does whether these patterns are indicators for the performance of cognitive tasks. In this study, we analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging data of a large cohort of 448 subjects, acquired with the brain at resting state and executing N-back working memory (WM) tasks. We discriminated core networks by functional interaction strength and connection flexibility...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676512/occupational-functional-plasticity-revealed-by-brain-entropy-a-resting-state-fmri-study-of-seafarers
#7
Nizhuan Wang, Huijun Wu, Min Xu, Yang Yang, Chunqi Chang, Weiming Zeng, Hongjie Yan
Recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been increasingly used to assess brain function. Brain entropy is an effective model for evaluating the alteration of brain complexity. Specifically, the sample entropy (SampEn) provides a feasible solution for revealing the brain's complexity. Occupation is one key factor affecting the brain's activity, but the neuropsychological mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, in this article, based on fMRI and a brain entropy model, we explored the functional complexity changes engendered by occupation factors, taking the seafarer as an example...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676287/electrophysiological-correlates-of-neurodegeneration-in-motor-and-non-motor-brain-regions-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-implications-for-brain-computer-interfacing
#8
Philipp Kellmeyer, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Ulf Ziemann, Tonio Ball
For patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who are suffering from severe communication or motor problems, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can improve the quality of life and patient autonomy. However, current BCI systems are not as widely used as their potential and patient demand would let assume. This underutilization is a result of technological as well as user-based limitations but also of the comparatively poor performance of currently existing BCIs in patients with late-stage ALS, particularly in the locked-in state...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676249/preharvest-farming-practices-impacting-fresh-produce-safety
#9
Eduardo Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Achyut Adhikari
Advancements in agriculture and food processing techniques have been instrumental in the development of modern human societies. Vast improvements in agronomic practices, handling, and processing have allowed us to produce and preserve mass quantities of food. Yet despite all these innovations and potentially as a consequence of these mass production practices, more and more outbreaks of human pathogens linked to raw and processed foods are identified every year. It is evident that our increased capacity for microbial detection has contributed to the greater number of outbreaks detected...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675826/camkii%C3%AE-is-localized-in-dendritic-spines-as-both-drebrin-dependent-and-drebrin-independent-pools
#10
Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Yoshio Sasagawa, Hideyuki Yamamoto, Haruhiko Bito, Tomoaki Shirao
Drebrin is a major F-actin binding protein in dendritic spines that is critically involved in the regulation of dendritic-spine morphogenesis, pathology, and plasticity. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel drebrin-binding protein involved in spine morphogenesis and synaptic plasticity. We confirmed the beta subunit of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIβ) as a drebrin-binding protein using a yeast two-hybrid system, and investigated the drebrin-CaMKIIβ relationship in dendritic spines using rat hippocampal neurons...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675389/altered-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-primary-visual-cortex-in-youth-patients-with-comitant-exotropia-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#11
Pei-Wen Zhu, Xin Huang, Lei Ye, Nan Jiang, Yu-Lin Zhong, Qing Yuan, Fu-Qing Zhou, Yi Shao
AIM: To evaluate the differences in the functional connectivity (FC) of the primary visual cortex (V1) between the youth comitant exotropia (CE) patients and health subjects using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. METHODS: Totally, 32 CEs (25 males and 7 females) and 32 healthy control subjects (HCs) (25 males and 7 females) were enrolled in the study and underwent the MRI scanning. Two-sample t -test was used to examine differences in FC maps between the CE patients and HCs...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675329/decreased-resting-state-brain-signal-complexity-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-multiscale-entropy-analysis
#12
Xuanyu Li, Zhaojun Zhu, Weina Zhao, Yu Sun, Dong Wen, Yunyan Xie, Xiangyu Liu, Haijing Niu, Ying Han
Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis is a novel entropy-based analysis method for quantifying the complexity of dynamic neural signals and physiological systems across multiple temporal scales. This approach may assist in elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using resting-state fNIRS imaging, we recorded spontaneous brain activity from 31 healthy controls (HC), 27 patients with aMCI, and 24 patients with AD. The quantitative analysis of MSE revealed that reduced brain signal complexity in AD patients in several networks, namely, the default, frontoparietal, ventral and dorsal attention networks...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675038/effects-of-time-compressed-speech-training-on-multiple-functional-and-structural-neural-mechanisms-involving-the-left-superior-temporal-gyrus
#13
Tsukasa Maruyama, Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Kosuke Motoki, Hyeonjeong Jeong, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Rui Nouchi, Kunio Iizuka, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kohei Sakaki, Yukako Sasaki, Daniele Magistro, Ryuta Kawashima
Time-compressed speech is an artificial form of rapidly presented speech. Training with time-compressed speech (TCSSL) in a second language leads to adaptation toward TCSSL. Here, we newly investigated the effects of 4 weeks of training with TCSSL on diverse cognitive functions and neural systems using the fractional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) with the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), fractional anisotropy (FA), and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of young adults by magnetic resonance imaging...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674855/the-tiger-beetles-coleoptera-cicindelidae-of-the-southern-levant-and-adjacent-territories-from-cybertaxonomy-to-conservation-biology
#14
Thorsten Assmann, Estève Boutaud, Jörn Buse, Jörg Gebert, Claudia Drees, Ariel-Leib-Leonid Friedman, Fares Khoury, Tamar Marcus, Eylon Orbach, Ittai Renan, Constantin Schmidt, Pascale Zumstein
The tiger beetles of the southern Levant (Egypt: Sinai, Israel, Jordan) and adjacent regions of the neighboring countries Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Egypt are reviewed in terms of species taxonomy, ecological and distributional traits and conservation biology. An illustrated dichotomous identification key from the species of this region is provided. Based on the classical identification key, we developed a digital identification application for smartphones and tablets. The species status of Calomera aulicoides (J...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674739/spatial-reversal-learning-defect-coincides-with-hypersynchronous-telencephalic-bold-functional-connectivity-in-app-nl-f-nl-f-knock-in-mice
#15
Disha Shah, Amira Latif-Hernandez, Bart De Strooper, Takashi Saito, Takaomi Saido, Marleen Verhoye, Rudi D'Hooge, Annemie Van der Linden
Amyloid pathology occurs early in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and has therefore been the focus of numerous studies. Transgenic mouse models have been instrumental to study amyloidosis, but observations might have been confounded by APP-overexpression artifacts. The current study investigated early functional defects in an APP knock-in mouse model, which allows assessing the effects of pathological amyloid-beta (Aβ) without interference of APP-artifacts. Female APPNL/NL knock-in mice of 3 and 7 months old were compared to age-matched APPNL-F/NL-F mice with increased Aβ42/40 ratio and initial Aβ-plaque deposition around 6 months of age...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674194/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-children-born-from-gestations-complicated-by-preeclampsia-a-pilot-study-cohort
#16
Lauren E Mak, B Anne Croy, Vanessa Kay, James N Reynolds, Matthew T Rätsep, Nils D Forkert, Graeme N Smith, Angelina Paolozza, Patrick W Stroman, Ernesto A Figueiró-Filho
BACKGROUND: Individuals (PE-F1s) born from preeclampsia (PE)-complicated pregnancies have elevated risks for cognitive impairment. Intervals of disturbed maternal plasma angiokines precede clinical signs of PE. We hypothesized pan-blastocyst dysregulation of angiokines underlies altered PE-F1 brain vascular and neurological development. This could alter brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns at rest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI datasets of ten, matched child pairs (5 boys and 5 girls aged 7-10 years of age) from PE or control pregnancies were available for study...
February 7, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673968/model-order-effects-on-ica-of-resting-state-complex-valued-fmri-data-application-to-schizophrenia
#17
Li-Dan Kuang, Qiu-Hua Lin, Xiao-Feng Gong, Fengyu Cong, Jing Sui, Vince D Calhoun
BACKGROUND: Component splitting at higher model orders is a widely accepted finding for independent component analysis (ICA) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, our recent study found that intact components occurred with subcomponents at higher model orders. NEW METHOD: This study investigated model order effects on ICA of resting-state complex-valued fMRI data from 82 subjects, which included 40 healthy controls (HCs) and 42 schizophrenia patients...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673116/intrinsic-spontaneous-brain-activity-predicts-individual-variability-in-associative-memory-in-older-adults
#18
Zhiwei Zheng, Rui Li, Fengqiu Xiao, Rongqiao He, Shouzi Zhang, Juan Li
Older adults demonstrate notable individual differences in associative memory. Here, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) was used to investigate whether intrinsic brain activity at rest could predict individual differences in associative memory among cognitively healthy older adults. Regional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis and a correlation-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) approach were used to analyze data acquired from 102 cognitively normal elderly who completed the paired-associative learning test (PALT) and underwent fMRI scans...
April 19, 2018: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672091/resting-state-connectivity-dynamics-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis
#19
Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Vijay A Mittal
Clarifying dynamic fluctuations in resting-state connectivity in individuals at risk for psychosis (termed clinical high risk [CHR]) may inform understanding of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, which have been associated with dysconnectivity and aberrant salience processing. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) investigations provide insight into how neural networks exchange information over time. Currently, there are no published DFC studies involving CHR individuals. This is notable, because understanding how networks may come together and disassociate over time could lend insight into the neural communication that underlies psychosis development and symptomatology...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671156/alteration-and-role-of-interhemispheric-and-intrahemispheric-connectivity-in-motor-network-after-stroke
#20
Jungsoo Lee, Eunhee Park, Ahee Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Dae-Shik Kim, Yun-Hee Kim
This study investigated local and global changes in the motor network using longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Motor impairment was measured in 81 stroke patients using Fugl-Meyer assessment on the same day as rs-fMRI acquisition at both 2 weeks and 3 months post-stroke. The relationships between network measures and motor function scores were assessed. With regard to local connectivity, interhemispheric connectivity was noticeably altered at each time point. Interhemispheric connectivity was also related to residual motor function and improvement in motor function...
April 18, 2018: Brain Topography
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