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Tumour associated antigens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306769/phase-ii-trial-of-ipilimumab-in-melanoma-patients-with-preexisting-humoural-immune-response-to-ny-eso-1
#1
G M Haag, I Zoernig, J C Hassel, N Halama, J Dick, N Lang, L Podola, J Funk, C Ziegelmeier, S Juenger, M Bucur, L Umansky, C S Falk, A Freitag, I Karapanagiotou-Schenkel, P Beckhove, A Enk, D Jaeger
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint therapy has dramatically changed treatment options in patients with metastatic melanoma. However, a relevant part of patients still does not respond to treatment. Data regarding the prognostic or predictive significance of preexisting immune responses against tumour antigens are conflicting. Retrospective data suggested a higher clinical benefit of ipilimumab in melanoma patients with preexisting NY-ESO-1-specific immunity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with previously untreated or treated metastatic melanoma and preexisting humoural immune response against NY-ESO-1 received ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg/kg in week 1, 4, 7, 10 followed by 3-month maintenance treatment for a maximum of 48 weeks...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304532/platelet-count-adamts13-activity-von-willebrand-factor-level-and-survival-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-5-year-follow-up-study
#2
Nóra Garam, Éva Maláti, György Sinkovits, Tímea Gombos, Attila Szederjesi, Loránd Barabás, László Gráf, Judit Kocsis, Zoltán Prohászka
Distant metastasis is a major cause of colorectal cancer-related death, but the mechanism of tumour progression is not fully understood. There is growing evidence of an interaction between tumour cells and platelets which may influence tumour progression and metastasis formation. Quality and quantity of von Willebrand factor may regulate the interaction between tumour cells and platelets. Our aim was to measure the platelet count, von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) levels and ADAMTS13 activity in a large (n = 232) cohort of colorectal cancer patients and to examine their relationships with the stage of the disease and 5-year survival without thrombotic complications using multivariable models...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301248/differences-in-the-plasma-proteome-of-patients-with-hypothyroidism-before-and-after-thyroid-hormone-replacement-a-proteomic-analysis
#3
Assim A Alfadda, Hicham Benabdelkamel, Afshan Masood, Anwar A Jammah, Aishah A Ekhzaimy
Thyroid hormone is a potent stimulator of metabolism, playing a critical role in regulating energy expenditure and in key physiological mechanisms, such as growth and development. Although administration of thyroid hormone in the form of levo thyroxine (l-thyroxine) has been used to treat hypothyroidism for many years, the precise molecular basis of its physiological actions remains uncertain. Our objective was to define the changes in circulating protein levels that characterize alterations in thyroid hormone status...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296226/annexin-a4-fucosylation-enhances-its-interaction-with-the-nf-kb-p50-and-promotes-tumor-progression-of-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinoma
#4
Huimin Wang, Lu Deng, Mingbo Cai, Huiyu Zhuang, Liancheng Zhu, Yingying Hao, Jian Gao, Juanjuan Liu, Xiao Li, Bei Lin
Objective: To study the structural relationship between annexin A4 and the Lewis y antigen and compare their expression and significance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma, and to explore how annexin A4 fucose glycosylation effects the interaction between annexin A4 and NF-kB p50, and how it promotes tumour progression of ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Methods: Structural relationships between annexin A4 and Lewis y antigen were detected using immunoprecipitation. Annexin A4 and Lewis y antigen expression in various subtypes of ovarian cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the relation between their expression was examined...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279613/the-dawn-of-vaccines-for-cancer-prevention
#5
REVIEW
Olivera J Finn
An important role of the immune system is in the surveillance for abnormal or transformed cells, which is known as cancer immunosurveillance. Through this process, the first changes to normal tissue homeostasis caused by infectious or other inflammatory insults can be detected by the immune system through the recognition of antigenic molecules (including tumour antigens) expressed by abnormal cells. However, as they develop, tumour cells can acquire antigenic and other changes that allow them to escape elimination by the immune system...
December 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247502/immunotherapy-excluding-checkpoint-inhibitors-for-stage-i-to-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-with-surgery-or-radiotherapy-with-curative-intent
#6
REVIEW
Jianwei Zhu, Rui Li, Eva Tiselius, Raheleh Roudi, Olivia Teghararian, Chen Suo, Huan Song
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer, accounting for approximately 80% to 85% of all cases. For patients with localised NSCLC (stages I to III), it has been speculated that immunotherapy may be helpful for reducing postoperative recurrence rates, or improving the clinical outcomes of current treatment for unresectable tumours. While several new agents have now entered phase III clinical trials, we felt a systematic review was needed to address the question of the effectiveness and safety of immunotherapy in patients with stages I to III NSCLC...
December 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228136/cd177-neutrophils-suppress-epithelial-cell-tumourigenesis-in-colitis-associated-cancer-and-predict-good-prognosis-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
Guangxi Zhou, Kangsheng Peng, Yang Song, Wenjing Yang, Weigang Shu, Tianming Yu, Lin Yu, Moubin Lin, Qing Wei, Chunqiu Chen, Lu Yin, Yingzi Cong, Zhanju Liu
Neutrophils are found to be infiltrated in tumour tissues of patients with colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and colorectal cancer (CRC), and CD177 is mainly expressed in neutrophils. In our study, expression of CD177 in tumour tissues from patients with CAC or CRC was analysed by qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. We recruited 378 patients with CRC, determined CD177 expression in tumours, and examined its correlation with clinicopathological features. Moreover, CAC model was induced in wild type (WT) and CD177-/- mice by azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
December 8, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208439/de-novo-and-acquired-resistance-to-immune-checkpoint-targeting
#8
REVIEW
Nicholas L Syn, Michele W L Teng, Tony S K Mok, Ross A Soo
Use of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death protein-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4 axes has yielded impressive results in some clinical trials. However, only a subset of patients initially respond to these inhibitors, and increasing clinical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of initial responders ultimately relapse with lethal, drug-resistant disease months or years later. Studies that have used massively parallel sequencing have shed light on the rich functional landscape of mutations that endow tumour cells with the ability to evade T-cell-mediated immunosurveillance...
December 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207829/evaluation-of-tumour-associated-macrophages-and-angiogenesis-in-ameloblastoma
#9
Akinyele O Adisa, Samuel E Udeabor, Anna Orlowska, Robert A Sader, Shahram Ghanaati
Introduction: Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm that has a high recurrence rate. The invasion of adjacent tissue is supported by angiogenesis stimulated by Tumour-Associated Macrophages (TAMs). TAMs are macrophages modified in the milieu of the tumour microenvironment and have very weak or no ability to present antigens. Thus, there is collaboration between the tumour and the tumour microenvironment to maintain tumour enlargement. TAMs exist as the classically activated M1 macrophages that possess antitumour activity and the otherwise activated M2 macrophages that support tumour invasion and metastasis...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203974/deterministic-role-of-cea-and-msi-status-in-predicting-outcome-of-crc-patients-a-perspective-study-amongst-hospital-attending-eastern-indian-populations
#10
Banerjee Koyel, Das Priyabrata, Bhattacharya Rittwika, Dasgupta Swati, Mukhopadhyay Soma, Basak Jayasri, Mukhopadhyay Ashis
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important deterministic factor in predicting colorectal carcinoma (CRC) progression. It is also evident that microsatellite instability (MSI) which results in a hypermutable phenotype of genomic DNA is common in CRC. Owing to the scarcity of reports from India, our aim of this study was to understand the clinicopathological correlations of CEA status with surgery and chemotherapy, correlate the same with socio-demographic status of the patients, determine the MSI status amongst them and understand the prognostic implications of CEA and MSI as CRC progression marker amongst patients...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197269/anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-antibodies-and-b-cell-homeostasis-in-human-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#11
Caterina Defendenti, Fabiola Atzeni, Sergio Malandrin, Sandro Ardizzone, Piero Luigi Almasio, Simone Saibeni, Cristina Bezzio, Simona Bollani, Raffaele Salerno, Paolo Declich, Zoe Sarno, Savino Bruno, Rossella Talotta, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
BACKGROUND: The expression of CD70 on T cells is greatly enhanced by antigen-presenting cell (APC)-associated signals, such as tumour necrosis factor(TNF)-α, which is constitutionally high in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Experimentally, the chronic activation of CD27 as a result of the constitutive expression of CD70 leads to the demise of B cells in bone marrow (BM) and the secondary lymphoid organs. The aim of this study was to assess the number and phenotype of circulating B cell in untreated IBD patients and their counterparts treated with biological anti-TNF drugs...
January 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169628/spinal-cord-compression-in-a-horse-due-to-a-granular-cell-variant-of-neurofibroma
#12
A N E Civello, B Dunkel, B A Summers, H M Martineau
A neurofibroma of granular cell subtype is described in a 7-year-old horse. The horse had a 3-month history of ataxia affecting the forelimbs and hindlimbs, suggesting a C1-C6 neuroanatomical localization. Post-mortem examination revealed an intradural mass arising from the right sixth cervical spinal nerve and compressing the spinal cord. Histologically, the mass was composed largely of wavy spindle cells (a mixture of Schwann cells, perineurial cells and fibroblasts) intimately associated with ropy collagen fibres...
November 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169620/pancreatic-colloid-carcinoma-in-an-elderly-cat
#13
K Hagiwara, M Michishita, H Yoshimura, K Ochiai, D Azakami, T Ishiwata, K Takahashi
A 21-year-old neutered female domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a history of inappetence, vomiting and haematuria. The cat was humanely destroyed at the owner's request and a necropsy examination was performed. A 0.8 × 0.5 × 0.5 cm mass was located in the left lobe of the pancreas. The mass was gelatinous in nature and the external and cut surfaces were pale yellow in colour. Microscopically, the mass was non-capsulated and comprised an accumulation of extracellular stromal mucin containing suspended neoplastic columnar epithelial cells forming tubular structures...
November 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154737/significant-changes-in-itih4-ahsg-orm1-and-cd46-content-in-milk-fat-globule-membrane-proteins-of-ketotic-dairy-cows
#14
Sansi Gao, Wei Yang, Hongjiang Yu, Runqi Liu, Zhihao Dong, Hongyou Zhang, Cheng Xia, Chuang Xu
High concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in cows' blood caused by ketosis are associated with inflammatory states. We hypothesised that ketosis in postparturient dairy cows would result in altered levels on inflammation-related proteins not only in plasma but also in the milk fat globule membranes (MFGM). Thirty cows were selected from a dairy farm in Heilongjiang, China. Inflammatory milk fat globule membrane proteins were detected using ELISA kits, and a fully automatic biochemical analyser was used to measure the concentrations of BHBA, NEFA, glucose (GLU) and triglyceride (TG) in plasma...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149205/kir-content-genotypes-associate-with-carriage-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-e-antigen-and-hbv-viral-load-in-gambians
#15
Louis-Marie Yindom, Maimuna Mendy, Christopher Bodimeade, Caroline Chambion, Peter Aka, Hilton C Whittle, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Robert Walton
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes over 800,000 deaths worldwide annually, mainly in low income countries, and incidence is rising rapidly in the developed world with the spread of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Natural Killer (NK) cells protect against viral infections and tumours by killing abnormal cells recognised by Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR). Thus genes and haplotypes encoding these receptors may be important in determining both outcome of initial hepatitis infection and subsequent chronic liver disease and tumour formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145505/spontaneous-development-of-epstein-barr-virus-associated-human-lymphomas-in-a-prostate-cancer-xenograft-program
#16
Alberto J Taurozzi, Ramprakash Beekharry, Michelle Wantoch, Marie-Christine Labarthe, Hannah F Walker, Robert I Seed, Matthew Simms, Greta Rodrigues, James Bradford, Geertje van der Horst, Gabri van der Pluijm, Anne T Collins
Prostate cancer research is hampered by the lack of in vivo preclinical models that accurately reflect patient tumour biology and the clinical heterogeneity of human prostate cancer. To overcome these limitations we propagated and characterised a new collection of patient-derived prostate cancer xenografts. Tumour fragments from 147 unsupervised, surgical prostate samples were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient Rag2-/-γC-/- mice within 24 hours of surgery. Histologic and molecular characterisation of xenografts was compared with patient characteristics, including androgen-deprivation therapy, and exome sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144460/inflammation-induced-iga-cells-dismantle-anti-liver-cancer-immunity
#17
Shabnam Shalapour, Xue-Jia Lin, Ingmar N Bastian, John Brain, Alastair D Burt, Alexander A Aksenov, Alison F Vrbanac, Weihua Li, Andres Perkins, Takaji Matsutani, Zhenyu Zhong, Debanjan Dhar, Jose A Navas-Molina, Jun Xu, Rohit Loomba, Michael Downes, Ruth T Yu, Ronald M Evans, Pieter C Dorrestein, Rob Knight, Christopher Benner, Quentin M Anstee, Michael Karin
The role of adaptive immunity in early cancer development is controversial. Here we show that chronic inflammation and fibrosis in humans and mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is accompanied by accumulation of liver-resident immunoglobulin-A-producing (IgA+) cells. These cells also express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and interleukin-10, and directly suppress liver cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, which prevent emergence of hepatocellular carcinoma and express a limited repertoire of T-cell receptors against tumour-associated antigens...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140786/selection-of-an-anticalin%C3%A2-against-the-membrane-form-of-hsp70-via-bacterial-surface-display-and-its-theranostic-application-in-tumour-models
#18
Lars Friedrich, Petra Kornberger, Claudia T Mendler, Gabriele Multhoff, Markus Schwaiger, Arne Skerra
We describe the selection of Anticalins against a common tumour surface antigen, human Hsp70, using functional display on live E. coli cells as fusion with a truncated EspP autotransporter. While found intracellularly in normal cells, Hsp70 is frequently exposed in a membrane-bound state on the surface of tumour cells and, even more pronounced, in metastases or after radiochemotherapy. Employing a recombinant Hsp70 fragment comprising residues 383-548 as target, Anticalins were selected from a naive bacterial library...
November 27, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134231/patterns-of-relapse-as-determined-by-68-ga-psma-ligand-pet-ct-after-radical-prostatectomy-importance-for-tailoring-and-individualizing-treatment
#19
Christoph Henkenberens, Thorsten Derlin, Frank M Bengel, Tobias L Ross, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Katja Hueper, Markus A Kuczyk, Hans Christiansen, Christoph A von Klot
PURPOSE: To evaluate the patterns of relapse and impact on the intended treatment when using (68)Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging for restaging of disease in patients with biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy (RP) before salvage radiotherapy (sRT). METHODS: In all, 39 patients with biochemical recurrence after RP who had no primary indication for adjuvant RT due to the absence of biologically unfavorable disease (e...
November 13, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133316/study-protocol-for-think-a-multinational-open-label-phase-i-study-to-assess-the-safety-and-clinical-activity-of-multiple-administrations-of-nkr-2-in-patients-with-different-metastatic-tumour-types
#20
Caroline Lonez, Bikash Verma, Alain Hendlisz, Philippe Aftimos, Ahmad Awada, Eric Van Den Neste, Gaetan Catala, Jean-Pascal H Machiels, Fanny Piette, Jason B Brayer, David A Sallman, Tessa Kerre, Kunle Odunsi, Marco L Davila, David E Gilham, Frédéric F Lehmann
INTRODUCTION: NKR-2 are autologous T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) comprising a fusion of the natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor with the CD3ζ signalling domain, which associates with the adaptor molecule DNAX-activating protein of 10 kDa (DAP10) to provide co-stimulatory signal upon ligand binding. NKG2D binds eight different ligands expressed on the cell surface of many tumour cells and which are normally absent on non-neoplastic cells...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
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