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Tumour associated antigens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635677/t-cell-manipulation-strategies-to-prevent-graft-versus-host-disease-in-haploidentical-stem-cell-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Sergio Rutella
Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from an human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical donor can be curative for eligible patients with non-malignant and malignant haematological disorders. HSCT from alternative donor sources, such as HLA-mismatched haploidentical donors, is increasingly considered as a viable therapeutic option for patients lacking HLA-matched donors. Initial attempts at haploidentical HSCT were associated with vigorous bidirectional alloreactivity, leading to unacceptably high rates of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)...
June 21, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634106/biology-evolution-and-medical-importance-of-polyomaviruses-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Ugo Moens, Andi Krumbholz, Bernhard Ehlers, Roland Zell, Reimar Johne, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Chris Lauber
The family Polyomaviridae encompasses non-enveloped viruses with a circular dsDNA genome that is typically approximately 5000bp in length. Originally isolated from mammals, polyomavirus sequences have now been detected in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although it remains to be determined whether all these animals are genuine hosts. The genomes of all polyomaviruses encode at least two regulatory proteins (large and small tumour antigen) and two structural proteins (capsid proteins VP1 and VP2) whose functions have been defined...
June 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632300/chemo-bacterial-synthesis-of-a-sialyl-tn-cyclopeptide-vaccine-candidate
#3
Emeline Richard, C Pifferi, M Fiore, Eric Samain, Audrey Le Gouellec, Sébastien Fort, Olivier Renaudet, Bernard Priem
A conjugatable form of the tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Tn (Neu5Ac-alfa-2,6-GalNAc) was efficiently produced in Escherichia coli. Metabolically engineered E. coli strains overexpressing the 6-sialyl-transferase gene of Photobacterium sp. and CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase genes of Neisseria meningitidis were cultivated at high density in presence of GalNAc-alfa-propargyl as the exogeneous acceptor. The target disaccharides, which were produced on the scale of several hundred milligrams, were then conjugated using CuAAC click chemistry to a fully synthetic and immunogenic scaffold with the aim to create a candidate anticancer vaccine...
June 20, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622612/influence-of-age-and-comorbidity-on-prognosis-and-application-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-elderly-japanese-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-a-retrospective-multicentre-study
#4
Tomoki Yamano, Shinichi Yamauchi, Kei Kimura, Akihito Babaya, Michiko Hamanaka, Masayoshi Kobayashi, Miki Fukumoto, Kiyoshi Tsukamoto, Masafumi Noda, Naohiro Tomita, Kenichi Sugihara
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients aged ≥75 years is supported by inadequate evidence, although such patients are increasing in number worldwide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed the influence of age and comorbidities on the prognosis of CRC in elderly patients using pooled data by the Japanese Study Group for Postoperative Follow-up of Colorectal Cancer. In total, 4598 patients (3304 with colon cancer and 1294 with rectal cancer) who underwent curative surgery from 2004 to 2006 were analysed with respect to age, Charlson comorbidity score (CS), tumour marker positivity, adjuvant therapy and prognosis...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622526/extragastrointestinal-stromal-tumour-of-the-lesser-omentum-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
I E Katsoulis, A Tzortzopoulou, P Tziakou, N Arnogiannaki, I Kostoglou-Athanassiou, G Lypas, I G Karaitianos
INTRODUCTION: Extragastrointestinal stromal tumours (EGISTs) are very uncommon compared to their gastrointestinal counterparts. Most of them originate from the intestinal mesentery and the omentum. CASE REPORT: A 70 year-old Caucasian woman presented with a bulky abdominal mass which on laparotomy was found to originate from the lesser omentum and was completely resected. Histological examination revealed spindle cells with severe pleomorphism and high mitotic activity...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610792/quantitative-and-qualitative-inkt-repertoire-associations-with-disease-susceptibility-and-outcome-in-macaque-tuberculosis-infection
#6
Andrew Chancellor, Andrew White, Anna S Tocheva, Joe R Fenn, Mike Dennis, Liku Tezera, Akul Singhania, Tim Elliott, Marc Tebruegge, Paul Elkington, Stephan Gadola, Sally Sharpe, Salah Mansour
Correlates of immune protection that reliably predict vaccine efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection are urgently needed. Invariant NKT cells (iNKTs) are CD1d-dependent innate T cells that augment host antimicrobial immunity through production of cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We determined peripheral blood iNKT numbers, their proliferative responses and iNKT subset proportions after in vitro antigen expansion by α-galactosylceramide (αGC) in a large cohort of mycobacteria-naïve non-human primates, and macaques from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and Mtb challenge studies...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609309/spontaneous-regression-of-malignant-melanoma-is-it-based-on-the-interplay-between-host-immune-system-and-melanoma-antigens
#7
Monika Cervinkova, Petra Kucerova, Jana Cizkova
Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive and uneasily treatable form of skin cancer. Up to 90% of deaths because of skin tumours are estimated to be caused by this malignancy. Spontaneous regression is described as a partial or complete disappearance of cancer. It can be defined if the clinical and histological diagnosis of malignancy is verified and any therapeutic intervention potentially inducing mechanisms leading to regression has not been applied. Regression occurs more frequently in melanoma than in other types of tumours; it is reported to be six times higher than in other malignancies...
June 12, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607123/plasma-levels-of-intact-and-cleaved-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-upar-in-men-with-clinically-localised-prostate-cancer
#8
Gitte Kristensen, Kasper Drimer Berg, Solvej Lippert, Ib Jarle Christensen, Klaus Brasso, Gunilla Høyer-Hansen, Martin Andreas Røder
AIMS: Lymph node metastasis (N1) is an adverse prognostic factor for men with clinically localised prostate cancer (PCa), but the prediction of N1 disease remains difficult. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. We analysed whether plasma levels of the soluble uPAR forms uPAR(I-III), uPAR(II-III) and uPAR(I) were associated with the risk of N1 disease in men with clinically localised PCa. METHODS: The present study includes all men (n=518) who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localised PCa, 29 of whom had N1 disease...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596508/promoter-hypomethylation-of-ny-eso-1-association-with-clinicopathological-features-and-pd-l1-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Anderly C Chüeh, Mun-Sem Liew, Prudence A Russell, Marzena Walkiewicz, Aparna Jayachandran, Maud H W Starmans, Paul C Boutros, Gavin Wright, Stephen A Barnett, John M Mariadason, Thomas John
Cancer-Testis antigens (CTA) are immunogenic molecules with normal tissue expression restricted to testes but with aberrant expression in up to 30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Regulation of CTA expression is mediated in part through promoter DNA methylation. Recently, immunotherapy has altered treatment paradigms in NSCLC. Given its immunogenicity and ability to be re-expressed through demethylation, NY-ESO-1 promoter methylation, protein expression and its association with programmed death receptor ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression and clinicopathological features were investigated...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585612/-recent-advances-of-immunooncology-in-the-treatment-of-solid-tumours-and-haematological-malignancies-the-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#10
Viktória Fésüs
Cancer immunotherapy is coming of age, as outstanding results can be achieved in the therapy of cancer with poor prognosis by altering the patients' immune system and by promoting the immune response against tumours. Amongst immunotherapies, the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) proved to be the most effective, primarily in the treatment of solid tumours, including melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. The reason for this efficacy is the immunosuppressive microenvironment typical for many cancer types, directly and indirectly inhibiting effector T-cell responses...
June 6, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585539/il-21-mediated-reversal-of-nk-cell-exhaustion-facilitates-anti-tumour-immunity-in-mhc-class-i-deficient-tumours
#11
Hyungseok Seo, Insu Jeon, Byung-Seok Kim, Myunghwan Park, Eun-Ah Bae, Boyeong Song, Choong-Hyun Koh, Kwang-Soo Shin, Il-Kyu Kim, Kiyoung Choi, Taegwon Oh, Jiyoun Min, Byung Soh Min, Yoon Dae Han, Suk-Jo Kang, Sang Joon Shin, Yeonseok Chung, Chang-Yuil Kang
During cancer immunoediting, loss of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) in neoplasm contributes to the evasion of tumours from host immune system. Recent studies have demonstrated that most natural killer (NK) cells that are found in advanced cancers are defective, releasing the malignant MHC-I-deficient tumours from NK-cell-dependent immune control. Here, we show that a natural killer T (NKT)-cell-ligand-loaded tumour-antigen expressing antigen-presenting cell (APC)-based vaccine effectively eradicates these advanced tumours...
June 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572863/epi-drugs-in-combination-with-immunotherapy-a-new-avenue-to-improve-anticancer-efficacy
#12
REVIEW
Roberta Mazzone, Clemens Zwergel, Antonello Mai, Sergio Valente
Immune checkpoint factors, such as programmed cell death protein-1/2 (PD-1, PD-2) or cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) receptors, are targets for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) developed for cancer immunotherapy. Indeed, modulating immune inhibitory pathways has been considered an important breakthrough in cancer treatment. Although immune checkpoint blockade therapy used to treat malignant diseases has provided promising results, both solid and haematological malignancies develop mechanisms that enable themselves to evade the host immune system...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554811/the-impact-of-prostate-cancer-zonal-origin-on-pathological-parameters-at-radical-prostatectomy-and-subsequent-biochemical-failure
#13
Patrick E Teloken, Jian Li, Clifton G Woods, Ronald J Cohen
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of prostatic zone tumour origin on the pathological prognostic features and subsequent biochemical outcomes after radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 7051 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy between September 1998 and December 2016 in Western Australia were divided into high-grade (Gleason sum 4+3, 8 and ≥9, ISUP groups 3, 4 and 5) and low-grade (Gleason sum ≤6 and 3+4, ISUP groups 1 and 2) groups. The t-test and Pearson Chi-square test were used to evaluate differences between the transition zone and peripheral/central zone cancer...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551621/the-expression-of-bts-2-enhances-cell-growth-and-invasiveness-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#14
Quoc Thang Pham, Naohide Oue, Yuji Yamamoto, Yoshinori Shigematsu, Yohei Sekino, Naoya Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Sentani, Naohiro Uraoka, Mamata Tiwari, Wataru Yasui
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common types of cancer in developed countries. Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) gene, which encodes BST2 transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in several cancer types. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and function of BST2 in RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BST2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 123 RCC cases. RNA interference was used to inhibit BST2 expression in a RCC cell line...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548102/replicating-viral-vector-platform-exploits-alarmin-signals-for-potent-cd8-t-cell-mediated-tumour-immunotherapy
#15
Sandra M Kallert, Stephanie Darbre, Weldy V Bonilla, Mario Kreutzfeldt, Nicolas Page, Philipp Müller, Matthias Kreuzaler, Min Lu, Stéphanie Favre, Florian Kreppel, Max Löhning, Sanjiv A Luther, Alfred Zippelius, Doron Merkler, Daniel D Pinschewer
Viral infections lead to alarmin release and elicit potent cytotoxic effector T lymphocyte (CTL(eff)) responses. Conversely, the induction of protective tumour-specific CTL(eff) and their recruitment into the tumour remain challenging tasks. Here we show that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can be engineered to serve as a replication competent, stably-attenuated immunotherapy vector (artLCMV). artLCMV delivers tumour-associated antigens to dendritic cells for efficient CTL priming. Unlike replication-deficient vectors, artLCMV targets also lymphoid tissue stroma cells expressing the alarmin interleukin-33...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537896/5t4-oncofoetal-glycoprotein-an-old-target-for-a-novel-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
Federica Cappuccini, Emily Pollock, Stephen Stribbling, Adrian V S Hill, Irina Redchenko
The tumour-associated antigen 5T4 is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. However to date, reported 5T4-specific cellular immune responses induced by various immunisation platforms have been largely weak or non-existent. In the present study, we have evaluated a heterologous prime boost regime based on the simian adenovirus ChAdOx1 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing 5T4 for immunogenicity and tumour protective efficacy in a mouse cancer model. Vaccination-induced immune responses were strong, durable and attributable primarily to CD8+ T cells...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511371/study-of-serum-total-psa-and-free-psa-as-an-oncological-marker-in-breast-tumour
#17
Elteza Tahjiba Jahir, Runi Devi, Bibhuti Bhushan Borthakur
INTRODUCTION: Breast Cancer (BC) cases are rising alarmingly all over the world and India is not an exception. This rising trend is due to an increased age at first child birth, decreased breast feeding, and the changing lifestyle mostly in urban India. With the advent of more sensitive methodologies and research works in this field, it has been suggested that Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer besides other established tumour markers...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511092/epigenetics-and-immunotherapy-the-current-state-of-play
#18
REVIEW
Jennifer Dunn, Sudha Rao
Cancer cells employ a number of mechanisms to escape immunosurveillance and facilitate tumour progression. The recent explosion of interest in immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint blockade, is a result of discoveries about the fundamental ligand-receptor interactions that occur between immune and cancer cells within the tumour microenvironment. Distinct ligands expressed by cancer cells engage with cell surface receptors on immune cells, triggering inhibitory pathways (such as PD-1/PD-L1) that render immune cells immunologically tolerant...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508448/a-novel-multi-epitope-vaccine-from-mmsa-1-and-dkk1-for-multiple-myeloma-immunotherapy
#19
Chenyang Lu, Shan Meng, Yanxia Jin, Wanggang Zhang, Zongfang Li, Fang Wang, Feng Wang-Johanning, Yongchang Wei, Hailing Liu, Honglei Tu, Dan Su, Aili He, Xingmei Cao, Fuling Zhou
The identification of novel tumour-associated antigens is urgently needed to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy for multiple myeloma (MM). In this study, we identified a membrane protein MMSA-1 (multiple myeloma special antigen-1) that was specifically expressed in MM and exhibited significantly positive correlation with MM. We then identified HLA-A*0201-restricted MMSA-1 epitopes and tested their cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. The MMSA-1 epitope SLSLLTIYV vaccine was shown to induce an obvious CTL response in vitro...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503788/indicators-of-inappropriate-tumour-marker-use-through-the-mining-of-electronic-health-records
#20
Massimo Gion, Giulia Cardinali, Chiara Trevisiol, Marco Zappa, Giulia Rainato, Aline S C Fabricio
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Although the issue of monitoring appropriateness of tumour markers (TMs) request in outpatients remains crucial, proper indicators are still demanding. The present study developed and explored indicators of inappropriate TM ordering in outpatients through the data mining of electronic health records (EHRs). METHODS: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alfa-fetoprotein (AFP), carbohydrate antigen (CA)125, CA15.3, CA19.9, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ordered in outpatients during a year were examined by mining EHRs of a Local Health Authority in Italy...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
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