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John D Koerner, Dessislava Z Markova, Greg D Schroeder, Brian P Calio, Anuj Shah, Corbin W Brooks, Alexander R Vaccaro, D Greg Anderson, Chris K Kepler
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The systemic response regarding cytokine expression after application of recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in a rat spinal fusion model has recently been defined1 , but the local response has not. Defining the local cytokine and growth factor response at the fusion site will help explain the roles of these molecules in the fusion process, as well as that of rhBMP-2. Our hypothesis is that application of rhBMP-2 to the fusion site will alter the local levels of cytokines and growth factors throughout the fusion process, in a manner that is different than the systemic response given the tissue-specific effects of rhBMP-2...
March 14, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Shiho Fujita, Toru Hasegawa, Yuki Nishiyama, Satoshi Fujisawa, Yasuhiro Nakano, Takahiro Nada, Nahoko Iwata, Yasuhiko Kamada, Hisashi Masuyama, Fumio Otsuka
The involvement of orexins in reproductive function has been gradually uncovered. However, the functional role of orexins in ovarian steroidogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of orexin A on ovarian steroidogenesis by using rat primary granulosa cells that express both OX1 and OX2 receptors for orexins. Treatment with orexin A enhanced progesterone, but not estradiol, biosynthesis induced by FSH, whereas it did not affect basal levels of progesterone or estradiol. In accordance with the effects on steroidogenesis, orexin A increased the mRNA levels of progesterogenic enzymes, including StAR, P450scc and 3βHSD, but not P450arom, and cellular cAMP synthesis induced by FSH...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Fumio Otsuka
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system in the ovary plays a physiological role as a luteinization inhibitor in growing follicles. BMP-6 secreted from oocytes and granulosa cells can exert an inhibitory effect on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) actions by suppressing adenylate cyclase activity downstream of the FSH receptor. The inhibition of FSH-induced progesterone production by BMP-6 is impaired by melatonin treatment in granulosa cells. Intracellular Smad signaling induced by BMP-6 is suppressed by melatonin, suggesting that melatonin has a regulatory role in BMP receptor signaling in granulosa cells...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Kelli A Davis, Kristin M Klohonatz, Darcy S O Mora, Hannah M Twenter, Peter E Graham, Pablo Pinedo, Douglas C Eckery, Jason E Bruemmer
Currently there is no contraceptive vaccine that can cause permanent sterility in mares. This study investigates the effect of vaccination against oocyte-specific growth factors, Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP-15) and Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF-9), on ovarian function of mares. It was hypothesized that immunization against these growth factors would prevent ovulation and/or accelerate depletion of the oocyte reserve. For this study, 30 mares were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10/group) and vaccinated with BMP-15 or GDF-9 peptides conjugated to KLH and adjuvant, or a control of phosphate buffered saline and adjuvant...
March 6, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Ashley Ratliff, Amy Nishnick, Robert DeChicco, Rocio Lopez
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is a common adverse event associated with parenteral nutrition (PN); however, there is no consensus on optimal glucose monitoring. Unnecessary point-of-care (POC) blood glucose (BG) testing can result in additional healthcare cost and discomfort to the patient. This study's aim was to determine whether decreasing the frequency of POC glucose testing in patients receiving PN can reduce costs without increasing the frequency of glycemic events. METHODS: This study examined adult, noncritically ill patients who require PN and are managed by a nutrition support team...
March 12, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Wanan Xiao, Xiaoxiao Yang, Yang Wang, Jianjun Li
BACKGROUND: Abdominal injuries combined with bone fractures are increasing. Splenectomies are often required, but have prolonged healing time for bone fracture. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore the molecular mechanism for splenectomy delaying fracture healing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-four patients (42 received splenectomy) who received hip fractures operations were recruited in our hospital. One-year follow-up analysis was performed...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
S Guner, S I Guner, M A Gokalp, M F Ceylan, S S Unsal, H Demir
OBJECTIVE: In view of the high occurrence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) after femoral neck fracture and the difficulties in the treatment, our work aimed to explore the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) on the repair of ANFH after femoral neck fracture and to provide reference for clinical treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, TCP group, and PRP+TCP group...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
X-L Zhang, Y-M Wang, K Chu, Z-H Wang, Y-H Liu, L-H Jiang, X Chen, Z-Y Zhou, G Yin
OBJECTIVE: In view of the high occurrence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) after femoral neck fracture and the difficulties in the treatment, our work aimed to explore the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) on the repair of ANFH after femoral neck fracture and to provide reference for clinical treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, TCP group, and PRP+TCP group...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Zetao Chen, Lingling Chen, Runheng Liu, Yixiong Lin, Shoucheng Chen, Shifeier Lu, Zhengmei Lin, Zhuofan Chen, Chengtie Wu, Yin Xiao
A barrier membrane is a major component of guided bone regeneration (GBR), which is traditionally viewed as a physical barrier. Due to its "foreign body" nature, the implantation of a barrier membrane would inevitably modulate immune response and subsequently affect bone dynamics, which has long been neglected. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigated the osteoimmunomodulatory effects of barrier collagen membranes. It is found that barrier collagen membranes elicit significant effects on modulating the osteoimmune response of macrophages, by upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-18) and osteogenic factors (BMP2/6, WNT10b, OSM)...
February 27, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Inka Gallitz, Niklas Lofruthe, Lisa Traeger, Nicole Bäumer, Verena Hoerr, Cornelius Faber, Tanja Kuhlmann, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Andrea U Steinbicker
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory stimuli induce the hepatic iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, which contributes to anaemia of inflammation (AI). Hepcidin expression is regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathways. Prior results indicate that the BMP type I receptor ALK3 is mainly involved in the acute inflammatory hepcidin induction four and 72 h after IL-6 administration. In this study, the role of ALK3 in a chronic model of inflammation was investigated...
February 27, 2018: BMC Physiology
Erik V Munsell, Deepa S Kurpad, Theresa A Freeman, Millicent O Sullivan
Skeletal tissue regeneration following traumatic injury involves a complex cascade of growth factor signals that direct the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the fracture. The necessity for controlled and localized expression of these factors has highlighted the role gene therapy may play as a promising treatment option for bone repair. However, the design of nanocarrier systems that negotiate efficient intracellular trafficking and nuclear delivery represents a significant challenge. Recent investigations have highlighted the roles histone tail sequences play in directing nuclear delivery and activating DNA transcription...
February 23, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Matthew T Morris, Sandip P Tarpada, Woojin Cho
BACKGROUND: Iliac crest has long been the gold standard for lumbar fusion, but concerns over donor site morbidity have led to a wide variety of bone graft substitutes. Despite prolific research, a general consensus is yet to be reached on bone graft materials that lead to optimal fusion. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature for bone graft material options that maximize fusion rate in posterolateral lumbar fusion surgery. DESIGN: Systematic Review...
February 14, 2018: European Spine Journal
Edit Hrubi, László Imre, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz, László Virág, Farkas Kerényi, Krisztina Nagy, Gábor Varga, Attila Jenei, Csaba Hegedüs
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), is a potential factor to enhance osseointegration of dental implants. However, the appropriate cellular system to investigate the osteogenic effect of BMP-2 in vitro in a standardized manner still needs to be defined. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of BMP-2 on the cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human osteogenic progenitors of various origins: dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) and human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell line (HEPM)...
February 13, 2018: Human Cell
Ruixin Zhen, Jianing Yang, Yu Wang, Yubo Li, Bin Chen, Youxin Song, Guiyun Ma, Bo Yang
Bone regeneration is an important process associated with the treatment of osteonecrosis, which is caused by various factors. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an active biological factor that has multifunctional roles in cell biology, life sciences and clinical medicine. It has previously been suggested that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)‑2 exerts beneficial roles in bone formation, repair and angiogenesis in the femoral head. The present study aimed to investigate the benefits and molecular mechanisms of HGF in bone regeneration...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
C C Ude, B S Shamsul, M H Ng, H C Chen, Htwe Ohnmar, S N Amaramalar, A R Rizal, A Johan, M Y Norhamdan, M Azizi, B S Aminuddin, B H I Ruszymah
BACKGROUND: Hyaline articular cartilage, which protects the bones of diarthrodial joints from forces associated with load bearing, frictions, and impacts has very limited capacities for self-repair. Over the years, the trend of treatments has shifted to regenerations and researchers have been on the quest for a lasting regeneration. We evaluated the treatment of osteoarthritis by chondrogenically induced ADSCs and BMSCs for a long time functional recovery. METHODS: Osteoarthritis was induced at the right knee of sheep by complete resection of ACL and medial meniscus...
January 29, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
W L O da Rosa, E Piva, A F Silva
The discovery that dentine is a reservoir of bioactive molecules that can be recruited on demand has attracted efforts to develop new protocols and materials for vital pulp therapy (VPT). The non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) present in the dentine extracellular matrix (ECM) include growth factors (TGF-β1, BMP-7, FGF-2, IGF-1 and -2, NGF, and GDNF), extracellular matrix molecules (DSP, DPP, BSP, DMP-1, and DSPP), and both anti- and pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10). Molecules such as DSP and DPP are mainly expressed by odontoblasts, and they are cleaved products from dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)...
February 6, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Hongxing Liao, Zhixiong Zhong, Zhanliang Liu, Liangping Li, Zemin Ling, Xuenong Zou
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) treated with a combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) genes for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). Rat BMSCs were isolated and purified using a density gradient centrifugation method. The purity and characteristics of the BMSCs were detected by cell surface antigens identification using flow cytometry. The experimental groups were administered with one of the following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector constructs: AAV-green fluorescent protein (AAV-GFP), AAV-BMP-6, AAV-VEGF or AAV-VEGF-BMP-6...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ru-Lin Huang, Yangbai Sun, Chia-Kang Ho, Kai Liu, Qi-Qun Tang, Yun Xie, Qingfeng Li
Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is widely used in the clinic for bone defect reconstruction because of its powerful osteoinductive capacity. However, commercially available rhBMP-2 requires a high concentration in the clinical setting for consistent bone formation. A high dose of rhBMP-2 induces a promising bone formation yield but also leads to inflammation-related events, deteriorated bone quality, and fatty tissue formation. We hypothesize that the seemingly contradictory phenomenon of coformation of new bone and excessive adipose tissue in rhBMP-2-induced bone voids may be associated with interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is significantly elevated after application of rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS)...
February 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Mahvash Hadavi, Sadegh Hasannia, Shahab Faghihi, Farhad Mashayekhi, Homayoun Homazadeh, Seyed Behrooz Mostofi
Zein nanoparticles as a carrier system for BMP6-derived peptide were prepared by liquid-liquid phase separation procedure and characterized with SEM, DLS, FTIR and thermogravimetric methods. After peptide encapsulation, nanoparticle size increased from 236.3 ± 92.2 nm to 379.4 ± 116.8 nm. The encapsulation efficiency of peptide was 72.6% and the release of peptide from Zein nanoparticles was partly sustained in trypsin containing phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) for up to 14 days. Peptide-loaded nanoparticles showed similar cell viability compared with blank ones...
January 26, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
X-X Liu, J-F Pan, Q-J Zhao, X-H He, Y-B Pu, J-L Han, Y-H Ma, L Jiang
The X chromosome shows a special interaction between demographic factors and genetic variation, and the analysis of X-linked genomic variation can therefore provide insights into the unique effects of demography and selection on the horse genome that cannot be readily detected by autosomal markers. Debao (DB) ponies have experienced intense selective pressure for the development of their small stature (<106 cm at adult height). To identify selective sweeps on the X chromosome of the DB pony, we performed a genome-wide scan of three Chinese horse breeds using an Equine SNP70 BeadChip...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
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