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Tumour associated antigens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786170/immunopeptidomic-profiling-of-hla-a2-positive-triple-negative-breast-cancer-identifies-potential-immunotherapy-target-antigens
#1
Nicola Ternette, Marloes J M Olde Nordkamp, Julius Muller, Amanda P Anderson, Annalisa Nicastri, Adrian V S Hill, Benedikt M Kessler, Demin Li
The recent development in immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells in the treatment of cancer has not only demonstrated the potency of utilising T-cell reactivity for cancer therapy, but has also highlighted the need for developing new approaches to discover targets suitable for such novel therapeutics. Here we analysed the immunopeptidomes of 6 HLA-A2-positive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) samples by nano-ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nUPLC-MS2 )...
May 22, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775158/microrna-expression-in-tumour-tissue-and-plasma-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#2
Ahmed Hussein Zedan, Torben Frøstrup Hansen, Jannie Assenholt, Mindaugas Pleckaitis, Jonna Skov Madsen, Palle Jörn Sloth Osther
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the western world. Clinical practice is continuously challenged by the pitfalls of the available diagnostic tools. microRNAs may represent promising biomarkers in many types of human cancers, including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate microRNA expression in tumour tissue and matched plasma in a cohort of patients with primary metastatic prostate cancer. The relative expression of 12 microRNAs was assessed in diagnostic needle biopsies from the prostate and matched plasma samples in two prospective cohorts (screening cohorts) comprising 21 patients with metastatic prostate cancer and 25 control patients...
May 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773864/igg-single-chain-trail-fusion-proteins-for-tumour-therapy
#3
Martin Siegemund, Felix Schneider, Meike Hutt, Oliver Seifert, Ines Müller, Dagmar Kulms, Klaus Pfizenmaier, Roland E Kontermann
Single-chain formats of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (scTRAIL) can serve as effector components of tumour-associated antigen-targeted as well as non-targeted fusion proteins, being characterized by high tumour cell-specific induction of apoptosis through death receptor activation. We studied the suitability of immunoglobulin G as a scaffold for oligovalent and bispecific TRAIL fusion proteins. Thus, we developed novel targeted hexa- and dodecavalent IgG-scTRAIL molecules by fusing scTRAIL to the C-terminus of either light (LC-scTRAIL) or heavy immunoglobulin chain (HC-scTRAIL), or to both ends (LC/HC-scTRAIL) of the anti-EGFR IgG antibody hu225...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767244/propranolol-induces-hemangioma-endothelial-cell-apoptosis-via-a-p53%C3%A2-bax-mediated-pathway
#4
Tian-Hua Yao, Parekejiang Pataer, Krishna Prasad Regmi, Xi-Wen Gu, Quan-Yan Li, Jing-Ting Du, Su-Meng Ge, Jun-Bo Tu
The use of propranolol for the treatment of infantile hemangioma (IH) has been widely investigated in recent years. However, the underlying therapeutic mechanism of propranolol for the treatment of IH remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of proteins regulated by cellular tumor antigen p53 (p53) in associated apoptosis pathways in IH endothelial cells (HemECs) treated with propranolol. Furthermore, the present study aimed to investigate the exact apoptotic pathway underlying the therapeutic effect of propranolol against IH...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754035/the-elusive-small-bowel-adenocarcinoma-in-the-terminal-ileum-a-case-report
#5
Joyce Lok Gee Ma, Paul Norman Strauss
INTRODUCTION: Small bowel malignancies are rare and often present with non-specific symptoms. Because of this, diagnosis of small bowel malignancies is often missed. PRESENTATION OF CASE: 71-year-old male presented with a four-week history of right iliac fossa pain and loss of weight. Laboratory tests showed a raised C-reactive protein, but all other pathology results and tumour-associated antigens were normal. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen demonstrated an inflammatory mass extending laterally into the pelvic wall...
April 27, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752021/hyperthermic-treatment-at-56-%C3%A2-c-induces-tumour-specific-immune-protection-in-a-mouse-model-of-prostate-cancer-in-both-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-immunization-regimens
#6
Francesco De Sanctis, Sara Sandri, Matteo Martini, Marta Mazzocco, Alessandra Fiore, Rosalinda Trovato, Stefano Garetto, Davide Brusa, Stefano Ugel, Silvia Sartoris
Most active cancer immunotherapies able to induce a long-lasting protection against tumours are based on the activation of tumour-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Cell death by hyperthermia induces apoptosis followed by secondary necrosis, with the production of factors named "danger associated molecular pattern" (DAMP) molecules (DAMPs), that activate dendritic cells (DCs) to perform antigen uptake, processing and presentation, followed by CTLs cross priming. In many published studies, hyperthermia treatment of tumour cells is performed at 42-45 °C; these temperatures mainly promote cell surface expression of DAMPs...
May 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749704/genome-wide-mrna-mirna-profiling-uncovers-a-role-of-the-microrna-mir-29b-1-5p-phlpp1-signalling-pathway-in-helicobacter-pylori-driven-matrix-metalloproteinase-production-in-gastric-epithelial-cells
#7
Chandreyee Datta, Arijita Subuddhi, Manish Kumar, Thurbu Tshering Lepcha, Sohini Chakraborty, Kuladip Jana, Zhumur Ghosh, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Joyoti Basu, Manikuntala Kundu
Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with tumour progression, extracellular matrix remodelling and cell proliferation. miRNAs modulate host gene expression during infection by pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with varying degrees of gastric pathology. In order to gain insight into the regulation of gene expression by miRNAs during H. pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells and its likely downstream consequences, we analysed the transcriptomes and miRnomes of AGS cells infected with H...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749491/expression-analysis-of-st3gal4-transcripts-in-cervical-cancer-cells
#8
Lorena Roa-de La Cruz, Patricia Martínez-Morales, Irene Morán-Cruz, Lorena Milflores-Flores, Nora Rosas-Murrieta, César González-Ramírez, Claudia Ortiz-Mateos, Ricardo Monterrosas-Santamaría, Celestina González-Frías, Carlos Rodea-Ávila, Teresa Apresa-García, Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy, Luis Jave-Suarez, Gerardo Santos-López, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz
ST3GAL4 gene expression is altered in different cancer types, including cervical cancer. Several mRNA transcripts have been reported for this gene; however, their expression levels in cervical cancer have not been analyzed. ST3GAL4 encodes for β‑galactosidase α‑2,3‑sialyltransferase 4, involved in the biosynthesis of the tumour antigens sLe(x) and sulfo‑sLe(x). The present study evaluated the presence of three mRNA variants (V1, V2 and V3) in cervical cancer cell lines, detecting the three variants...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749485/gas%C3%A2-filled-ultrasound-microbubbles-enhance-the-immunoactivity-of-the-hsp70%C3%A2-magea1-fusion-protein-against-magea1%C3%A2-expressing-tumours
#9
Xing Gao, Yang Nan, Yuan Yuan, Xue Gong, Yuanyuan Sun, Huihui Zhou, Yujin Zong, Lijun Zhang, Ming Yu
Advanced malignant melanoma is characterized by rapid development, poor prognosis and insensitivity to chemoradiotherapy. Immunotherapy has become one of the primary clinical treatments for malignant melanomas. In recent decades, identifying specific tumour antigens and the enhanced immunoactivity of tumour vaccines has become critical for engineering successful tumour vaccines. As a widely used vaccine carrier, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) clearly increases the immunogenicity of tumour antigens, such as melanoma‑associated antigen A1 (MAGEA1)...
May 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743717/integrating-oncolytic-viruses-in-combination-cancer-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Praveen K Bommareddy, Megha Shettigar, Howard L Kaufman
Oncolytic viruses can be usefully integrated into tumour immunotherapies, as they target multiple steps within the cancer-immunity cycle. Oncolytic viruses directly lyse tumour cells, leading to the release of soluble antigens, danger signals and type I interferons, which drive antitumour immunity. In addition, some oncolytic viruses can be engineered to express therapeutic genes or can functionally alter tumour-associated endothelial cells, further enhancing T cell recruitment into immune-excluded or immune-deserted tumour microenvironments...
May 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740440/targeting-head-and-neck-cancer-by-vaccination
#11
REVIEW
Chuan Wang, James Dickie, Ruhcha V Sutavani, Catherine Pointer, Gareth J Thomas, Natalia Savelyeva
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a heterogeneous group of squamous cell cancers that affect the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Worldwide, it is the sixth most common cancer but in parts of Southern and South-East Asia, HNC is one of the most common cancers. A significant proportion of HNC is driven by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, whereas HPV-independent HNC is associated with alcohol, smoking, and smokeless tobacco consumption. Here, we review the past and present experience of targeting HNC with vaccination focusing on HPV-derived antigens as well as non-viral antigens for HPV-negative HNC...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729717/immunohistochemical-characterization-of-immune-cell-infiltration-in-feline-glioma
#12
D R Rissi, B F Porter, C E Boudreau, P M Krimer, A D Miller
The relationship between inflammatory cells and tumour biology has been defined in many human intracranial neoplasms, but it is relatively poorly characterized in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to define the immune cell infiltration in cases of feline glioma and its possible association with tumour morphology and type. A retrospective search identified 18 gliomas that met inclusion criteria. Tumours were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3, CD20, Iba1, MAC387 and factor VIII-related antigen...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720199/immunoassays-for-scarce-tumour-antigens-in-exosomes-detection-of-the-human-nkg2d-ligand-mica-in-tetraspanin-containing-nanovesicles-from-melanoma
#13
Sheila López-Cobo, Carmen Campos-Silva, Amanda Moyano, Myriam Oliveira-Rodríguez, Annette Paschen, María Yáñez-Mó, María Carmen Blanco-López, Mar Valés-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Tumour-derived exosomes can be released to serum and provide information on the features of the malignancy, however, in order to perform systematic studies in biological samples, faster diagnostic techniques are needed, especially for detection of low abundance proteins. Most human cancer cells are positive for at least one ligand for the activating immune receptor NKG2D and the presence in plasma of NKG2D-ligands can be associated with prognosis. METHODS: Using MICA as example of a tumour-derived antigen, endogenously expressed in metastatic melanoma and recruited to exosomes, we have developed two immunocapture-based assays for detection of different epitopes in nanovesicles...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719195/sarcoidosis-a-state-of-the-art-review-from-the-thoracic-society-of-australia-and-new-zealand
#14
Hasib Ahmadzai, Shuying Huang, Chris Steinfort, James Markos, Roger Ka Allen, Denis Wakefield, Margaret Wilsher, Paul S Thomas
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown aetiology, characterised by non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. It most commonly manifests in the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes but can affect any organ. This summary of an educational resource provided by the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand outlines the current understanding of sarcoidosis and highlights the need for further research. Our knowledge of the aetiology and immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis remains incomplete. The enigma of sarcoidosis lies in its immunological paradox of type 1 T helper cell-dominated local inflammation co-existing with T regulatory-induced peripheral anergy...
May 7, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699892/primary-mutational-landscape-linked-with-pre-docetaxel-lactate-dehydrogenase-levels-predicts-docetaxel-response-in-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer
#15
Kenneth Hiew, Claire A Hart, Adnan Ali, Tony Elliott, Vijay Ramani, Vijay Sangar, Maurice Lau, Satish Maddineni, Mick Brown, Noel Clarke
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel chemotherapy is a standard of care for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC): 40-50% of patients achieve a biochemical response. However, there is a lack of response predictive biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: To assess lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a docetaxel response biomarker in mCRPC and to examine the association of LDH with genomic alterations in primary diagnostic biopsies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Clinical and associated primary tumour-targeted next-generation sequencing data from matched training (n=150) and test (n=120) cohorts of progressive mCRPC patients receiving docetaxel therapy were analysed...
April 23, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696080/therapeutic-effects-of-serum-extracellular-vesicles-in-liver-fibrosis
#16
Li Chen, Ruju Chen, Sherri Kemper, Min Cong, Hong You, David R Brigstock
The lack of approved therapies for hepatic fibrosis seriously limits medical management of patients with chronic liver disease. Since extracellular vesicles (EVs) function as conduits for intercellular molecular transfer, we investigated if EVs from healthy individuals have anti-fibrotic properties. Hepatic fibrogenesis or fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )- or thioacetic acid-induced liver injury models in male or female mice were suppressed by serum EVs from normal mice (EVN) but not from fibrotic mice (EVF)...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695770/systemic-immune-response-induced-by-oxaliplatin-based-neoadjuvant-therapy-favours-survival-without-metastatic-progression-in-high-risk-rectal-cancer
#17
Erta Kalanxhi, Sebastian Meltzer, Jakob Vasehus Schou, Finn Ole Larsen, Svein Dueland, Kjersti Flatmark, Benny Vittrup Jensen, Knut Håkon Hole, Therese Seierstad, Kathrine Røe Redalen, Dorte Lisbet Nielsen, Anne Hansen Ree
BACKGROUND: Systemic failure remains a challenge in rectal cancer. We investigated the possible systemic anti-tumour immune activity invoked within oxaliplatin-based neoadjuvant therapy. METHODS: In two high-risk patient cohorts, we assessed the circulating levels of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), a factor reflecting both therapy-induced myelosuppression and activation of tumour antigen-presenting dendritic cells, at baseline and following induction chemotherapy and sequential chemoradiotherapy, both modalities containing oxaliplatin...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695749/oncolytic-viruses-as-engineering-platforms-for-combination-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Kwame Twumasi-Boateng, Jessica L Pettigrew, Y Y Eunice Kwok, John C Bell, Brad H Nelson
To effectively build on the recent successes of immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell therapy and cancer vaccines, it is critical to rationally design combination strategies that will increase and extend efficacy to a larger proportion of patients. For example, the combination of anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) immune checkpoint inhibitors essentially doubles the response rate in certain patients with metastatic melanoma. However, given the heterogeneity of cancer, it seems likely that even more complex combinations of immunomodulatory agents may be required to obtain consistent, durable therapeutic responses against a broad spectrum of cancers...
April 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693245/developing-anti-her2-vaccines-breast-cancer-experience
#19
REVIEW
Aydah Al-Awadhi, James Lee Murray, Nuhad K Ibrahim
Breast cancer accounts for more than one million new cases annually and is the leading cause of death in women globally. HER2 overexpression induces cellular and humoral immune responses against the HER2 protein and is associated with higher tumour proliferation rates. Trastuzumab-based therapies are effectively and widely used as standard of care in HER2-amplified/overexpressed breast cancer patients; one cited mechanism of action is the induction of passive immunity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against malignant breast cancer cells...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691476/lymphomas-driven-by-epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-1-ebna1-are-dependant-upon-mdm2
#20
Sana AlQarni, Yazeed Al-Sheikh, Donald Campbell, Mark Drotar, Adele Hannigan, Shelagh Boyle, Pawel Herzyk, Andrew Kossenkov, Kate Armfield, Lauren Jamieson, Mariarca Bailo, Paul M Lieberman, Penelope Tsimbouri, Joanna B Wilson
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated Burkitt's lymphoma is characterised by the deregulation of c-Myc expression and a restricted viral gene expression pattern in which the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) is the only viral protein to be consistently expressed. EBNA1 is required for viral genome propagation and segregation during latency. However, it has been much debated whether the protein plays a role in viral-associated tumourigenesis. We show that the lymphomas which arise in EµEBNA1 transgenic mice are unequivocally linked to EBNA1 expression and that both C-Myc and Mdm2 deregulation are central to this process...
April 25, 2018: Oncogene
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