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Tumour associated antigens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327112/prognosis-of-ulcerative-colitis-colorectal-cancer-vs-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#1
Yoon Dae Han, Mahdi Hussain Al Bandar, Audrius Dulskas, Min Soo Cho, Hyuk Hur, Byung Soh Min, Kang Young Lee, Nam Kyu Kim
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) harbours a high risk of UC-associated colorectal cancer (UCCC), which is important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Overall Survival (OS) of patients with UCCC has not been addressed well in the literature. Thus, we compared oncologic outcome of UCCC and sporadic colorectal cancer (SCC) using propensity score matching analysis. METHODS: Propensity score matching was performed for 36 patients, a 1:1 matching method stratified into 18 in UCCC and 18 patients in SCC...
March 21, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321130/effective-combinatorial-immunotherapy-for-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#2
Xin Lu, James W Horner, Erin Paul, Xiaoying Shang, Patricia Troncoso, Pingna Deng, Shan Jiang, Qing Chang, Denise J Spring, Padmanee Sharma, John A Zebala, Dean Y Maeda, Y Alan Wang, Ronald A DePinho
A significant fraction of patients with advanced prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy experience relapse with relentless progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Immune checkpoint blockade using antibodies against cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) or programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD1/PD-L1) generates durable therapeutic responses in a significant subset of patients across a variety of cancer types. However, mCRPC showed overwhelming de novo resistance to immune checkpoint blockade, motivating a search for targeted therapies that overcome this resistance...
March 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318643/cxcl10-alters-the-tumour-immune-microenvironment-and-disease-progression-in-a-syngeneic-murine-model-of-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#3
Katrina K Au, Nichole Peterson, Peter Truesdell, Gillian Reid-Schachter, Kasra Khalaj, Runhan Ren, Julie-Ann Francis, Charles H Graham, Andrew W Craig, Madhuri Koti
OBJECTIVE: We recently established that high STAT1 expression and associated T helper type I tumour immune microenvironment (TME) are prognostic and chemotherapy response predictive biomarkers in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). STAT1 induced chemokine CXCL10 is key to the recruitment of lymphocytes in the TME and is significantly highly expressed in the tumours from patients with longer survival. In the current study we therefore aimed to elucidate the role CXCL10 in disease progression and tumour immune transcriptomic alterations using the ID8 syngeneic murine model of HGSC...
March 16, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287107/dying-cells-actively-regulate-adaptive-immune-responses
#4
REVIEW
Nader Yatim, Sean Cullen, Matthew L Albert
Dying cells have an important role in the initiation of CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity. The cross-presentation of antigens derived from dying cells enables dendritic cells to present exogenous tissue-restricted or tumour-restricted proteins on MHC class I molecules. Importantly, this pathway has been implicated in multiple autoimmune diseases and accounts for the priming of tumour antigen-specific T cells. Recent data have revealed that in addition to antigen, dying cells provide inflammatory and immunogenic signals that determine the efficiency of CD8(+) T cell cross-priming...
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285269/cancer-antigen-125-plasma-level-as-a-biomarker-of-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-in-postmenopausal-women
#5
Haruki Sekiguchi, Ken Shimamoto, Mayu Takano, Makiko Kimura, Yufuko Takahashi, Fujio Tatsumi, Eri Watanabe, Kentaro Jujo, Naoko Ishizuka, Masatoshi Kawana, Nobuhisa Hagiwara
OBJECTIVE: Plasma cancer antigen (CA)-125 is a tumour marker recently shown to be associated with systolic heart failure and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial infarction. However, no reports have described the relationship between CA-125 and new-onset AF in healthy postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between CA-125 and new-onset AF in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2015, 2086 women, including 1012 postmenopausal women, visited our hospital for annual health check-ups...
March 11, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284226/enhanced-susceptibility-of-triple-transgenic-alzheimer-s-disease-3xtg-ad-mice-to-acute-infection
#6
Rebecca Montacute, Kerry Foley, Ruth Forman, Kathryn Jane Else, Sheena Margaret Cruickshank, Stuart McRae Allan
BACKGROUND: Infection is a recognised risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can worsen symptoms in established disease. AD patients have higher rates of infection and are more likely to require hospital admissions due to infections than individuals without dementia. Infections have also been found to increase the risk of those over 84 years of age being diagnosed with dementia. However, few studies have investigated immune responses to infection in AD. METHODS: Here, we investigated the immune responses of the triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD) mouse model of AD to infection with the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Trichuris muris...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275910/mechanisms-of-drug-resistance-in-melanoma
#7
Matthew Winder, Amaya Virós
Metastatic melanoma is associated with poor outcome and is largely refractory to the historic standard of care. In recent years, the development of targeted small-molecule inhibitors and immunotherapy has revolutionised the care and improved the overall survival of these patients. Therapies targeting BRAF and MEK to block the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were the first to show unprecedented clinical responses. Following these encouraging results, antibodies targeting immune checkpoint inhibition molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death (PD)-1, and PD-ligand1(PD-L1) demonstrated sustained tumour regression in a significant subset of patients by enabling an anti-tumour immunologic response...
March 9, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250926/tumour-cell-conditioned-medium-reveals-greater-m2-skewing-of-macrophages-in-the-absence-of-properdin
#8
Izzat A M Al-Rayahi, Michael J Browning, Cordula Stover
INTRODUCTION: The tumour microenvironment is shaped by the interaction of immune, non immune, and tumour cells present in close proximity. Tumour cells direct the development of a locally immune suppressed state, affecting the activity of anti tumour T cells and preparing the escape phase of tumour development. Macrophages in the tumour typically develop into so-called tumour associated macrophages with a distinct profile of activities which lead to a reduction in inflammation and antigen presentation...
March 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241429/current-insights-into-long-non-coding-rnas-lncrnas-in-prostate-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Maria A Smolle, Thomas Bauernhofer, Karl Pummer, George A Calin, Martin Pichler
The importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of various malignancies has been uncovered over the last few years. Their dysregulation often contributes to or is a result of tumour progression. In prostate cancer, the most common malignancy in men, lncRNAs can promote castration resistance, cell proliferation, invasion, and metastatic spread. Expression patterns of lncRNAs often change during tumour progression; their expression levels may constantly rise (e.g., HOX transcript antisense RNA, HOTAIR), or steadily decrease (e...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224705/the-role-of-exosomes-in-hepatitis-liver-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Jiliang Shen, Chiung-Kuei Huang, Hong Yu, Bo Shen, Yaping Zhang, Yuelong Liang, Zheyong Li, Xu Feng, Jie Zhao, Lian Duan, Xiujun Cai
Exosomes are small vesicles that were initially thought to be a mechanism for discarding unneeded membrane proteins from reticulocytes. Their mediation of intercellular communication appears to be associated with several biological functions. Current studies have shown that most mammalian cells undergo the process of exosome formation and utilize exosome-mediated cell communication. Exosomes contain various microRNAs, mRNAs and proteins. They have been reported to mediate multiple functions, such as antigen presentation, immune escape and tumour progression...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196367/clinical-factors-predicting-tumour-upgrading-in-patients-under-active-surveillance-and-elected-to-active-treatment-after-disease-reclassification-or-progression
#11
Antonio Benito Porcaro, Francesca Cavicchioli, Nicolò De Luyk, Daniele Mattevi, Paolo Corsi, Marco Sebben, Alessandro Tafuri, Tania Processali, Davide Inverardi, Giovanni Cacciamani, Davide De Marchi, Matteo Balzarro, Maria A Cerruto, Matteo Brunelli, Giovanni Novella, Salvatore Siracusano, Walter Artibani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical factors associated with tumour upgrading (UPG) in low-intermediate risk patients who progressed while under active surveillance (AS) and underwent delayed radical prostatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluated factors included prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density and number of biopsy positive cores (BPC). Multivariate logistic regression by the forward step Wald procedure was used. RESULTS: The study evaluated 24 patients who had UPG in 13 cases (54...
February 14, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187738/naturally-occurring-anti-glycan-antibodies-binding-to-globo-h-expressing-cells-identify-ovarian-cancer-patients
#12
Tatiana Pochechueva, Shahidul Alam, Andreas Schötzau, Alexander Chinarev, Nicolai V Bovin, Neville F Hacker, Francis Jacob, Viola Heinzelmann-Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Glycosphingolipids are important compounds of the plasma membrane of mammalian cells and a number of them have been associated with malignant transformation and progression, reinforcing tumour aggressiveness and metastasis. Here we investigated the levels of naturally occurring anti-glycan antibodies to Globo H in blood plasma obtained from high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients (SOC) and women without gynaecological malignancies (control) using suspension glycan array technology employing chemically synthesized glycans as antibody targets...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156048/targeted-o-glycoproteomics-explored-increased-sialylation-and-identified-muc16-as-a-poor-prognosis-biomarker-in-advanced-stage-bladder-tumours
#13
Sofia Cotton, Rita Azevedo, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Dylan Ferreira, Luís Lima, Andreia Peixoto, Elisabete Fernandes, Manuel Neves, Diogo Neves, Teresina Amaro, Ricardo Cruz, Ana Tavares, Maria Rangel, André M N Silva, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
Bladder carcinogenesis and tumour progression is accompanied by profound alterations in protein glycosylation on the cell surface, which may be explored for improving disease management. In a search for prognosis biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets we have screened, using immunohistochemistry, a series of bladder tumours with differing clinicopathology for short-chain O-glycans commonly found in glycoproteins of human solid tumours. These included the Tn and T antigens and their sialylated counterparts sialyl-Tn(STn) and sialyl-T(ST), which are generally associated with poor prognosis...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151805/comparison-of-tissue-factor-expression-and-activity-in-foetal-and-adult-endothelial-cells
#14
Mary E W Collier, Atinuke Akinmolayan, Alison H Goodall
Tissue factor (TF) is not usually expressed by endothelial cells but can be induced in these cells by inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as a model to examine the regulation of TF expression. However, there is a question as to whether this reflects TF expression in adult endothelial cells. This study compared TF expression and the release of TF-positive microvesicles in HUVEC and adult human dermal blood endothelial cells (HDBEC) in response to tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β)...
February 1, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143425/higher-igfbp-1-to-igf-1-serum-ratio-predicts-unfavourable-survival-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#15
Xinwei Feng, Jianhua Lin, Shan Xing, Wanli Liu, Ge Zhang
BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. However, little is known about the expression of the IGF system components and their clinicopathological significance and prognostic value in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: IGF system components (IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1SR, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-6) were quantified from the plasma of NPC patients and healthy individuals using the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array...
January 31, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131394/novel-adenovirus-encoded-virus-like-particles-displaying-the-placental-malaria-associated-var2csa-antigen
#16
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Mafalda Resende, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Peter J Holst
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria and the CSA binding region of VAR2CSA has been identified as a promising vaccine target against placental malaria. Here we designed adenovirus encoded virus-like particles (VLP) by co-encoding Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) gag and VAR2CSA...
January 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117926/synthetic-fusion-protein-car-technology-to-redirect-t-cell-antigen-specificity-to-promote-organ-transplant-tolerance
#17
EDITORIAL
Sophie Brouard, Nuala Mooney
Long-term graft acceptance of a transplanted organ is possible thanks to daily intake of immunosuppressive drugs. Whereas tremendous efforts and progress have been made to improve drug efficiency, current immunosuppressive treatments are still unable to prevent rejection in the long-term and are associated with a significant risk of tumour development. Novel "next generation" strategies, avoiding pan-immunosuppression, are therefore urgently required to target alloreactive T cells and graft rejection This article is protected by copyright...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112205/a-human-immunodeficiency-syndrome-caused-by-mutations-in-carmil2
#18
T Schober, T Magg, M Laschinger, M Rohlfs, N D Linhares, J Puchalka, T Weisser, K Fehlner, J Mautner, C Walz, K Hussein, G Jaeger, B Kammer, I Schmid, M Bahia, S D Pena, U Behrends, B H Belohradsky, C Klein, F Hauck
Human T-cell function is dependent on T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and co-signalling as evidenced by immunodeficiencies affecting TCR-dependent signalling pathways. Here, we show four human patients with EBV(+) disseminated smooth muscle tumours that carry two homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the CARMIL2 (RLTPR) gene encoding the capping protein regulator and myosin 1 linker 2. These patients lack regulatory T cells without evidence of organ-specific autoimmunity, and have defective CD28 co-signalling associated with impaired T-cell activation, differentiation and function, as well as perturbed cytoskeletal organization associated with T-cell polarity and migration disorders...
January 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105158/time-dependent-transition-of-the-immunoglobulin-g-subclass-and-immunoglobulin-e-response-in-cancer-patients-vaccinated-with-cholesteryl-pullulan-melanoma-antigen-gene-a4-nanogel
#19
Noriaki Kyogoku, Hiroaki Ikeda, Takahiro Tsuchikawa, Takehiro Abiko, Aki Fujiwara, Takehiro Maki, Yoshiyuki Yamamura, Masaomi Ichinokawa, Kimitaka Tanaka, Naoko Imai, Yoshihiro Miyahara, Shinichi Kageyama, Hiroshi Shiku, Satoshi Hirano
A phase I+II clinical trial of vaccination with MAGE-A4 protein complexed with cholesteryl pullulan melanoma antigen gene-A4 nanogel (CHP-MAGE-A4) is currently underway in patients with MAGE-A4-expressing cancer. In the present study, the primary phase I endpoint was to test the safety of the administration of 300 µg CHP-MAGE-A4 with and without OK-432. Another aim of the study was to clarify the details of the specific humoral immune response to vaccination. The 9 patients enrolled for phase I were vaccinated 6 times, once every 2 weeks: 3 patients with 100 µg and 3 patients with 300 µg CHP-MAGE-A4, and 3 patients with 300 µg CHP-MAGE-A4 plus 0...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104440/twin-screw-extruded-lipid-implants-containing-trp2-peptide-for-tumour-therapy
#20
Marie-Paule Even, Sharan Bobbala, Blake Gibson, Sarah Hook, Gerhard Winter, Julia Engert
Much effort has been put in the development of specific anti-tumour immunotherapies over the last few years, and several studies report on the use of liposomal carriers for tumour-associated antigens. In this work, the use of lipid implants, prepared using two different extruders, was investigated for sustained delivery in tumour therapy. The implants consisted of cholesterol, soybean lecithin, Dynasan 114, trehalose, ovalbumin (OVA) or a TRP2 peptide, and Quil-A. Implants were first produced on a Haake Minilab extruder, and then a scale-down to minimal quantities of material on a small scale ZE mini extruder was performed...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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