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cancer nanotechnology

Latavia Singh, Sunaina Indermun, Mershen Govender, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a significant health challenge due to associated morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer that eventually results in the breakdown of liver functionality. Nanotechnology has the potential to play a pivotal role in reducing viral load levels and drug-resistant HBV through drug targeting, thus reducing the rate of evolution of the disease. Apart from tissue targeting, intracellular delivery of a wide range of drugs is necessary to exert a therapeutic action in the affected organelles...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
Golam Kibria, Erika Kathryn Ramos, David R Gius, Yong Wan, Huiping Liu
Exosomes play a pivotal role in mediating intercellular communications and package delivery. They have recently been discovered to serve as diagnostic biomarkers as well as a possible drug delivery vehicle based on their nanometer size range and capability to transfer biological materials to recipient cells. Their unique biocompatibility, high stability, preferred tumor homing, and adjustable targeting efficiency can make exosomes an attractive and potentially effective tool of drug delivery in cancer therapy...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ilham F Osman, Mojgan Najafzadeh, Vyom Sharma, Ritesh K Shukla, B K Jacob, Alok Dhawan, D Anderson
Little is known of the effects of nanoparticles in human systems, let alone in diseased individuals and nanotechnology has preceded nanotoxicology. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with respiratory diseases [lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma] were compared with those in healthy Individuals, to determine differences in sensitivity to nanochemical insult. The Comet assay was performed according to recommended guidelines...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Qingqing Xiong, Jian Wang, Yang Bai, Tianqiang Song
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with insidious onset, insensitive to chemotherapy and poor prognosis, which make its clinical treatment face an enormous challenge. In recent years, with the rapid development of nanotechnology, increasing kinds of nanomedicine come to the forefront in biomedical fields. Through rational design, nanomedicine can be prepared in suitable size and modified with specific liver targeting ligands. Moreover, various therapeutic agents of different mechanisms can be co-loaded into the same nanosystem, thus achieving the synergistic therapeutic effects towards HCC...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Hiroyoshi Y Tanaka, Mitsunobu R Kano
Pancreatic cancer is known for its dismal prognosis despite efforts to improve therapeutic outcome. Recently, cancer nanomedicine, application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment, has gained interest for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect that promotes selective accumulation of nanometer-sized molecules within tumors is the theoretical rationale of treatment. However, it is clear that EPR may be insufficient in pancreatic cancer due to stromal barriers within the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
May 8, 2018: Cancer Science
Myunggi An, Chunsong Yu, Jingchao Xi, Joyce Reyes, Guangzhao Mao, Wei-Zen Wei, Haipeng Liu
Nanotechnology has demonstrated tremendous clinical utility, with potential applications in cancer immunotherapy. Although nanoparticles with intrinsic cytotoxicity are often considered unsuitable for clinical applications, such toxicity may be harnessed in the fight against cancer. Nanoparticle-associated toxicity can induce acute necrotic cell death, releasing tumor-associated antigens which may be captured by antigen-presenting cells to initiate or amplify tumor immunity. To test this hypothesis, cytotoxic cationic silica nanoparticles (CSiNPs) were directly administered into B16F10 melanoma implanted in C57BL/6 mice...
May 8, 2018: Nanoscale
Lin Cui, Chen-Chen Li, Bo Tang, Chun-Yang Zhang
Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with distinct characteristics of high brightness, large Stokes shift and broad absorption spectra, large molar extinction coefficients, high quantum yield, good photostability and long fluorescence lifetime. The QDs have replaced the conventional fluorophores with wide applications in immunoassays, microarrays, fluorescence imaging, targeted drug delivery and therapy. The integration of QDs with various nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, carbon allotropes, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), metal oxides and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) brings new opportunities and possibilities in nanoscience and nanotechnology...
May 8, 2018: Analyst
Ntevheleni Thovhogi, Nicole Remaliah Samantha Sibuyi, Martin Opiyo Onani, Mervin Meyer, Abram Madimabe Madiehe
Background: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic affecting millions of people. The current pharmacological treatment of obesity remains limited and ineffective due to drugs' undesirable side effects. Hence, there is a need for novel or improved strategies for long-term therapies that will help prevent the disease progression into other chronic diseases. Nanotechnology holds the future for the treatment of obesity because of its versatility, as shown by improved drug efficiency and safety in cancer clinical trials...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Shixuan Chen, Ruiquan Li, Xiaoran Li, Jingwei Xie
Electrospinning provides an enabling nanotechnology platform for generating a rich variety of novel structured materials in many biomedical applications including drug delivery, biosensing, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. In this review article, we begin with a thorough discussion on the method of producing 1D, 2D, and 3D electrospun nanofiber materials. In particular, we emphasize on how the 3D printing technology can contribute to the improvement of traditional electrospinning technology for the fabrication of 3D electrospun nanofiber materials as drug delivery devices/implants, scaffolds or living tissue constructs...
May 2, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Bin Li, Xinfu Zhang, Yizhou Dong
Messenger RNA (mRNA) has become a promising class of drugs for diverse therapeutic applications in the past few years. A series of clinical trials are ongoing or will be initiated in the near future for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Currently, mRNA-based therapeutics mainly focuses on ex vivo transfection and local administration in clinical studies. Efficient and safe delivery of therapeutically relevant mRNAs remains one of the major challenges for their broad applications in humans. Thus, effective delivery systems are urgently needed to overcome this limitation...
May 4, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Hang Liu, Rui Wang, Jing Wei, Cheng Cheng, Yi Zheng, Yue Pan, Xueling He, Mingming Ding, Hong Tan, Qiang Fu
Hierarchical self-assembly of synthetic polypeptides has attracted increasing interests due to its protein-mimetic structure and great potential in nanotechnology and biomedical applications. However, controlling the morphology and function of polymeric nanostructures via secondary structures remains largely unexplored. Here, we report an unusual micelle-to-vesicle transformation of cholesterol-decorated poly(L-cysteine) copolymer assemblies in response to reac-tive oxygen species (ROS). We found that the interesting morphological transition correlates with the alteration in conformations from β-sheet to α-helix, which grants an attractive "on-off" switch for triggered release and cellular interaction...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Catherine M Sielaff, Shaker A Mousa
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at a late stage, has limited treatments, and patients have poor survival rates. It currently ranks as the seventh leading cause of cancer deaths globally and has increasing rates of diagnosis. Improved PDAC treatment requires the development of innovative, effective, and economical therapeutic drugs. The late stage diagnosis limits options for surgical resection, and traditional PDAC chemotherapeutics correlate with increased organ and hematologic toxicity...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Xun Zhang, Fei Wang, Jin-Liang Sheng, Min-Xuan Sun
DNA-functionalized nanoparticle (DfNP) technology, the integration of DNA with nanotechnology, has emerged over recent decades as a promising biofunctionalization tool in the light of biotechnological approaches. The development of DfNPs has exhibited significant potential for several biological and biomedical applications. In this review, we focus on the mechanism of a series of DNA-NP nanocomposites and highlight the superstructures of DNA-based NPs. We also summarize its applications of these nanocomposites in cell imaging, cancer therapy and bioanalytical detection...
April 30, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Fahima Dilnawaz
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a wide spread disease and has high mortality rate. Popular conventional treatment encompasses chemotherapy, radiation and surgical resection. However these treatments imparts lots of toxicity problems to patients mostly due to their non-selectiveness nature which invokes drug resistances and severe side-effects. OBJECTIVES: In this regard, nanotechnology has claimed to be a smart technology that provides system with the ability of targeting drugs to the specific sites...
April 30, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Ramon Handerson Gomes Teles, Herick Fernando Moralles, Márcia Regina Cominetti
Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising tool in the clinic to combat several difficult-to-manage diseases, such as cancer, which is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapeutic drugs present several limitations such as undesired side effects, low specificity, resistance, and high relapse rates. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is caused by cells that lack specific receptors in their membrane, such as estrogen (ER+) and progesterone (PR+) receptors, or by cells that do not express the amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2+)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ying Xie, Yazhe Wang, Jing Li, Yu Hang, David Oupický
Chemokines and chemokine receptors play key roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Although multiple chemokines and chemokine receptors have been investigated, inhibition of CXCR4 emerged as one of the most promising approaches in combination cancer therapy, especially when focused on the metastatic disease. Small RNA molecules, such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA), represent new class of therapeutics for cancer treatment through RNA interference-mediated gene silencing. However, the clinical applicability of siRNA and miRNA is severely limited by the lack of effective delivery systems...
April 26, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Rui Xue Zhang, Jason Li, Tian Zhang, Mohammad A Amini, Chunsheng He, Brian Lu, Taksim Ahmed, HoYin Lip, Andrew M Rauth, Xiao Yu Wu
Nanotechnology has been applied extensively in drug delivery to improve the therapeutic outcomes of various diseases. Tremendous efforts have been focused on the development of novel nanoparticles and delineation of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles in relation to their biological fate and functions. However, in the design and evaluation of these nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, the pharmacology of delivered drugs and the (patho-)physiology of the host have received less attention. In this review, we discuss important pharmacological mechanisms, physiological characteristics, and pathological factors that have been integrated into the design of nanotechnology-enabled drug delivery systems and therapies...
May 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Yu Mi, Christof C Smith, Feifei Yang, Yanfei Qi, Kyle C Roche, Jonathan S Serody, Benjamin G Vincent, Andrew Z Wang
Combination immunotherapy has recently emerged as a powerful cancer treatment strategy. A promising treatment approach utilizes coadministration of antagonistic antibodies to block checkpoint inhibitor receptors, such as antiprogrammed cell death-1 (aPD1), alongside agonistic antibodies to activate costimulatory receptors, such as antitumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (aOX40). Optimal T-cell activation is achieved when both immunomodulatory agents simultaneously engage T-cells and promote synergistic proactivation signaling...
April 25, 2018: Advanced Materials
Xu Zhou, Long Yang, Xiaoping Tan, Genfu Zhao, Xiaoguang Xie, Guanben Du
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the most significant biomarker for the screening of prostate cancer in human serum. However, most methods for the detection of PSA often require major laboratories, precisely analytical instruments and complicated operations. Currently, the design and development of satisfying electrochemical biosensors based on biomimetic materials (e.g. synthetic receptors) and nanotechnology is highly desired. Thus, we focused on the combination of molecular recognition and versatile nanomaterials in electrochemical devices for advancing their analytical performance and robustness...
April 18, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Weishuo Li, Jin Geng, Helen Titmarsh, Alicia Megia-Fernandez, Kev Dhaliwal, Margaret Frame, Mark Bradley
The combination of controlled living polymerization in association with rapid and highly efficient macromolecule conjugation strategies provides a powerful tool for the synthesis of novel polymeric materials. Here functional block copolymers were rapidly and quantitatively conjugated using an efficient reaction between polymers containing a phenolic group and the 4-phenyl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5(4H)-dione (PTAD) moiety, and used to generate nanoparticles that encapsulated drugs. This rapidly growing field in nanotechnology for biomedical applications provides opportunities to design and develop multifunctional devices that can target, diagnose, controlled delivery of drugs, and treat cancer more efficiently...
April 24, 2018: Biomacromolecules
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