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Tumour associated antigens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922697/regulation-of-pd-l1-expression-in-a-high-grade-invasive-human-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-microenvironment
#1
Mariko Hirai, Hiroko Kitahara, Yutaka Kobayashi, Koroku Kato, George Bou-Gharios, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Shuichi Kawashiri
Blockade of the programmed-death 1 receptor (PD-1)/programmed-death ligand (PD-L1) pathway efficiently reduces tumour growth and improves survival. Durable tumour regression with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint has been demonstrated in recent clinical studies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is highly immunosuppressive, and PD-L1 expression has been proposed as a potential mechanism responsible for this phenotype. Despite the fact that anti-PD-1 treatment can produce durable responses, such therapy appears to benefit only a subset of patients...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905107/co-operative-suppression-of-inflammatory-responses-in-human-dendritic-cells-by-plant-proanthocyanidins-and-products-from-the-parasitic-nematode-trichuris-suis
#2
Andrew R Williams, Elsenoor J Klaver, Lisa C Laan, Aina Ramsay, Christos Fryganas, Rolf Difborg, Helene Kringel, Jess D Reed, Irene Mueller-Harvey, Søren Skov, Irma van Die, Stig M Thamsborg
Interactions between dendritic cells (DCs) and environmental, dietary and pathogen antigens play a key role in immune homeostasis and regulation of inflammation. Dietary polyphenols such as proanthocyanidins (PAC) may reduce inflammation, and we therefore hypothesized that PAC may suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced responses in human DCs and subsequent T helper type 1 (Th1) -type responses in naive T cells. Moreover, we proposed that, because DCs are likely to be exposed to multiple stimuli, the activity of PAC may synergise with other bioactive molecules that have anti-inflammatory activity, e...
November 7, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875523/a-protein-fragment-derived-from-dna-topoisomerase-i-as-a-novel-tumour-associated-antigen-for-the-detection-of-early-stage-carcinoma
#3
Shang-Mian Yie, Shang-Rong Ye, Xiao-Li Ma, Ke Xie, Jian-Bo Zhang, Mei Cao, Xu He, Zhen-Bo Hu, Cheng-Lu Yang, Jia Zhang, Jie Zeng
BACKGROUND: The production of autoantibodies against tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) is believed to reflect greater immunologic reactivity in cancer patients and enhanced immune surveillance for cancer cells. Over the past few decades, a number of different TAAs and their corresponding autoantibodies have been investigated. However, positive frequency of autoantibody detection in cancer patients has been relatively low. Here we describe a novel TAA that was a fragment derived from human DNA-topoiomerase I and an autoantibody against the novel TAA with relatively high positive frequency in the sera of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869121/direct-identification-of-clinically-relevant-neoepitopes-presented-on-native-human-melanoma-tissue-by-mass-spectrometry
#4
Michal Bassani-Sternberg, Eva Bräunlein, Richard Klar, Thomas Engleitner, Pavel Sinitcyn, Stefan Audehm, Melanie Straub, Julia Weber, Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Katja Specht, Marc E Martignoni, Angelika Werner, Rüdiger Hein, Dirk H Busch, Christian Peschel, Roland Rad, Jürgen Cox, Matthias Mann, Angela M Krackhardt
Although mutations may represent attractive targets for immunotherapy, direct identification of mutated peptide ligands isolated from human leucocyte antigens (HLA) on the surface of native tumour tissue has so far not been successful. Using advanced mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, we survey the melanoma-associated immunopeptidome to a depth of 95,500 patient-presented peptides. We thereby discover a large spectrum of attractive target antigen candidates including cancer testis antigens and phosphopeptides...
November 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864450/mage-a-family-expression-is-correlated-with-poor-survival-of-patients-with-lung-adenocarcinoma-a-retrospective-clinical-study-based-on-tissue-microarray
#5
Meixiang Sang, Lina Gu, Danjing Yin, Fei Liu, Yishui Lian, Xiaochong Zhang, Shina Liu, Weina Huang, Yunyan Wu, Baoen Shan
OBJECTIVES: As the best characterised cancer/testis antigen family members, melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE) have been reported to be expressed in various malignant tumours. However, the expression pattern of MAGE-A family in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) specimens and their prognostic and therapeutic significance for patients with LAC is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry analysis was used to examine the expression of MAGE-A family members (including MAGE-A1, A2, A3, A4, A6, A10, A11 and A12) in 105 paired LAC specimens and the corresponding pericarcinoma specimens...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853516/pattern-of-triple-negative-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-in-indigenous-african-women
#6
Mustapha Akanji Ajani, Ayodeji Akeem Salami, Olutosin Alaba Awolude, Abideen Olayiwola Oluwasola
Background: Triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer (TNEOC)  refers to ovarian carcinomas that do not express estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor- type 2 (HER-2/neu).  The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of triple negative epithelial ovarian cancer in indigenous African women. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of ER, PR and HER-2/neu expression in 90 Nigerian patients with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833666/the-role-of-testosterone-in-colorectal-carcinoma-pathomechanisms-and-open-questions
#7
REVIEW
Mohsin H K Roshan, Amos Tambo, Nikolai P Pace
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth commonest type of malignancy after breast, lung and prostate in the USA and accounts for approximately 49,190 deaths annually in USA alone. The 5-year survival rate of CRC has increased over the past decades, in part, due to greater awareness and the widespread implementation of national screening programmes. Recently, a number of studies reported that males have a higher risk of developing CRC due to the action of testosterone. Testosterone is an androgen that is responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics and for spermatogenesis...
2016: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825697/geriatric-factors-analyses-from-ffcd-2001-02-phase-iii-study-of-first-line-chemotherapy-for-elderly-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients
#8
Thomas Aparicio, Dany Gargot, Laurent Teillet, Emilie Maillard, Dominique Genet, Jacques Cretin, Christophe Locher, Olivier Bouché, Gilles Breysacher, Jean-François Seitz, Mohamed Gasmi, Laetitia Stefani, Mohamed Ramdani, Thierry Lecomte, Dominique Auby, Roger Faroux, Jean-Baptiste Bachet, Céline Lepère, Faiza Khemissa, Iradj Sobhani, Olivier Boulat, Emmanuel Mitry, Jean-Louis Jouve
AIM: Several predictors of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) outcomes have been described. Specific geriatric characteristics could be of interest to determine prognosis. METHOD: Elderly patients (75+) with previously untreated mCRC were randomly assigned to receive infusional 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy, either alone (FU) or in combination with irinotecan (IRI). Geriatric evaluations were included as an optional procedure. The predictive value of geriatric parameters was determined for the objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825375/binding-of-galectin-1-to-breast-cancer-cells-mcf7-induces-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-proliferation-in-vitro-in-a-2d-and-3d-cell-culture-model
#9
Pamina Geiger, Barbara Mayer, Irmi Wiest, Sandra Schulze, Udo Jeschke, Tobias Weissenbacher
BACKGROUND: Galectin-1 (gal-1) belongs to the family of β-galactoside-binding proteins which primarily recognizes the Galβ1-4GlcNAc sequences of oligosaccharides associated with several cell surface glycoconjugates. The lectin recognizes correspondent glycoepitopes on human breast cancer cells. Galectin-1 is expressed both in normal and malignant tissues. Lymphatic organs naturally possessing high rates of apoptotic cells, express high levels of Galectin-1. Furthermore galectin-1 can initiate T cell apoptosis...
November 8, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819678/tet2-binds-the-androgen-receptor-and-loss-is-associated-with-prostate-cancer
#10
M L Nickerson, S Das, K M Im, S Turan, S I Berndt, H Li, H Lou, S A Brodie, J N Billaud, T Zhang, A J Bouk, D Butcher, Z Wang, L Sun, K Misner, W Tan, A Esnakula, D Esposito, W Y Huang, R N Hoover, M A Tucker, J R Keller, J Boland, K Brown, S K Anderson, L E Moore, W B Isaacs, S J Chanock, M Yeager, M Dean, T Andresson
Genetic alterations associated with prostate cancer (PCa) may be identified by sequencing metastatic tumour genomes to identify molecular markers at this lethal stage of disease. Previously, we characterized somatic alterations in metastatic tumours in the methylcytosine dioxygenase ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2), which is altered in 5-15% of myeloid, kidney, colon and PCas. Genome-wide association studies previously identified non-coding risk variants associated with PCa and melanoma. We perform fine-mapping of PCa risk across TET2 using genotypes from the PEGASUS case-control cohort and identify six new risk variants in introns 1 and 2...
November 7, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814616/microglia-glioma-cross-talk-a-two-way-approach-to-new-strategies-against-glioma
#11
Cataldo Arcuri, Bernard Fioretti, Roberta Bianchi, Carmen Mecca, Claudia Tubaro, Tommaso Beccari, Fabio Franciolini, Ileana Giambanco, Rosario Donato
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant and aggressive among primary brain tumors, characterized by very low life expectancy. In vivo, glioma and glioblastoma in particular contain large numbers of immune cells (myeloid cells) such as microglia and tumour-infiltrating macrophages (or glioma associated macrophages). These glioma-infiltrating myeloid cells comprise up to 30% of total tumor mass and have been suggested to play several roles in glioma progression including proliferation, survival, motility and immunosuppression...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808249/apoa-i-mimetic-administration-but-not-increased-apoa-i-containing-hdl-inhibits-tumour-growth-in-a-mouse-model-of-inherited-breast-cancer
#12
Lídia Cedó, Annabel García-León, Lucía Baila-Rueda, David Santos, Victor Grijalva, Melanie Raquel Martínez-Cignoni, José M Carbó, Jari Metso, Laura López-Vilaró, Antonio Zorzano, Annabel F Valledor, Ana Cenarro, Matti Jauhiainen, Enrique Lerma, Alan M Fogelman, Srinivasa T Reddy, Joan Carles Escolà-Gil, Francisco Blanco-Vaca
Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803603/serum-carcinoembryonic-antigen-as-a-tumour-marker-in-patients-with-endometrial-cancer
#13
Y Hashiguchi, M Kasai, T Fukuda, T Ichimura, T Yasui, T Sumi
BACKGROUND: No potential tumour markers have been validated for prognosis in endometrial cancer. However, carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) is one of the most widely used tumour markers in various types of cancer. Although cea expression in endometrial cancer has been investigated, its prognostic value remains controversial, and no studies have investigated serum cea levels in large case series. In the present study, we investigated diagnostic and prognostic applications of serum cea for endometrial cancer...
October 2016: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787640/peripheral-t-cell-responses-to-tumour-antigens-are-associated-with-molecular-immunogenetic-and-cellular-features-of-breast-cancer-patients
#14
Nicole Janssen, Sotirios P Fortis, Lisa Speigl, Christoforos Haritos, Nectaria N Sotiriadou, Michael Sofopoulos, Niki Arnogiannaki, Catherine Stavropoulos-Giokas, Amalia Dinou, Sonia Perez, Graham Pawelec, Constantin N Baxevanis, Christopher Shipp
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in women, but despite steady improvements in therapies, treatment is still suboptimal. Immunotherapy holds promise as a more effective therapy for breast cancer; supporting this, our prior study showed that patients possessing HER2-reactive CD8+ T cells in blood experience survival superior to patients without these cells. Here, we define a composite set of biomarkers that identify patients with T cell responses to tumour antigens...
October 27, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786338/coagulation-factor-xii-induces-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-responses-in-macrophages-and-promotes-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#15
Sandra Vorlova, Miriam Koch, Helga D Manthey, Clement Cochain, Martin Busch, Sweena M Chaudhari, David Stegner, Manuel Yepes, Kristina Lorenz, Marc W Nolte, Bernhard Nieswandt, Alma Zernecke
Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall. Coagulation pathways and immune responses contribute to disease development. The role of coagulation factor XII (FXII) in vascular inflammation, however, remains controversial. We here investigated the function of FXII in atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein E and FXII-deficient (F12(-/-)Apoe(-/-)) mice. Compared to F12(+/+)Apoe(-/-) controls, atherosclerotic lesion formation was reduced in F12(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice. This was associated with a decrease in serum interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-12 levels and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the aorta in atherosclerotic F12(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice, as well as diminished Th1-cell differentiation in the aorta, blood, and lymphoid organs...
October 27, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784903/activating-atr-the-devil-s-in-the-detaa1l
#16
Wojciech Niedzwiedz
Two studies now show that Ewing's tumour-associated antigen 1 (ETAA1) is recruited to sites of DNA replication stress through its interaction with replication protein A, where it stimulates the ATR kinase to promote efficient genome duplication. These findings provide exciting insight into the already very complex regulatory mechanism of the ATR activation cascade.
October 27, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769214/innovate-a-prospective-cohort-study-combining-serum-and-urinary-biomarkers-with-novel-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-prediction-and-characterization-of-prostate-cancer
#17
Edward Johnston, Hayley Pye, Elisenda Bonet-Carne, Eleftheria Panagiotaki, Dominic Patel, Myria Galazi, Susan Heavey, Lina Carmona, Alexander Freeman, Giorgia Trevisan, Clare Allen, Alexander Kirkham, Keith Burling, Nicola Stevens, David Hawkes, Mark Emberton, Caroline Moore, Hashim U Ahmed, David Atkinson, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Tony Ng, Daniel Alexander, Hayley Whitaker, Shonit Punwani
BACKGROUND: Whilst multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) has been a significant advance in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, scanning all patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels is considered too costly for widespread National Health Service (NHS) use, as the predictive value of PSA levels for significant disease is poor. Despite the fact that novel blood and urine tests are available which may predict aggressive disease better than PSA, they are not routinely employed due to a lack of clinical validity studies...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767031/photothermal-therapy-with-immune-adjuvant-nanoparticles-together-with-checkpoint-blockade-for-effective-cancer-immunotherapy
#18
Qian Chen, Ligeng Xu, Chao Liang, Chao Wang, Rui Peng, Zhuang Liu
A therapeutic strategy that can eliminate primary tumours, inhibit metastases, and prevent tumour relapses is developed herein by combining adjuvant nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy with checkpoint-blockade immunotherapy. Indocyanine green (ICG), a photothermal agent, and imiquimod (R837), a Toll-like-receptor-7 agonist, are co-encapsulated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The formed PLGA-ICG-R837 nanoparticles composed purely by three clinically approved components can be used for near-infrared laser-triggered photothermal ablation of primary tumours, generating tumour-associated antigens, which in the presence of R837-containing nanoparticles as the adjuvant can show vaccine-like functions...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757559/5t4-oncofoetal-antigen-an-attractive-target-for-immune-intervention-in-cancer
#19
Peter L Stern, Richard Harrop
The natural history of a patient's cancer is often characterised by genetic diversity and sequential sweeps of clonal dominance. It is therefore not surprising that identifying the most appropriate tumour-associated antigen for targeted intervention is challenging. The 5T4 oncofoetal antigen was identified by searching for surface molecules shared between human trophoblast and cancer cells with the rationale that they may function to allow survival of the foetus as a semi-allograft in the mother or a tumour in its host...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743144/advances-in-immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-glioblastoma
#20
Amanda Tivnan, Tatjana Heilinger, Ed C Lavelle, Jochen H M Prehn
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumour, associated with extremely poor prognosis and although there have been therapeutic advances, treatment options remain limited. This review focuses on the use of immunotherapy, harnessing the power of the host's immune system to reject cancer cells. Key challenges in glioma specific immunotherapy as with many other cancers are the limited immunogenicity of the cancer cells and the immunosuppressive environment of the tumour. Although specific antigens have been identified in several cancers; brain tumours, such as GBM, are considered poorly immunogenic...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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