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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819676/granger-causality-supports-abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-beta-oscillations-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-and-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#1
Qiang Wang, Min Li, Zhengyuan Xie, Junbin Cai, Nanxiang Li, Hu Xiao, Ning Wang, Jinyan Wang, Fei Luo, Wangming Zhang
Synchronized oscillatory neuronal activity in the beta frequency range has been reported in the basal ganglia (BG) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and PD animal models. The coherent abnormal oscillatory activities in the dorsolateral striatum (dStr) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) that accompany parkinsonian states have not been resolved. In this study, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in the dStr and SNr of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopamine (DA)-lesioned rats in an awake, resting state...
August 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819211/dynamic-local-connectivity-uncovers-altered-brain-synchrony-during-propofol-sedation
#2
Rose Dawn Bharath, Rajanikant Panda, Jitender Saini, Kamath Sriganesh, G S Umamaheswara Rao
Human consciousness is considered a result of the synchronous "humming" of multiple dynamic networks. We performed a dynamic functional connectivity analysis using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in 14 patients before and during a propofol infusion to characterize the sedation-induced alterations in consciousness. A sliding 36-second window was used to derive 59 time points of whole brain integrated local connectivity measurements. Significant changes in the connectivity strength (Z Corr) at various time points were used to measure the connectivity fluctuations during awake and sedated states...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819132/treatment-associated-changes-of-functional-connectivity-of-midbrain-brainstem-nuclei-in-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Gerd Wagner, Feliberto de la Cruz, Stefanie Köhler, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally coordinated network functioning in Major Depression Disorder (MDD) during rest. The main monoamine-producing nuclei within midbrain/brainstem are functionally integrated within these specific networks. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of these nuclei in 45 MDD patients and differences between patients receiving two different classes of antidepressant drugs. Patients showed reduced RSFC from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and stronger RSFC to the left amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817956/the-role-of-intrinsic-brain-functional-connectivity-in-vulnerability-and-resilience-to-bipolar-disorder
#4
Gaelle E Doucet, Danielle S Bassett, Nailin Yao, David C Glahn, Sophia Frangou
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is a heritable disorder characterized by mood dysregulation associated with brain functional dysconnectivity. Previous research has focused on the detection of risk- and disease-associated dysconnectivity in individuals with bipolar disorder and their first-degree relatives. The present study seeks to identify adaptive brain connectivity features associated with resilience, defined here as avoidance of illness or delayed illness onset in unaffected siblings of patients with bipolar disorder...
August 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817662/single-scan-rest-stress-imaging-with-99mtc-sestamibi-and-cadmium-zinc-telluride-based-spect-for-hyperemic-flow-quantification-a-feasibility-study-evaluated-with-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Yu-Hua Dean Fang, Yuan-Chang Liu, Kung-Chu Ho, Feng-Cheng Kuo, Ching-Fang Yang, Tzu-Chen Yen, I-Chang Hsieh
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate whether the hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) can be estimated using cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras with a single, rapid rest/stress dynamic scan. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used as a reference modality for flow measurement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed protocol included both the rest and stress acquisitions within a 24-min scan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817216/functional-neuroimaging-after-severe-anoxic-brain-injury-in-children-may-reveal-preserved-yet-covert-cognitive-function
#6
Adrian M Owen
A growing body of evidence has confirmed that, after severe brain injury in adults, motoric and task-dependent factors that are essential for reliable communication, frequently interfere with an accurate assessment of cognitive status. In the current study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children who have sustained an anoxic brain injury following a near drowning incident suggests a similar pattern; preserved cognition amidst severe motoric impairment that effectively precludes accurate clinical diagnosis at the bedside...
August 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816791/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-human-connectome-project-current-status-and-relevance-to-understanding-psychopathology
#7
Deanna M Barch
A key tenet of modern psychiatry is that psychiatric disorders arise from abnormalities in brain circuits that support human behavior. Our ability to examine hypotheses around circuit-level abnormalities in psychiatric disorders has been made possible by advances in human neuroimaging technologies. These advances have provided the basis for recent efforts to develop a more complex understanding of the function of brain circuits in health and of their relationship to behavior-providing, in turn, a foundation for our understanding of how disruptions in such circuits contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders...
August 16, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816657/a-dynamic-regression-approach-for-frequency-domain-partial-coherence-and-causality-analysis-of-functional-brain-networks
#8
Lipeng Ning, Yogesh Rathi
Coherence and causality measures are often used to analyze the influence of one region on another during analysis of functional brain networks. The analysis methods usually involve a regression problem where the signal of interest is decomposed into a mixture of regressor and a residual signal. In this paper, we revisit this basic problem and present solutions that provide the minimal-entropy residuals for different types of regression filters, such as causal, instantaneously causal and noncausal filters. Using optimal prediction theory, we derive several novel frequency-domain expressions for partial coherence, causality and conditional causality analysis...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816460/coexistence-of-pinning-and-moving-on-a-contact-line
#9
Zhengmao Lu, Daniel John Preston, Dion S Antao, Yangying Zhu, Evelyn N Wang
Textured surfaces are instrumental in water repellency or fluid wicking applications, where the pinning and depinning of the liquid-gas interface plays an important role. Previous work showed that a contact line can exhibit non-uniform behavior due to heterogeneities in surface chemistry or roughness. Here, we demonstrate that such non-uniformities can be achieved even without varying the local energy barrier. Around a cylindrical pillar, an interface can reside in an intermediate state where segments of the contact line are pinned to the pillar top while the rest of the contact line moves along the sidewall...
August 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816098/global-fluctuations-of-cerebral-blood-flow-indicate-a-global-brain-network-independent-of-systemic-factors
#10
Li Zhao, David C Alsop, John A Detre, Weiying Dai
Global synchronization across specialized brain networks is a common feature of network models and in-vivo electrical measurements. Although the imaging of specialized brain networks with blood oxygenation sensitive resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has enabled detailed study of regional networks, the study of globally correlated fluctuations with rsfMRI is confounded by spurious contributions to the global signal from systemic physiologic factors and other noise sources. Here we use an alternative rsfMRI method, arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI, to characterize global correlations and their relationship to correlations and anti-correlations between regional networks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815863/decoding-fmri-events-in-sensorimotor-motor-network-using-sparse-paradigm-free-mapping-and-activation-likelihood-estimates
#11
Francisca M Tan, César Caballero-Gaudes, Karen J Mullinger, Siu-Yeung Cho, Yaping Zhang, Ian L Dryden, Susan T Francis, Penny A Gowland
Most functional MRI (fMRI) studies map task-driven brain activity using a block or event-related paradigm. Sparse paradigm free mapping (SPFM) can detect the onset and spatial distribution of BOLD events in the brain without prior timing information, but relating the detected events to brain function remains a challenge. In this study, we developed a decoding method for SPFM using a coordinate-based meta-analysis method of activation likelihood estimation (ALE). We defined meta-maps of statistically significant ALE values that correspond to types of events and calculated a summation overlap between the normalized meta-maps and SPFM maps...
August 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814647/substrate-triggered-position-switching-of-tata-and-tatb-during-tat-transport-in-escherichia-coli
#12
Johann Habersetzer, Kristoffer Moore, Jon Cherry, Grant Buchanan, Phillip J Stansfeld, Tracy Palmer
The twin-arginine protein transport (Tat) machinery mediates the translocation of folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. The Escherichia coli Tat system comprises TatC and two additional sequence-related proteins, TatA and TatB. The active translocase is assembled on demand, with substrate-binding at a TatABC receptor complex triggering recruitment and assembly of multiple additional copies of TatA; however, the molecular interactions mediating translocase assembly are poorly understood...
August 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814614/role-of-inactivity-in-chronic-diseases-evolutionary-insight-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Frank W Booth, Christian K Roberts, John P Thyfault, Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch
This review proposes that physical inactivity could be considered a behavior selected by evolution for resting, and also selected to be reinforcing in life-threatening situations in which exercise would be dangerous. Underlying the notion are human twin studies and animal selective breeding studies, both of which provide indirect evidence for the existence of genes for physical inactivity. Approximately 86% of the 325 million in the United States (U.S.) population achieve less than the U.S. Government and World Health Organization guidelines for daily physical activity for health...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814282/alterations-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-an-fmri-study
#14
Moyi Li, Guohua Zheng, Yuhui Zheng, Zhenyu Xiong, Rui Xia, Wenji Zhou, Qin Wang, Shengxiang Liang, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by cognitive functional decline, especially in memory. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in neuroimaging studies that explore alterations between patients and normal individuals to elucidate the pathological mechanisms of different diseases. The current study was performed to investigate alterations in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in aMCI patients compared to healthy elderly controls, as well as further define the association between neurological alterations and memory function...
August 16, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813231/time-frequency-cross-mutual-information-analysis-of-the-brain-functional-networks-underlying-multiclass-motor-imagery
#15
Anmin Gong, Jianping Liu, Si Chen, Yunfa Fu
To study the physiologic mechanism of the brain during different motor imagery (MI) tasks, the authors employed a method of brain-network modeling based on time-frequency cross mutual information obtained from 4-class (left hand, right hand, feet, and tongue) MI tasks recorded as brain-computer interface (BCI) electroencephalography data. The authors explored the brain network revealed by these MI tasks using statistical analysis and the analysis of topologic characteristics, and observed significant differences in the reaction level, reaction time, and activated target during 4-class MI tasks...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812880/an-exceptionally-narrow-band-gap-%C3%A2-4-ev-silicate-predicted-in-the-cubic-perovskite-structure-basio3
#16
Hidenori Hiramatsu, Hitoshi Yusa, Ryo Igarashi, Yasuo Ohishi, Toshio Kamiya, Hideo Hosono
The electronic structures of 35 A(2+)B(4+)O3 ternary cubic perovskite oxides, including their hypothetical chemical compositions, were calculated by a hybrid functional method with the expectation that peculiar electronic structures and unique carrier transport properties suitable for semiconductor applications would be hidden in high-symmetry cubic perovskite oxides. We found unique electronic structures of Si-based oxides (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, and B = Si). In particular, the unreported cubic BaSiO3 has a very narrow band gap (4...
August 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811748/salivary-diagnostic-markers-in-males-and-females-during-rest-and-exercise
#17
Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick, Carlene Starck, Deborah K Dulson, Ajmol Ali
BACKGROUND: Saliva is a useful diagnostic tool for analysis in sports, exercise and nutrition research, as collection is easy and non-invasive and it contains a large number of analytes affected by a range of physiological and pathological stressors and conditions. This study examined key salivary electrolytes and stress and immune markers in males and females at rest and during exercise. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva from 20 healthy, recreationally active participants (8 males and 12 females) was analysed for flow rate, osmolality, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), α-amylase activity and cortisol during both rest and moderate intensity (70% peak power) cycling exercise in a randomised crossover design...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811538/fine-structure-of-posterior-alpha-rhythm-in-human-eeg-frequency-components-their-cortical-sources-and-temporal-behavior
#18
Elham Barzegaran, Vladimir Y Vildavski, Maria G Knyazeva
Heterogeneity of the posterior alpha rhythm (AR) is a widely assumed but rarely tested phenomenon. We decomposed the posterior AR in the cortical source space with a 3-way PARAFAC technique, taking into account the spatial, frequency, and temporal aspects of mid-density EEG. We found a multicomponent AR structure in 90% of a group of 29 healthy adults. The typical resting-state structure consisted of a high-frequency occipito-parietal component of the AR (ARC1) and a low-frequency occipito-temporal component (ARC2), characterized by individual dynamics in time...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811179/lateral-frontal-pole-and-relational-processing-activation-patterns-and-connectivity-profile
#19
Bart Hartogsveld, Bob Bramson, Suhas Vijayakumar, A Dilene van Campen, José P Marques, Karin Roelofs, Ivan Toni, Harold Bekkering, Rogier B Mars
The functional contribution of the lateral prefrontal cortex to behavior has been discussed with reference to several higher-order cognitive domains. In a separate line of research, recent studies have focused on the anatomical organization of this part of the brain. However, these different approaches are rarely combined. Here, we combine previous work using anatomical connectivity that identified a lateral subdivision of the human frontal pole and work that suggested a general role for rostrolateral prefrontal cortex in processing higher-order relations, irrespective of the type of information...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811174/subchronic-exposure-to-sublethal-dose-of-imidacloprid-changes-electrophysiological-properties-and-expression-pattern-of-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subtypes-in-insect-neurosecretory-cells
#20
Yassine Benzidane, Delphine Goven, Aly Ahmed Abd-Ella, Caroline Deshayes, Bruno Lapied, Valérie Raymond
Neonicotinoids are the most important class of insecticides used in agriculture over the last decade. They act as selective agonists of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The emergence of insect resistance to these insecticides is one of the major problems, which limit the use of neonicotinoids. The aim of our study is to better understand physiological changes appearing after subchronic exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide using complementary approaches that include toxicology, electrophysiology, molecular biology and calcium imaging...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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