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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883853/monoclonal-antibodies-as-immunomodulatory-therapy-against-cancer-and-autoimmune-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Umbreen Hafeez, Hui K Gan, Andrew M Scott
Since Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich proposed the concept of magic bullet in 1906, Köhler and Milstein discovered Hybridoma technology in 1975, and Greg Winter pioneered the technique to humanize monoclonal antibodies in 1988, monoclonal antibodies have been successfully developed to treat medical illnesses. Monoclonal antibodies are effective treatments for inhibition of alloimmune reactivity, haematological malignancies, solid organ malignancies, viral illnesses and are also used as antiplatelet therapy. Their successful use in cancer and autoimmune diseases in humans have made them one of the fastest growing classes of new drugs approved for these indications in last few decades...
June 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879742/alloimmunization-in-congenital-deficiencies-of-platelet-surface-glycoproteins-focus-on-glanzmann-s-thrombasthenia-and-bernard-soulier-s-syndrome
#2
Man-Chiu Poon, Roseline d'Oiron
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) and Bernard-Soulier's syndrome (BSS) are well-understood congenital bleeding disorders, showing defect/deficiency of platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (integrin αIIbβ3) and GPIb-IX-V complexes respectively, with relevant clinical, laboratory, biochemical, and genetic features. Following platelet transfusion, affected patients may develop antiplatelet antibodies (to human leukocyte antigen [HLA], and/or αIIbβ3 in GT or GPIb-IX in BSS), which may render future platelet transfusion ineffective...
June 7, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864522/chemokine-cc-motif-ligand-2-participates-in-platelet-function-and-arterial-thrombosis-by-regulating-pkc%C3%AE-p38mapk-hsp27-pathway
#3
Dan Liu, Yu Cao, Xiaolin Zhang, Chengfei Peng, Xiaoxiang Tian, Chenghui Yan, Yanxia Liu, Meili Liu, Yaling Han
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that chemokine CC-motif ligand 2 (CCL2) is involved in inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, the roles and mechanisms of CCL2 on platelet function and arterial thrombosis are unknown. METHODS: The expressions of CCL2 or CCR2 in the plasma, platelets and coronary thrombus of ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients were examined by ELISA, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The roles of CCL2 on platelet aggregation, activation and secretion were examined by light transmission aggregometry, flow cytometry and ELISA...
June 1, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29798687/thrombotic-storm-in-a-4-year-old-boy-with-a-thrombus-in-the-right-atrium
#4
Jing-Yao Ma, Xin Zhang, Xiao-Feng Li, Le-Jian He, Ning Ma, Yun-Yun Wei, Run-Hui Wu, Fang-Yun Wang
Thrombotic storm (TS) is a rare disease, especially with thrombus in the heart of pediatric patient. We present a case of a 4-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with TS during his first hospitalization due to lower extremity deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, cerebral, left internal jugular, portal, renal, and iliac veins. He was eventually prescribed with rivaroxaban to control thrombosis after 30 days of successive use of low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and warfarin, which were demonstrating little effect on preventing thrombosis, and the patient was intolerant to argatroban...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723256/renal-protective-effect-of-antiplatelet-therapy-in-antiphospholipid-antibody-positive-lupus-nephritis-patients-without-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#5
Hironari Hanaoka, Harunobu Iida, Tomofumi Kiyokawa, Yukiko Takakuwa, Takahiro Okazaki, Hidehiro Yamada, Shoichi Ozaki, Kimito Kawahata
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the effect of antiplatelet therapy in addition to conventional immunosuppressive therapy for lupus nephritis (LN) patients positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) without definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven LN class III or IV were retrospectively evaluated. We selected patients positive for anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) or lupus anticoagulant (LA) who did not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of APS...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704268/characteristics-of-hemostasis-during-experimental-ehrlichia-canis-infection
#6
Sarah Shropshire, Christine Olver, Michael Lappin
BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs can cause thrombocytopenia and clinical evidence of bleeding. It is unknown why some dogs show signs of bleeding whereas others do not despite clinically relevant thrombocytopenia. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Activated platelets, decreased fibrinolysis or both mitigate bleeding tendency. Assess standard hemostatic variables, platelet dynamics, and specialized coagulation testing in dogs experimentally infected with E. canis to evaluate this clinical discrepancy...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451664/update-on-antiphospholipid-antibody-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Michelle Remião Ugolini Lopes, Adriana Danowski, Andreas Funke, Jozelia Rêgo, Roger Levy, Danieli Castro Oliveira de Andrade
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) associated with thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity. Most APS events are directly related to thrombotic events, which may affect small, medium or large vessels. Other clinical features like thrombocytopenia, nephropathy, cardiac valve disease, cognitive dysfunction and skin ulcers (called non-criteria manifestations) add significant morbidity to this syndrome and represent clinical situations that are challenging...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381028/current-evidence-for-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-bio-engineered-dual-therapy-combo-stent
#8
Deborah N Kalkman, Jaya Chandrasekhar, Robbert J de Winter, Roxana Mehran
The novel dual-therapy COMBO stent aims to promote vessel healing after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with coronary artery disease. The pro-healing technique consists of an anti-CD34+ antibody layer that attracts circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which bind to the stent surface and allow rapid endothelialization by differentiation of the EPCs into normal endothelial cells. The COMBO stent combines this pro-healing technique with an abluminal drug elution of sirolimus. The promise of this dual-therapy stent is that it may safely allow a shortened duration of dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after stent placement...
June 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356971/pathological-examination-of-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-in-patients-who-underwent-removal-of-lobar-hemorrhages
#9
Chien-Min Lin, Hidetaka Arishima, Ken-Ichiro Kikuta, Hironobu Naiki, Ryuhei Kitai, Toshiaki Kodera, Ken Matsuda, Norichika Hashimoto, Makoto Isozaki, Kenzo Tsunetoshi, Hiroyuki Neishi, Yoshifumi Higashino, Ayumi Akazawa, Hiroshi Arai, Shinsuke Yamada
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a degenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain microvessels. CAA is also known to contribute not only to cortical microbleeds but also lobar hemorrhages. This retrospective study examined CAA pathologically in patients who underwent direct surgeries for lobar hemorrhage. Thirty-three patients with lobar hemorrhage underwent open surgery with biopsy from 2007 to 2016 in our hospital. Cortical tissues over hematomas obtained surgically were pathologically examined using hematoxylin, eosin stain, and anti-Aβ antibody to diagnose CAA...
March 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321405/reversible-parkinsonism-and-multiple-cerebral-infarctions-after-pulmonary-endarterectomy-in-a-patient-with-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#10
Mitsumasa Okano, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Naoki Tamada, Yuto Shinkura, Ken-Ichi Yanaka, Hiroyuki Onishi, Hidekazu Tanaka, Toshiro Shinke, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yutaka Okita, Noriaki Emoto, Ken-Ichi Hirata
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a cause of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and it is associated with an increased risk of postoperative neurological complications. We experienced a case of reversible parkinsonism after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) and subsequent multiple cerebral infarctions under standard anticoagulation therapy in a patient with CTEPH associated with APS. Strict management using a combination of antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy should be considered in patients with a high titer of triple antiphospholipid antibodies in the perioperative period...
January 11, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296881/recurrent-thrombosis-in-patients-with-antiphospholipid-antibodies-and-arterial-thrombosis-on-antithrombotic-therapy
#11
William G Jackson, Clara Oromendia, Ozan Unlu, Doruk Erkan, Maria T DeSancho
Management for patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and arterial thrombosis is controversial. There are no prospective data demonstrating the superiority of high- or moderate-intensity anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists over antiplatelet agents. Using 2 antiphospholipid antibody databases (single center [New York Presbyterian Hospital] and multicenter [Antiphospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and International Networking]), we retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data of patients with APS and arterial thrombosis...
November 28, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227349/severe-immune-mediated-thrombocytopenia-after-intravitreal-bevacizumab-injection
#12
Tianyi Li, Derek T Witteman, Eric D Weber, Warren L Alexander, John D Schaber
PURPOSE: To report a case of severe immune-mediated thrombocytopenia after intravitreal bevacizumab administration. METHODS: A 77-year-old man with right-sided macular degeneration received intravitreal bevacizumab. After his third treatment dose, he was hospitalized for symptomatic thrombocytopenia (platelet count of 3 k/μL) and underwent testing to determine the etiology. RESULTS: Initial platelet counts on admission were 3 k/μL, down from 238 k/μL 3 months before...
December 8, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182425/endothelial-alterations-in-a-canine-model-of-immune-thrombocytopenia
#13
Dana N LeVine, Rachel E Cianciolo, Keith E Linder, Petra Bizikova, Adam J Birkenheuer, Marjory B Brooks, Abdelghaffar K Salous, Shila K Nordone, Dwight A Bellinger, Henry Marr, Sam L Jones, Thomas H Fischer, Yu Deng, Marshall Mazepa, Nigel S Key
Bleeding heterogeneity amongst patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is poorly understood. Platelets play a role in maintaining endothelial integrity, and variable thrombocytopenia-induced endothelial changes may influence bleeding severity. Platelet-derived endothelial stabilizers and markers of endothelial integrity in ITP are largely underexplored. We hypothesized that, in a canine ITP model, thrombocytopenia would lead to alterations in the endothelial ultrastructure and that the Von Willebrand factor (vWF) would serve as a marker of endothelial injury associated with thrombocytopenia...
November 28, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169069/anti-inflammatory-agents-in-peripheral-arterial-disease
#14
REVIEW
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Evi Papanikolaou, Georgia Vogiatzi, Evangelos Oikonomou, Dimitris Tousoulis
Inflammation is pivotally involved in coronary and peripheral atherosclerotic disease. This established concept is based on both experimental animal models of vascular inflammation and Mendelian randomization studies demonstrating a causal relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6) and cardiovascular disease risk. More recently, the reduction of cardiovascular events by use of an interleukin-1β inhibitor (canakinumab) has revived interest in the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease, including peripheral arterial disease...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152293/allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-an-adult-patient-with-glanzmann-thrombasthenia
#15
Ana R Cid, Pau Montesinos, Isabel Sánchez-Guiu, Saturnino Haya, Jose I Lorenzo, Jaime Sanz, Federico Moscardo, Nieves Puig, Dolores Planelles, Santiago Bonanad, Guillermo F Sanz, Vicente Vicente, Consuelo González-Manchón, María L Lozano, José Rivera, Miguel A Sanz
Glanzmann thrombasthenia is a rare bleeding disorder that can present life-threatening bleeding. Our patients develop antiplatelet antibodies that become refractory to any pharmacological treatment. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the only currently curative procedure, but has major risks mainly in adult; indeed, our patient died.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046071/clinical-significance-of-the-serotonin-release-assay-and-platelet-count-monitoring-after-cardiac-surgery
#16
Shinya Motohashi, Takefumi Matsuo, Hidenori Inoue, Makoto Kaneko, Shunya Shindo
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is one of the serious complications in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. However, there remains a major problem in diagnosing HIT because the current immunological assays for detection of HIT antibody have limitations. Furthermore, the clinical course of thrombocytopenia in this surgery makes it increasingly difficult to diagnose HIT. We investigated the relationship between platelet count and HIT antibody in 59 patients who underwent cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968483/antiplatelet-and-anticoagulant-agents-for-secondary-prevention-of-stroke-and-other-thromboembolic-events-in-people-with-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Malgorzata M Bala, Magdalena Celinska-Lowenhoff, Wojciech Szot, Agnieszka Padjas, Mateusz Kaczmarczyk, Mateusz J Swierz, Anetta Undas
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by arterial or venous thrombosis (or both) and/or pregnancy morbidity in association with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The prevalence is estimated at 40 to 50 cases per 100,000 people. The most common sites of thrombosis are cerebral arteries and deep veins of the lower limbs. People with a definite APS diagnosis have an increased lifetime risk of recurrent thrombotic events. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antiplatelet or anticoagulant agents, or both, for the secondary prevention of recurrent thrombosis, particularly ischemic stroke, in people with antiphospholipid syndrome...
October 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928091/p2y-12-antibody-inhibits-platelet-activity-and-protects-against-thrombogenesis
#18
Nicole R Hensch, Zubair A Karim, Joshua Pineda, Nicole Mercado, Fatima Z Alshbool, Fadi T Khasawneh
Given that platelet hyperactivity is known to give rise to thrombotic disorders, new and/or novel antiplatelet therapies are constantly being developed to add to, or to complement the current arsenal of agents. To this end, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an important platelet activator that acts by binding to the G-protein coupled P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors. Although the contribution of the P2Y12 receptor to the genesis of thrombosis is well established, the parenteral arsenal of drugs targeting this receptor in clinical use is limited to cangrelor...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918657/direct-oral-anticoagulant-use-in-atypical-thrombosis-related-conditions
#19
Clement Chang, Mario Hoyos, Yaw Owusu, Hazem Elewa
OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature for evidence of the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) when used in the management of atypical thrombosis-related conditions. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive MEDLINE database search (1948 to July 2017) and EMBASE search (1980 to July 2017) were conducted using the search terms direct oral anticoagulant in combination with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLAS), and cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT)...
February 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830606/thrombin-generation-assays-for-global-evaluation-of-the-hemostatic-system-perspectives-and-limitations
#20
Rita Carolina Figueiredo Duarte, Cláudia Natália Ferreira, Danyelle Romana Alves Rios, Helton José Dos Reis, Maria das Graças Carvalho
The existing techniques to evaluate hemostasis in clinical laboratories are not sensitive enough to detect hypercoagulable and mild hypocoagulable states. Under different experimental conditions, the thrombin generation test may meet these requirements. This technique evaluates the overall balance between procoagulant and anticoagulant forces and has provided new insights in our understanding of the coagulation cascade, as well as of the diagnosis of hypocoagulability and hypercoagulability conditions. Thrombin generated in the thrombin generation test can be quantified as platelet-rich or platelet-poor plasma using the calibrated automated thrombogram method, which monitors the cleavage of a fluorogenic substrate that is simultaneously compared to the known thrombin activity in a non-clotting plasma sample...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia
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