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Tumour associated antigens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224705/the-role-of-exosomes-in-hepatitis-liver-cirrhosis-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
Jiliang Shen, Chiung-Kuei Huang, Hong Yu, Bo Shen, Yaping Zhang, Yuelong Liang, Zheyong Li, Xu Feng, Jie Zhao, Lian Duan, Xiujun Cai
Exosomes are small vesicles that were initially thought to be a mechanism for discarding unneeded membrane proteins from reticulocytes. Their mediation of intercellular communication appears to be associated with several biological functions. Current studies have shown that most mammalian cells undergo the process of exosome formation and utilize exosome-mediated cell communication. Exosomes contain various microRNAs, mRNAs and proteins. They have been reported to mediate multiple functions, such as antigen presentation, immune escape and tumour progression...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196367/clinical-factors-predicting-tumour-upgrading-in-patients-under-active-surveillance-and-elected-to-active-treatment-after-disease-reclassification-or-progression
#2
Antonio Benito Porcaro, Francesca Cavicchioli, Nicolò De Luyk, Daniele Mattevi, Paolo Corsi, Marco Sebben, Alessandro Tafuri, Tania Processali, Davide Inverardi, Giovanni Cacciamani, Davide De Marchi, Matteo Balzarro, Maria A Cerruto, Matteo Brunelli, Giovanni Novella, Salvatore Siracusano, Walter Artibani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical factors associated with tumour upgrading (UPG) in low-intermediate risk patients who progressed while under active surveillance (AS) and underwent delayed radical prostatectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The evaluated factors included prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, PSA density and number of biopsy positive cores (BPC). Multivariate logistic regression by the forward step Wald procedure was used. RESULTS: The study evaluated 24 patients who had UPG in 13 cases (54...
February 14, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187738/naturally-occurring-anti-glycan-antibodies-binding-to-globo-h-expressing-cells-identify-ovarian-cancer-patients
#3
Tatiana Pochechueva, Shahidul Alam, Andreas Schötzau, Alexander Chinarev, Nicolai V Bovin, Neville F Hacker, Francis Jacob, Viola Heinzelmann-Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Glycosphingolipids are important compounds of the plasma membrane of mammalian cells and a number of them have been associated with malignant transformation and progression, reinforcing tumour aggressiveness and metastasis. Here we investigated the levels of naturally occurring anti-glycan antibodies to Globo H in blood plasma obtained from high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients (SOC) and women without gynaecological malignancies (control) using suspension glycan array technology employing chemically synthesized glycans as antibody targets...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156048/targeted-o-glycoproteomics-explored-increased-sialylation-and-identified-muc16-as-a-poor-prognosis-biomarker-in-advanced-stage-bladder-tumours
#4
Sofia Cotton, Rita Azevedo, Cristiana Gaiteiro, Dylan Ferreira, Luís Lima, Andreia Peixoto, Elisabete Fernandes, Manuel Neves, Diogo Neves, Teresina Amaro, Ricardo Cruz, Ana Tavares, Maria Rangel, André M N Silva, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira
Bladder carcinogenesis and tumour progression is accompanied by profound alterations in protein glycosylation on the cell surface, which may be explored for improving disease management. In a search for prognosis biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets we have screened, using immunohistochemistry, a series of bladder tumours with differing clinicopathology for short-chain O-glycans commonly found in glycoproteins of human solid tumours. These included the Tn and T antigens and their sialylated counterparts sialyl-Tn(STn) and sialyl-T(ST), which are generally associated with poor prognosis...
February 3, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151805/comparison-of-tissue-factor-expression-and-activity-in-foetal-and-adult-endothelial-cells
#5
Mary E W Collier, Atinuke Akinmolayan, Alison H Goodall
Tissue factor (TF) is not usually expressed by endothelial cells but can be induced in these cells by inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as a model to examine the regulation of TF expression. However, there is a question as to whether this reflects TF expression in adult endothelial cells. This study compared TF expression and the release of TF-positive microvesicles in HUVEC and adult human dermal blood endothelial cells (HDBEC) in response to tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β)...
February 1, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143425/higher-igfbp-1-to-igf-1-serum-ratio-predicts-unfavourable-survival-in-patients-with-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#6
Xinwei Feng, Jianhua Lin, Shan Xing, Wanli Liu, Ge Zhang
BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the development and progression of cancer. However, little is known about the expression of the IGF system components and their clinicopathological significance and prognostic value in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: IGF system components (IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1SR, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-6) were quantified from the plasma of NPC patients and healthy individuals using the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array...
January 31, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131394/novel-adenovirus-encoded-virus-like-particles-displaying-the-placental-malaria-associated-var2csa-antigen
#7
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Mafalda Resende, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Peter J Holst
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria and the CSA binding region of VAR2CSA has been identified as a promising vaccine target against placental malaria. Here we designed adenovirus encoded virus-like particles (VLP) by co-encoding Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) gag and VAR2CSA...
January 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117926/synthetic-fusion-protein-car-technology-to-redirect-t-cell-antigen-specificity-to-promote-organ-transplant-tolerance
#8
EDITORIAL
Sophie Brouard, Nuala Mooney
Long-term graft acceptance of a transplanted organ is possible thanks to daily intake of immunosuppressive drugs. Whereas tremendous efforts and progress have been made to improve drug efficiency, current immunosuppressive treatments are still unable to prevent rejection in the long-term and are associated with a significant risk of tumour development. Novel "next generation" strategies, avoiding pan-immunosuppression, are therefore urgently required to target alloreactive T cells and graft rejection This article is protected by copyright...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112205/a-human-immunodeficiency-syndrome-caused-by-mutations-in-carmil2
#9
T Schober, T Magg, M Laschinger, M Rohlfs, N D Linhares, J Puchalka, T Weisser, K Fehlner, J Mautner, C Walz, K Hussein, G Jaeger, B Kammer, I Schmid, M Bahia, S D Pena, U Behrends, B H Belohradsky, C Klein, F Hauck
Human T-cell function is dependent on T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and co-signalling as evidenced by immunodeficiencies affecting TCR-dependent signalling pathways. Here, we show four human patients with EBV(+) disseminated smooth muscle tumours that carry two homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the CARMIL2 (RLTPR) gene encoding the capping protein regulator and myosin 1 linker 2. These patients lack regulatory T cells without evidence of organ-specific autoimmunity, and have defective CD28 co-signalling associated with impaired T-cell activation, differentiation and function, as well as perturbed cytoskeletal organization associated with T-cell polarity and migration disorders...
January 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105158/time-dependent-transition-of-the-immunoglobulin-g-subclass-and-immunoglobulin-e-response-in-cancer-patients-vaccinated-with-cholesteryl-pullulan-melanoma-antigen-gene-a4-nanogel
#10
Noriaki Kyogoku, Hiroaki Ikeda, Takahiro Tsuchikawa, Takehiro Abiko, Aki Fujiwara, Takehiro Maki, Yoshiyuki Yamamura, Masaomi Ichinokawa, Kimitaka Tanaka, Naoko Imai, Yoshihiro Miyahara, Shinichi Kageyama, Hiroshi Shiku, Satoshi Hirano
A phase I+II clinical trial of vaccination with MAGE-A4 protein complexed with cholesteryl pullulan melanoma antigen gene-A4 nanogel (CHP-MAGE-A4) is currently underway in patients with MAGE-A4-expressing cancer. In the present study, the primary phase I endpoint was to test the safety of the administration of 300 µg CHP-MAGE-A4 with and without OK-432. Another aim of the study was to clarify the details of the specific humoral immune response to vaccination. The 9 patients enrolled for phase I were vaccinated 6 times, once every 2 weeks: 3 patients with 100 µg and 3 patients with 300 µg CHP-MAGE-A4, and 3 patients with 300 µg CHP-MAGE-A4 plus 0...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104440/twin-screw-extruded-lipid-implants-containing-trp2-peptide-for-tumour-therapy
#11
Marie-Paule Even, Sharan Bobbala, Blake Gibson, Sarah Hook, Gerhard Winter, Julia Engert
Much effort has been put in the development of specific anti-tumour immunotherapies over the last few years, and several studies report on the use of liposomal carriers for tumour-associated antigens. In this work, the use of lipid implants, prepared using two different extruders, was investigated for sustained delivery in tumour therapy. The implants consisted of cholesterol, soybean lecithin, Dynasan 114, trehalose, ovalbumin (OVA) or a TRP2 peptide, and Quil-A. Implants were first produced on a Haake Minilab extruder, and then a scale-down to minimal quantities of material on a small scale ZE mini extruder was performed...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065411/ki67-assessment-in-breast-cancer-an-update
#12
Frederique Penault-Llorca, Nina Radosevic-Robin
Although immunohistochemical detection of the Ki67 antigen has been used for many years to assess cancer proliferation, this marker is still not recommended for routine use in clinical management of breast cancer. The major reason for this situation is a lack of a standardised procedure for Ki67 assessment as well as persistence of several issues of debate with regards to the Ki67 assay interpretation and the marker's clinical utility. Nowadays Ki67 assessment is principally used for estimation of prognosis and guiding the decision on adjuvant treatment choice, as well as for prediction of response to neoadjuvant treatment in ER+/HER2- breast cancer...
February 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032353/allergooncology-the-impact-of-allergy-in-oncology-eaaci-position-paper
#13
E Jensen-Jarolim, H J Bax, R Bianchini, M Capron, C Corrigan, M Castells, D Dombrowicz, T R Daniels-Wells, J Fazekas, E Fiebiger, S Gatault, H J Gould, J Janda, D H Josephs, P Karagiannis, F Levi-Schaffer, A Meshcheryakova, D Mechtcheriakova, Y Mekori, F Mungenast, E A Nigro, M L Penichet, F Redegeld, L Saul, J Singer, J F Spicer, A G Siccardi, E Spillner, M C Turner, E Untersmayr, L Vangelista, S N Karagiannis
Th2 immunity and allergic immune surveillance play critical roles in host responses to pathogens, parasites and allergens. Numerous studies have reported significant links between Th2 responses and cancer, including insights into the functions of IgE antibodies and associated effector cells in both antitumour immune surveillance and therapy. The interdisciplinary field of AllergoOncology was given Task Force status by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in 2014. Affiliated expert groups focus on the interface between allergic responses and cancer, applied to immune surveillance, immunomodulation and the functions of IgE-mediated immune responses against cancer, to derive novel insights into more effective treatments...
December 29, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013563/pax-5-positivity-in-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-negative-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma
#14
Indu Arun, Paromita Roy, Neeraj Arora, Saurabh Jayant Bhave, Reena Nair, Mammen Chandy
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a subtype of T-cell lymphomas that may mimic several other malignancies morphologically. With the help of immunohistochemistry, most cases of ALCL can be diagnosed on the basis of expression of T-cell lineage associated antigens. However, aberrations in the expression of immunohistochemical markers pose diagnostic challenges. The morphological and immunophenotypic features of ALCL show considerable overlap with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), which is a B-cell lymphoma...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011041/establishment-of-a-patient-derived-xenograft-of-canine-enteropathy-associated-t-cell-lymphoma-large-cell-type
#15
K S Im, J H Kim, A J Graef, I Cornax, D M Seelig, M G O'Sullivan, R C Kovi, J F Modiano
The pathogenesis of canine T-cell lymphoma remains incompletely understood, partly because there are no well-established in-vivo models to study these malignancies. For this study, we generated a patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDTX) from a 10-year-old neutered male golden retriever dog with enteropathy-associated intestinal T-cell lymphoma, large cell type. One of two female, 15-week-old beige/nude/XID mice developed a visible tumour 7 weeks after sections of tumour material from the spleen were surgically implanted...
January 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009609/atypical-intraductal-cribriform-proliferations-of-the-prostate-exhibit-similar-molecular-and-clinicopathologic-characteristics-as-intraductal-carcinoma-of-the-prostate
#16
Richard A Hickman, Hui Yu, Jianhong Li, Max Kong, Rajal B Shah, Ming Zhou, Jonathan Melamed, Fang-Ming Deng
Atypical intraductal cribriform proliferations of the prostate (AIP) are loose cribriform proliferations of luminal cells that exhibit greater architectural complexity and/or nuclear atypia than high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), but lack the diagnostic criteria for intraductal carcinoma (IDC). The significance of AIP has not been formally established. We compared the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of AIP with classic IDC in 310 radical prostatectomy specimens that were received over an 18-month period...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008921/reprogramming-the-immunological-microenvironment-through-radiation-and-targeting-axl
#17
Todd A Aguilera, Marjan Rafat, Laura Castellini, Hussein Shehade, Mihalis S Kariolis, Angela Bik-Yu Hui, Henning Stehr, Rie von Eyben, Dadi Jiang, Lesley G Ellies, Albert C Koong, Maximilian Diehn, Erinn B Rankin, Edward E Graves, Amato J Giaccia
Increasing evidence suggests that ionizing radiation therapy (RT) in combination with checkpoint immunotherapy is highly effective in treating a subset of cancers. To better understand the limited responses to this combination we analysed the genetic, microenvironmental, and immune factors in tumours derived from a transgenic breast cancer model. We identified two tumours with similar growth characteristics but different RT responses primarily due to an antitumour immune response. The combination of RT and checkpoint immunotherapy resulted in cures in the responsive but not the unresponsive tumours...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008905/the-tumour-microenvironment-harbours-ontogenically-distinct-dendritic-cell-populations-with-opposing-effects-on-tumour-immunity
#18
Damya Laoui, Jiri Keirsse, Yannick Morias, Eva Van Overmeire, Xenia Geeraerts, Yvon Elkrim, Mate Kiss, Evangelia Bolli, Qods Lahmar, Dorine Sichien, Jens Serneels, Charlotte L Scott, Louis Boon, Patrick De Baetselier, Massimiliano Mazzone, Martin Guilliams, Jo A Van Ginderachter
Various steady state and inflamed tissues have been shown to contain a heterogeneous DC population consisting of developmentally distinct subsets, including cDC1s, cDC2s and monocyte-derived DCs, displaying differential functional specializations. The identification of functionally distinct tumour-associated DC (TADC) subpopulations could prove essential for the understanding of basic TADC biology and for envisaging targeted immunotherapies. We demonstrate that multiple mouse tumours as well as human tumours harbour ontogenically discrete TADC subsets...
December 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999358/review-of-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis
#19
REVIEW
Victoria Harris, Christopher Jackson, Alan Cooper
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare but life threatening mucocutaneous reaction to drugs or their metabolites. It is characterised by widespread keratinocyte apoptosis and sloughing of the skin, erosions of the mucous membranes, painful blistering, and severe systemic disturbance. The pathophysiology of TEN is incompletely understood. Historically, it has been regarded as a drug-induced immune reaction initiated by cytotoxic lymphocytes via a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted pathway. Several mediators have been identified as contributors to the cell death seen in TEN, including; granulysin, soluble Fas ligand, perforin/granzyme, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand...
December 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979599/estimation-of-tumour-regression-and-growth-rates-during-treatment-in-patients-with-advanced-prostate-cancer-a-retrospective-analysis
#20
Julia Wilkerson, Kald Abdallah, Charles Hugh-Jones, Greg Curt, Mace Rothenberg, Ronit Simantov, Martin Murphy, Joseph Morrell, Joel Beetsch, Daniel J Sargent, Howard I Scher, Peter Lebowitz, Richard Simon, Wilfred D Stein, Susan E Bates, Tito Fojo
BACKGROUND: We applied mathematical models to clinical trial data available at Project Data Sphere LLC (Cary, NC, USA), a non-profit universal access data-sharing warehouse. Our aim was to assess the rates of cancer growth and regression using the comparator groups of eight randomised clinical trials that enrolled patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we used data from eight randomised clinical trials with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer to estimate the growth (g) and regression (d) rates of disease burden over time...
January 2017: Lancet Oncology
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