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Jacobus H Visser, Nigel C Bennett, Bettine Jansen van Vuuren
The subterranean niche harbours animals with extreme adaptations. These adaptations decrease the vagility of taxa and, along with other behavioural adaptations, often result in isolated populations characterized by small effective population sizes, high inbreeding, population bottlenecks, genetic drift and consequently, high spatial genetic structure. Although information is available for some species, estimates of genetic diversity and whether this variation is spatially structured, is lacking for the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis)...
2018: PloS One
Udi Sommer
Where connections between demography and politics are examined in the literature, it is largely in the context of the effects of male aspects of demography on phenomena such as political violence. This project aims to place the study of demographic variables' influence on politics, particularly on democracy, squarely within the scope of political and social sciences, and to focus on the effects of woman-related demographics-namely, fertility rate. I test the hypothesis that demographic variables-female-related predictors, in particular-have an independent effect on political structure...
March 14, 2018: Demography
Evgeny A Kuzmin
The article presents data on the corporate survival rate in Russia in 1991-2014. The empirical survey was based on a random sample with the average number of non-repeated observations (number of companies) for the survey each year equal to 75,958 (24,236 minimum and 126,953 maximum). The actual limiting mean error ∆ p was 2.24% with 99% integrity. The survey methodology was based on a cross joining of various formal periods in the corporate life cycles (legal and business), which makes it possible to talk about a conventionally active time life of companies' existence with a number of assumptions...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Montserrat Diaz, Mar Llorente, Victor Asensi
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834), distinguished English professor, is the father of modern demography and the most famous harelip carrier of history. Much is known of his orofacial cleft but nothing regarding its mysterious surgical correction. An 1833 portrait of Malthus by John Linnell, finished when he considered himself "handsome enough," for sitting does not show any upper lip scar. When this surgery took place? Although technically feasible in the 19th century, surgery of cleft lip and palate was complicated...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Adriana A Maldonado-Chaparro, Pierre-Olivier Montiglio, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Bart Kempenaers, Damien R Farine
Variation in extra-pair paternity (EPP) among individuals of the same population could result from stochastic demography or from individual differences in mating strategies. Although the adaptive value of EPP has been widely studied, much less is known about the characteristics of the social environment that drive the observed patterns of EPP. Here, we demonstrate how concepts and well-developed tools for the study of social behaviour (such as social network analysis) can enhance the study of extra-pair mating decisions (focussing in particular on avian mating systems)...
March 13, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Samuel Ellis, Daniel W Franks, Stuart Nattrass, Michael A Cant, Destiny L Bradley, Deborah Giles, Kenneth C Balcomb, Darren P Croft
A species has a post-reproductive stage if, like humans, a female entering the adult population can expect to live a substantial proportion of their life after their last reproductive event. However, it is conceptually and statistically challenging to distinguish these true post-reproductive stages from the usual processes of senescence, which can result in females occasionally surviving past their last reproductive event. Hence, despite considerable interest, the taxonomic prevalence of post-reproductive stages remains unclear and debated...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
(no author information available yet)
Cardiovascular prevention represents a cornerstone of modern strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. It is of key importance to prevent cardiovascular diseases and associated events, not only to reduce morbidity and mortality, but also to increase the years of wellness in the aging population and to make the growing socio-economic burden imposed by cardiovascular events more sustainable.The current approach to prevention is based on an integrated use of effective lifestyle measures and, whenever appropriate, of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering agents and antiplatelet drugs...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Daniel J Becker, Gábor Á Czirják, Dmitriy V Volokhov, Alexandra B Bentz, Jorge E Carrera, Melinda S Camus, Kristen J Navara, Vladimir E Chizhikov, M Brock Fenton, Nancy B Simmons, Sergio E Recuenco, Amy T Gilbert, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G Streicker
Human activities create novel food resources that can alter wildlife-pathogen interactions. If resources amplify or dampen, pathogen transmission probably depends on both host ecology and pathogen biology, but studies that measure responses to provisioning across both scales are rare. We tested these relationships with a 4-year study of 369 common vampire bats across 10 sites in Peru and Belize that differ in the abundance of livestock, an important anthropogenic food source. We quantified innate and adaptive immunity from bats and assessed infection with two common bacteria...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Shannon E Majowicz, E Jane Parmley, Carolee Carson, Katarina Pintar
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical public health issue that involves interrelationships between people, animals, and the environment. Traditionally, interdisciplinary efforts to mitigate AMR in the food chain have involved public health, human and veterinary medicine, and agriculture stakeholders. Our objective was to identify a more diverse range of stakeholders, beyond those traditionally engaged in AMR mitigation efforts, via diagramming both proximal and distal factors impacting, or impacted by, use and resistance along the Canadian food chain...
March 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Elisabeth van Gessel, Patricia Picchiottino, Robert Doureradjam, Mathieu Nendaz, Petra Mèche
AIMS: Demography of patients and complexity in the management of multimorbid conditions has made collaborative practice a necessity for the future, also in Switzerland. Since 2012, the University of Applied Sciences (UAS) and its Healthcare School as well as the University of Geneva (UG) with its Medical Faculty have joined forces to implement a training program in collaborative practice, using simulation as one of the main learning/teaching process. METHODS: The actual program consists of three sequential modules and totalizes 300 h of teaching and learning for approximately 1400-1500 students from six tracks (nutritionists, physiotherapists, midwives, nurses, technologists in medical radiology, physicians); in 2019 another hundred pharmacists will also be included...
March 8, 2018: Medical Teacher
M E Ogunsanya, S O Nduaguba, C M Brown
Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe the annual direct medical expenditures for cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) patients, and to estimate the incremental health care expenditures and utilization associated with depression among adults with CLE, while controlling for covariates. Methods Using the 2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), we compared CLE patients with and without depression to determine differences in: (a) health care utilization-inpatient, outpatient, office-based and emergency room (ER) visits, and prescriptions filled; and (b) expenditures-total costs, inpatient, outpatient, office-based, ER, and prescription medication costs, and other costs using demography-adjusted and comorbidity-adjusted multivariate models (age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, perception of health status, poverty category, smoking status, and Charlson Comorbidity Index)...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Fuji Jian, Digvir S Jayas, Paul G Fields, Noel D G White
Data collected in Part I of this study were further analyzed by using mathematical modeling methods. Out of the nine unstructured population models tested, no model could fit the insect numbers under all of the tested conditions. This analysis showed that Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) inside small patches (50 ml volume) had different characterization of population dynamics from that inside large patches (18 liter volume) and had different population demography when the insect number at the previous time was different...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Fuji Jian, Digvir S Jayas, Paul G Fields, Noel D G White, Hao Zhang, Peian Tang
Population dynamics of rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens; Coleoptera: Cucujidae), was studied using different sizes of grain bulks (patches) at various temperatures. The temperatures were 21, 25, 30, 35°C, T-decrease (30°C in the first 4 wk and then decreased 1°C /wk), and T-increase (21°C in the first 2 wk and then increased 1°C /wk). Number of adults and offspring and infested wheat kernels were counted every 4 wk up to 24 wk (31 wk for the T-decrease). The grain bulk patches used were: small (50 ml inner volume, 0...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
A B M Boni Rietveld, F M T Hagemans, S Haitjema, T Vissers, R G H H Nelissen
Dancing on pointe and relevé requires extreme plantar flexion of the talo-crural joint. Hence, these positions may lead to posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS). PAIS often coincides with flexor hallucis longus tendinopathy (FHL tendinopathy, or "dancers' tendinitis"). Both injuries can appear in isolation as well. The goal of this review is to evaluate the results and the available levels of evidence of conservative and operative treatment (both open and endoscopic) of PAIS and FHL tendinopathy in dancers...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
Anteneh Amsalu, Getachew Ferede, Demissie Assegu
BACKGROUND: Despite availability of effective treatment and the implementation of focused antenatal care (ANC), still the prevalence of syphilis persists in Ethiopia. Yet, data is not found in southern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and associated factors of syphilis among pregnant women in Yiregalem Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women from October 2015 to August 2016...
March 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hernando Rodríguez-Correa, Ken Oyama, Mauricio Quesada, Eric J Fuchs, Antonio González-Rodríguez
Lower Central America is an important area to study recent population history and diversification of Neotropical species due to its complex and dynamic geology and climate. Phylogeographic studies in this region are few in comparison with other regions and even less for tree species. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phylogeographic structure in two partially co-distributed endemic oak species (Quercus costaricensis and Q. bumelioides) of the Costa Rican mountains using chloroplast short sequence repeats (cpSSRs), and to test for the effect of geological and palaeoclimatic processes on their population history...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Margarita Pons-Salort, M Steven Oberste, Mark A Pallansch, Glen R Abedi, Saki Takahashi, Bryan T Grenfell, Nicholas C Grassly
Nonpolio enteroviruses are diverse and common viruses that can circulate year-round but tend to peak in summer. Although most infections are asymptomatic, they can result in a wide range of neurological and other diseases. Many serotypes circulate every year, and different serotypes predominate in different years, but the drivers of their geographical and temporal dynamics are not understood. We use national enterovirus surveillance data collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during 1983-2013, as well as demographic and climatic data for the same period, to study the patterns and drivers of the seasonality of these infections...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Barbara Giordani, Annalisa Amato, Fabio Majo, Gianluca Ferrari, Serena Quattrucci, Laura Minicucci, Rita Padoan, Giovanna Floridia, Gianna Puppo Fornaro, Domenica Taruscio, Marco Salvatore
INTRODUCTION: The Italian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (ICFR) is based on a new agreement about the data flow towards the Registry signed on October, 4th 2016 by the Centre for Rare Diseases of the Italian National Institute of Health (NIH), the clinicians of the Italian National Referral and Support Centres for Cystic Fibrosis, the Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù" (Rome), the Italian Cystic Fibrosis Society, and the Italian League for Cystic Fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present Report is to improve the knowledge on cystic fibrosis (CF) through the epidemiological description of Italian patients...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Y Wang, J H Kim, Z Mao, M Ramel, F Pailler, J Perez, H Rey, S Tron, C Jourdan, A Stokes
Background and Aims: The structure of heterogeneous forests has consequences for their biophysical environment. Variations in the local climate significantly affect tree physiological processes. We hypothesize that forest structure also alters tree root elongation and longevity through temporal and spatial variations in soil temperature and water potential. Methods: We installed rhizotrons in paired vegetation communities of closed forest (tree islands) and open patches (canopy gaps), along a soil temperature gradient (elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m) in a heterogeneous mixed forest...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Botany
Elise Harder, Kirsten E Juul, Signe M Jensen, Louise T Thomsen, Kirsten Frederiksen, Susanne K Kjaer
Cervical cancer occurs most often in under-screened women. In this nationwide register study, we described differences in sociodemographic characteristics between passive and active non-participants and examined socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and mental and physical health as potential determinants for passive non-participation compared with participation in the Danish cervical cancer screening program. Screening history in women aged 23-49 years invited for cervical cancer screening in 2008-2009 was retrieved from the Danish Pathology Databank with information about dates of invitation and unsubscription...
March 6, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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