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Tumour associated antigens

Jian Liu, Qian Zhu, Yun Li, Guo-Liang Qiao, Chang Xu, De-Liang Guo, Jie Tang, Rui Duan
BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the independent predictive factors of microvascular invasion (MVI) for curative resection of HCC and to investigate the impacts of MVI and HBeAg on long-term recurrence and survival after resection. METHODS: The clinicopathological parameters of 237 patients with HCC with MVI who underwent hepatic resection from April 2005 to November 2010 were investigated. Clinical features and factors associated with the clinical outcomes of 386 patients with HCC without MVI were used for comparison...
March 15, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Matthew J Atherton, Kyle B Stephenson, Jake K Nikota, Qian N Hu, Andrew Nguyen, Yonghong Wan, Brian D Lichty
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancer is a significant global health burden and despite the presence of viral transforming antigens within neoplastic cells, therapeutic vaccinations are ineffective for advanced disease. HPV positive TC1 cells are susceptible to viral oncolysis by MG1-E6E7, a custom designed oncolytic Maraba virus. Epitope mapping of mice vaccinated with MG1-E6E7 enabled the rational design of synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccines against HPV16 and HPV18 antigens. SLPs were able to induce specific CD8+ immune responses and the magnitude of these responses significantly increased when boosted by MG1-E6E7...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
M Hasbahceci, F U Malya, E Kunduz, M Guler, N Unver, A Akcakaya
Introduction To evaluate the impact of serum and peritoneal levels of tumour markers on peritoneal carcinomatosis and survival in gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were evaluated with regard to serum and peritoneal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9. Numeric values and groupings based on serum and peritoneal cutoff values were used. Development of peritoneal carcinomatosis, including positive washing cytology, was regarded as main outcome. Gastric cancer outcomes as disease free and overall survival were analysed...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Janette L Vardy, Haryana Mary Dhillon, Gregory R Pond, Corrinne Renton, Stephen J Clarke, Ian F Tannock
Background: Inflammation promotes the development of malignancy, while a variety of systemic markers of inflammation predict for worse cancer outcomes including recurrence and survival. Here, we evaluate the prognostic impact of cytokine concentrations, full blood count (FBC) differential ratios, cognitive function and fatigue on survival in patients with localised colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and methods: Data are from a prospective longitudinal study comparing cognitive function and fatigue in patients with CRC who did (n=173) and did not (n=116) receive adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
2018: ESMO Open
Kok Fei Chan, Benjamin S Gully, Stephanie Gras, Dennis X Beringer, Lars Kjer-Nielsen, Jonathan Cebon, James McCluskey, Weisan Chen, Jamie Rossjohn
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-I molecules generally bind short peptides (8-10 amino acids), although extended HLA-I restricted peptides (>10 amino acids) can be presented to T cells. However, the function of such extended HLA-I epitopes in tumour immunity, and how they would be recognised by T-cell receptors (TCR) remains unclear. Here we show that the structures of two distinct TCRs (TRAV4+ TRAJ21+ -TRBV28+ TRBJ2-3+ and TRAV4+ TRAJ8+ -TRBV9+ TRBJ2-1+ ), originating from a polyclonal T-cell repertoire, bind to HLA-B*07:02, presenting a 13-amino-acid-long tumour-associated peptide, NY-ESO-160-72 ...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Nicholas A Gherardin, Liyen Loh, Lorenztino Admojo, Alexander J Davenport, Kelden Richardson, Amy Rogers, Phillip K Darcy, Misty R Jenkins, H Miles Prince, Simon J Harrison, Hang Quach, David P Fairlie, Katherine Kedzierska, James McCluskey, Adam P Uldrich, Paul J Neeson, David S Ritchie, Dale I Godfrey
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are T cells that recognise vitamin-B derivative Ag presented by the MHC-related-protein 1 (MR1) antigen-presenting molecule. While MAIT cells are highly abundant in humans, their role in tumour immunity remains unknown. Here we have analysed the frequency and function of MAIT cells in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We show that MAIT cell frequency in blood is reduced compared to healthy adult donors, but comparable to elderly healthy control donors. Furthermore, there was no evidence that MAIT cells accumulated at the disease site (bone marrow) of these patients...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Priyanka Sharma, Sonja Ludwig, Laurent Muller, Chang Sook Hong, John M Kirkwood, Soldano Ferrone, Theresa L Whiteside
Tumour-derived exosomes (TEX) are a subset of extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in body fluids of patients with cancer. The role of this exosome subset in melanoma progression has been of interest ever since ex vivo studies of exosomes produced by melanoma cell lines were shown to suppress anti-melanoma immune responses. To study the impact of melanoma-derived exosomes (MTEX) present in patients' plasma on melanoma progression, isolation of MTEX from total plasma exosomes is necessary. We have developed an immunoaffinity-based method for MTEX capture from plasma of melanoma patients...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Matthew A Lakins, Ehsan Ghorani, Hafsa Munir, Carla P Martins, Jacqueline D Shields
Tumours have developed strategies to interfere with most steps required for anti-tumour immune responses. Although many populations contribute to anti-tumour responses, tumour-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells dominate, hence, many suppressive strategies act to inhibit these. Tumour-associated T cells are frequently restricted to stromal zones rather than tumour islands, raising the possibility that the tumour microenvironment, where crosstalk between malignant and "normal" stromal cells exists, may be critical for T cell suppression...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Ofer Margalit, Ronac Mamtani, Yu-Xiao Yang, Kim A Reiss, Talia Golan, Naama Halpern, Dan Aderka, Bruce Giantonio, Einat Shacham-Shmueli, Ben Boursi
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that elevated preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels are associated with worse prognosis in patients with colon cancer. These studies compared the prognosis of patients with elevated versus normal CEA levels. We sought to assess the prognostic role of increasing levels of CEA in stage I and II patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database (2004-2014), we identified 45,449 individuals with stage I and II colon cancer who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy and had preoperative CEA levels available...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Niven Mehra, David Dolling, Semini Sumanasuriya, Rossitza Christova, Lorna Pope, Suzanne Carreira, George Seed, Wei Yuan, Jane Goodall, Emma Hall, Penny Flohr, Gunther Boysen, Diletta Bianchini, Oliver Sartor, Mario A Eisenberger, Karim Fizazi, Stephane Oudard, Mustapha Chadjaa, Sandrine Macé, Johann S de Bono
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive biomarkers are needed to guide metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treatment. OBJECTIVE: To clinically qualify baseline and on-treatment cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations as biomarkers of patient outcome following taxane chemotherapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Blood for cfDNA analyses was prospectively collected from 571 mCRPC patients participating in two phase III clinical trials, FIRSTANA (NCT01308567) and PROSELICA (NCT01308580)...
February 27, 2018: European Urology
Zuzana Saidak, Mony Chenda Morisse, Denis Chatelain, Chloé Sauzay, Aline Houessinon, Nelly Guilain, Marion Soyez, Bruno Chauffert, Stéphanie Dakpé, Antoine Galmiche
BACKGROUND/AIM: The squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), encoded by the genes SERPINB3/B4, is a tumour marker produced by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We aimed to examine SERPINB3/B4 mRNA levels and its clinical significance in the therapeutic context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved mRNA expression levels, clinical, pathological and genomic data for 520 HNSCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). RESULTS: HNSCC tumours express high levels of SERPINB3/B4 mRNA...
March 2018: Anticancer Research
M G Keane, A Shamali, L N Nilsson, A Antila, J Millastre Bocos, M Marijinissen Van Zanten, C Verdejo Gil, P Maisonneuve, Y Vaalavuo, T Hoskins, S Robinson, G O Ceyhan, M Abu Hilal, S P Pereira, J Laukkarinen, M Del Chiaro
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) are rare mucin-producing cystic tumours defined by the presence of ovarian-type stroma. MCNs have a malignant potential and thus surgery is frequently performed. The aim of this cohort study was to define better the criteria for surgical resection in patients with MCN. METHODS: This multicentre retrospective study included all resected MCNs between 2003 and 2015 in participating centres. Lesions without ovarian-type stroma were excluded...
March 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Ameneh Tavakoli Koudehi, Bahar Mahjoubi, Rezvan Mirzaei, Samira Shabani, Frouzandeh Mahjoubi
Background and objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common gastrointestinal cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the world. Cancer-Testis Antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumor-associated proteins which typically are expressed in normal reproductive cells of men, but their expression in normal somatic cells is silenced. CTAs, due to their limited expression pattern, are considered as promising targets for cancer diagnosis and immuno-therapy. Methods: Expression of AKAP4, SPAG9 and CTAG1B genes from the CTAs family was studied in both tumor and normal tissues of 62 Iranian CRC patients by RT-PCR with the aim of finding biomarkers for early detection and anticipated progression...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Saverio Latteri, Vito Emanuele Catania, Giulia Malaguarnera, Andrea Peri, Gaetano Bertino, Giuseppe Frazzetto, Antonio Maria Borzì, Antonio Biondi, Rosario Emanuele Perrotta, Michele Malaguarnera
BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein, which is present in the foetal colon, some benign conditions and different malignancies, particularly in colon adenocarcinoma. We focused this study on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). NMSC is a common malignancy and it is an important source of morbidity and death in the world. In this study we evaluated whether CEA level increases in NMSC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 566 patients with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) were enrolled; 286 patients with NMSC showed CEA levels above normal values, and 280 showed CEA levels below normal values...
February 23, 2018: Biomedicines
Ashwini Raghavendra, Priyakshi Kalita-de Croft, Ana Cristina Vargas, Chanel E Smart, Peter T Simpson, Jodi M Saunus, Sunil R Lakhani
AIMS: A better understanding of the expression of cancer testis antigens (CTA) in breast cancer might identify new immunotherapy options, especially for triple-negative (TN) tumours, which lack expression of conventional therapeutic targets ER, PR and HER2 (receptors for Oestrogen, Progesterone and Human epidermal growth factor). The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 CTAs in breast cancer, and relate this to known clinicopathologic parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: We surveyed MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 protein expression in an unselected cohort of 367 breast tumours (out of which 65 tumours were TN), with accompanying clinical follow-up data, using immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of tissue microarrays...
February 21, 2018: Histopathology
Gabrielė Stakaitytė, Nnenna Nwogu, Jonathan D Lippiat, G Eric Blair, Krzysztof Poterlowicz, James R Boyne, Andrew Macdonald, Jamel Mankouri, Adrian Whitehouse
Ion channels regulate many aspects of cell physiology, including cell proliferation, motility, and migration, and aberrant expression and activity of ion channels is associated with various stages of tumor development, with K+ and Cl- channels now being considered the most active during tumorigenesis. Accordingly, emerging in vitro and preclinical studies have revealed that pharmacological manipulation of ion channel activity offers protection against several cancers. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a major cause of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), primarily due to the expression of two early regulatory proteins termed small and large tumour antigens (ST and LT, respectively)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ján Remšík, Radek Fedr, Jiří Navrátil, Lucia Binó, Eva Slabáková, Pavel Fabian, Marek Svoboda, Karel Souček
BACKGROUND: The intratumoural heterogeneity, often driven by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), significantly contributes to chemoresistance and disease progression in adenocarcinomas. METHODS: We introduced a high-throughput screening platform to identify surface antigens that associate with epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in well-defined pairs of epithelial cell lines and their mesenchymal counterparts. Using multicolour flow cytometry, we then analysed the expression of 10 most robustly changed antigens and identified a 10-molecule surface signature, in pan-cytokeratin-positive/EpCAM-positive and -negative fractions of dissociated breast tumours...
February 20, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
J W Baddley, F Cantini, D Goletti, J J Gómez-Reino, E Mylonakis, R San-Juan, M Fernández-Ruiz, J Torre-Cisneros
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Patrick Lee, Shashi Gujar
The clinical effectiveness of immunotherapies for prostate cancer remains subpar compared with that for other cancers. The goal of most immunotherapies is the activation of immune effectors, such as T cells and natural killer cells, as the presence of these activated mediators positively correlates with patient outcomes. Clinical evidence shows that prostate cancer is immunogenic, accessible to the immune system, and can be targeted by antitumour immune responses. However, owing to the detrimental effects of prostate-cancer-associated immunosuppression, even the newest immunotherapeutic approaches fail to initiate the clinically desired antitumour immune reaction...
February 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Meritxell Balmaña, Adrià Duran, Catarina Gomes, Esther Llop, Raquel López-Martos, M Rosa Ortiz, Sílvia Barrabés, Celso A Reis, Rosa Peracaula
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) lacks efficient biomarkers. Mucins are glycoproteins that can carry aberrant glycosylation in cancer. Our objective was to identify cancer-related glycan epitopes on MUC1 and MUC5AC mucins in PDAC as potential biomarkers. We have analysed the tumour-associated carbohydrate antigens sialyl-Lewis x (SLex) and sialyl-Tn (STn) on MUC1 and MUC5AC in PDAC tissues. The selected cohort for this study consisted of twenty-one PDAC tissues positive for SLex antigen and three normal pancreas specimens as controls...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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