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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934946/genome-wide-snp-data-unveils-the-globalization-of-domesticated-pigs
#1
Bin Yang, Leilei Cui, Miguel Perez-Enciso, Aleksei Traspov, Richard P M A Crooijmans, Natalia Zinovieva, Lawrence B Schook, Alan Archibald, Kesinee Gatphayak, Christophe Knorr, Alex Triantafyllidis, Panoraia Alexandri, Gono Semiadi, Olivier Hanotte, Deodália Dias, Peter Dovč, Pekka Uimari, Laura Iacolina, Massimo Scandura, Martien A M Groenen, Lusheng Huang, Hendrik-Jan Megens
BACKGROUND: Pigs were domesticated independently in Eastern and Western Eurasia early during the agricultural revolution, and have since been transported and traded across the globe. Here, we present a worldwide survey on 60K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 2093 pigs, including 1839 domestic pigs representing 122 local and commercial breeds, 215 wild boars, and 39 out-group suids, from Asia, Europe, America, Oceania and Africa. The aim of this study was to infer global patterns in pig domestication and diversity related to demography, migration, and selection...
September 21, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930723/uk-renal-registry-19th-annual-report-chapter-4-demography-of-the-uk-paediatric-renal-replacement-therapy-population-in-2015
#2
Alexander J Hamilton, Fiona Braddon, Anna Casula, Malcolm Lewis, Tamara Mallett, Stephen D Marks, Mohan Shenoy, Manish D Sinha, Yincent Tse, Heather Maxwell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924505/greater-reproductive-investment-but-shorter-lifespan-in-agrosystem-than-in-natural-habitat-toads
#3
Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho, Mar Comas
Global amphibian decline is due to several factors: habitat loss, anthropization, pollution, emerging diseases, and global warming. Amphibians, with complex life cycles, are particularly susceptible to habitat alterations, and their survival may be impaired in anthropized habitats. Increased mortality is a well-known consequence of anthropization. Life-history theory predicts higher reproductive investment when mortality is increased. In this work, we compared age, body size, and different indicators of reproductive investment, as well as prey availability, in natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita) from agrosystems and adjacent natural pine groves in Southwestern Spain...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924427/longitudinal-changes-in-the-blood-supply-and-demand-in-north-east-germany-2005-2015
#4
Linda Schönborn, Kerstin Weitmann, Nico Greger, Volker Kiefel, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Andreas Greinacher
BACKGROUND: Securing future blood supply is a major issue of transfusion safety. In this prospective 10-year longitudinal study we enrolled all blood donation services and hospitals of the federal state Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2005 to 2015 (time period with major demographic effects), whole blood donation numbers declined by 18%. In male donors this paralleled the demographic change, while donation rates of females declined 12.4% more than expected from demography...
August 2017: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920085/baseline-prescription-and-one-year-persistence-of-secondary-prevention-drugs-after-an-index-stroke-in-central-ghana
#5
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Bruce Ovbiagele, John Akassi, Gloria Kyem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a paucity of data on persistence of secondary prevention medications among stroke survivors in resource-limited settings where stroke is on a rapid upward trajectory and its management severely challenged. To avert new cardiovascular events after stroke, preventive medications should be promptly instituted and used continuously. We report 1-year rates and determinants of persistent utilization of secondary prevention therapies after stroke in Ghana. METHODS: A retrospective observational study involving 418 stroke survivors enrolled into a Neurology clinic in a tertiary institution in central Ghana between January 2011 and December 2013...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919872/follower-centered-perspective-on-feedback-effects-of-feedback-seeking-on-identification-and-feedback-environment
#6
Zhenxing Gong, Miaomiao Li, Yaoyuan Qi, Na Zhang
In the formation mechanism of the feedback environment, the existing research pays attention to external feedback sources and regards individuals as objects passively accepting feedback. Thus, the external source fails to realize the individuals' need for feedback, and the feedback environment cannot provide them with useful information, leading to a feedback vacuum. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of feedback-seeking by different strategies on the supervisor-feedback environment through supervisor identification...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910405/linking-extreme-interannual-changes-in-prey-availability-to-foraging-behaviour-and-breeding-investment-in-a-marine-predator-the-macaroni-penguin
#7
Cat Horswill, Philip N Trathan, Norman Ratcliffe
Understanding the mechanisms that link prey availability to predator behaviour and population change is central to projecting how a species may respond to future environmental pressures. We documented the behavioural responses and breeding investment of macaroni penguins Eudyptes chrysolophus across five breeding seasons where local prey density changed by five-fold; from very low to highly abundant. When prey availability was low, foraging trips were significantly longer and extended overnight. Birds also foraged farther from the colony, potentially in order to reach more distant foraging grounds and allow for increased search times...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904969/sociodemographic-and-clinical-characteristics-of-centenarians-in-mexico-city
#8
Valdés-Corchado Pedro, Ruiz-Hernández Arturo, Pérez-Moreno Alejandro, Rosas-Carrasco Oscar
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence about the demography and health status of adults aged 100 years and over in Latin America and there are no studies in Mexico. OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographic characteristics and health status of centenarians residing in Mexico City. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using a population base of 393 community-dwelling centenarians in Mexico City. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed, including demographic information and health status...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903535/modeling-the-multiple-facets-of-speciation-with-gene-flow-toward-inferring-the-divergence-history-of-lake-whitefish-species-pairs-coregonus-clupeaformis
#9
Clément Rougeux, Louis Bernatchez, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire
Parallel divergence across replicated species pairs occurring in similar environmental contrasts may arise through distinct evolutionary scenarios. Deciphering whether such parallelism actually reflects repeated parallel divergence driven by divergent selection or a single divergence event with subsequent gene flow needs to be ascertained. Reconstructing historical gene flow is therefore of fundamental interest to understand how demography and selection jointly shaped genomic divergence during speciation. Here, we use an extended modeling framework to explore the multiple facets of speciation-with-gene-flow with demo-genetic divergence models that capture both temporal and genomic variation in effective population size and migration rate...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900365/changing-reference-intervals-for-haemoglobin-in-denmark-clinical-and-financial-aspects
#10
Judith Ryberg-Nørholt, Henrik Frederiksen, Mads Nybo
INTRODUCTION: Based on international experiences and altering demography the reference intervals (RI) for haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in blood were changed in Denmark in 2013 from 113 - 161 g/L to 117 - 153 g/L for women and from 129 - 177 g/L to 134 - 170 g/L for men. The aim of this study was to determine the derived change in prevalence of anaemia and the change in yearly health care costs of diagnostic investigations associated with the expected, as we hypothesized, increased prevalence and health care costs...
October 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898601/characterization-of-the-gray-whale-eschrichtius-robustus-genome-and-a-genotyping-array-based-on-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-candidate-genes
#11
J Andrew DeWoody, Nadia B Fernandez, Anna Brüniche-Olsen, Jennifer D Antonides, Jacqueline M Doyle, Phillip San Miguel, Rick Westerman, Vladimir V Vertyankin, Céline A J Godard-Codding, John W Bickham
Genetic and genomic approaches have much to offer in terms of ecology, evolution, and conservation. To better understand the biology of the gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Lilljeborg, 1861), we sequenced the genome and produced an assembly that contains ∼95% of the genes known to be highly conserved among eukaryotes. From this assembly, we annotated 22,711 genes and identified 2,057,254 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using this assembly, we generated a curated list of candidate genes potentially subject to strong natural selection, including genes associated with osmoregulation, oxygen binding and delivery, and other aspects of marine life...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895297/changing-trends-in-therapeutic-plasmapheresis-an-indian-perspective
#12
Aseem K Tiwari, Gunjan Bhardwaj, Geet Aggarwal, Dinesh Arora, Ravi C Dara, Devi P Acharya, Sangeetha Gayam, Jui Choudhuri
Indications for therapeutic apheresis (TA) are dynamic; they keep changing and expanding because of introduction of newer treatment modalities and accumulating evidence in the form of case-reports, case-series and original articles. We evaluated our therapeutic plasmapheresis (TP) data and compared this data with an earlier published Indian report for indications, frequency, response rate and adverse reactions. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all TP procedures performed from January 2014 to June 2016 in department of Transfusion Medicine at a tertiary care hospital...
September 11, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893846/comparison-of-single-genome-and-allele-frequency-data-reveals-discordant-demographic-histories
#13
Annabel C Beichman, Tanya N Phung, Kirk E Lohmueller
Inference of demographic history from genetic data is a primary goal of population genetics of model and non-model organisms. Whole genome-based approaches such as the Pairwise/Multiple Sequentially Markovian Coalescent (PSMC/MSMC) methods use genomic data from one to four individuals to infer the demographic history of an entire population, while site frequency spectrum (SFS)-based methods use the distribution of allele frequencies in a sample to reconstruct the same historical events. Although both methods are extensively used in empirical studies and perform well on data simulated under simple models, there have been only limited comparisons of them in more complex and realistic settings...
September 11, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893173/appropriate-homoplasy-metrics-in-linked-ssrs-to-predict-an-underestimation-of-demographic-expansion-times
#14
Diego Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Daniel Piñero, Lev Jardón-Barbolla, Joost van Heerwaarden
BACKGROUND: Homoplasy affects demographic inference estimates. This effect has been recognized and corrective methods have been developed. However, no studies so far have defined what homoplasy metrics best describe the effects on demographic inference, or have attempted to estimate such metrics in real data. Here we study how homoplasy in chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) affects inference of population expansion time. cpSSRs are popular markers for inferring historical demography in plants due to their high mutation rate and limited recombination...
September 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890551/a-unified-framework-of-demographic-time
#15
Tim Riffe, Jonas Schöley, Francisco Villavicencio
Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life, total length of life, or time of death, whose use in demographic research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe an identity between these six demographic time measures and describe the sub-identities and diagrams that pertain to this identity. We provide an application of this framework to the measurement of late-life morbidity prevalence...
2017: Genus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874275/paleolithic-subsistence-strategies-and-changes-in-site-use-at-klissoura-cave-1-peloponnese-greece
#16
Britt M Starkovich
Klissoura Cave 1 in southern Greece preserves a long archaeological sequence that spans roughly 90,000 years and includes Middle Paleolithic, Uluzzian, Upper Paleolithic, and Mesolithic deposits. The site provides a unique opportunity to examine diachronic change and shifts in the intensity of site use across the Late Pleistocene. There is an overall picture of the intensified use of faunal resources at the site, evidenced by a shift from large to small game, and to small fast-moving taxa in particular. This trend is independent of climatic change and fluctuations in site use, and most likely reflects a broader, regional growth of hominin populations...
October 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869682/individual-fitness-and-the-effects-of-a-changing-climate-on-the-cessation-and-length-of-the-breeding-period-using-a-34-year-study-of-a-temperate-songbird
#17
Corey E Tarwater, Peter Arcese
Studies of the phenological responses of animals to climate change typically emphasize the initiation of breeding, even though climatic effects on the cessation and length of the breeding period may be as or more influential of fitness. We quantified links between climate, the cessation and length of the breeding period, and individual survival and reproduction using a 34 year study of a resident song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population subject to dramatic variation in climate. We show that the cessation and length of the breeding period varied strongly across years, and predicted female annual fecundity but not survival...
September 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869225/resection-and-anastomosis-for-benign-tracheal-stenosis-single-institution-experience-of-18-cases
#18
Arvind Kumar, Belal Bin Asaf, Harsh Vardhan Puri, Amr Abdellateef
INTRODUCTION: Tracheal stenosis is a complex condition caused by altered inflammatory response to injury and subsequent excessive circumferential scar formation. Surgical resection, wherever possible, offers the best long-term results. Nonsurgical methods provide immediate relief to all can be curative in few but mostly serve as an excellent bridge to surgery in majority. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the outcome following surgery for benign tracheal stenosis at our center...
September 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868598/turkish-recreational-divers-a-comparative-study-of-their-demographics-diving-habits-health-and-attitudes-towards-safety
#19
Bengusu Mirasoglu, Samil Aktas
INTRODUCTION: In Turkey, scuba diving has become more popular and accessible in the past decade and there has been a commensurate rise in the number of certified divers. This new generation of recreational divers has not been described in detail previously. The aim of this study was to profile this group, while investigating any gender differences and making comparisons with the global diving community. METHODS: Turkish dive club members and diving forum⁄blog readers were invited to complete an online questionnaire investigating their demography, medical issues and diving history and habits...
September 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861223/populations-genetically-rifting-within-a-complex-geological-system-the-case-of-strong-structure-and-low-genetic-diversity-in-the-migratory-freshwater-catfish-bagrus-docmak-in-east-africa
#20
Rose Komugisha Basiita, Kyall Richard Zenger, Dean Robert Jerry
The complex geological history of East Africa has been a driving factor in the rapid evolution of teleost biodiversity. While there is some understanding of how macroevolutionary drivers have shaped teleost speciation in East Africa, there is a paucity of research into how the same biogeographical factors have affected microevolutionary processes within lakes and rivers. To address this deficiency, population genetic diversity, demography, and structure were investigated in a widely distributed and migratory (potamodromous) African teleost species, Ssemutundu (Bagrus docmak)...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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