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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548871/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-acrossocheilus-yunnanensis-teleostei-cyprinidae-inferred-from-four-mitochondrial-gene-sequences
#1
Lan-Ping Zheng, Jun-Xing Yang
In this paper, we examine the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history of Acrossocheilus yunnanensis inferred from four mitochondrial gene sequences. Twenty-two haplotypes were identified for A. yunnanensis. The total haplotype and nucleotide diversities of A. yunnanensis are 0.9206 and 0.024654, respectively. The monophyly of the haplotypes is supported by all phylogenetic analyses. All the haplotypes can be divided into four major lineages. The results of AMOVA and SAMOVA suggest that the best grouping pattern is to divide four groups, and that most of the variation of genetic divergence is present among these groups...
May 26, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543048/estimating-demographic-contributions-to-effective-population-size-in-an-age-structured-wild-population-experiencing-environmental-and-demographic-stochasticity
#2
Amanda E Trask, Eric M Bignal, Davy I McCracken, Stuart B Piertney, Jane M Reid
1.A population's effective size (Ne ) is a key parameter that shapes rates of inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity, thereby influencing evolutionary processes and population viability. However estimating Ne , and identifying key demographic mechanisms that underlie the Ne to census population size (N) ratio, remains challenging, especially for small populations with overlapping generations and substantial environmental and demographic stochasticity and hence dynamic age-structure. 2.A sophisticated demographic method of estimating Ne /N, which uses Fisher's reproductive value to account for dynamic age-structure, has been formulated...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542892/knowledge-diagnosis-and-management-of-dentine-hypersensitivity-a-national-survey-of-dentists-in-nigeria
#3
Olabisi Hajarat Oderinu, Mathew Asizide Sede, Adeleke Oke Oginni, Ilemobade Cyril Adegbulugbe, Omolara Gbonjubola Uti, Adeyemi Oluniyi Olusile, Christopher I Udoye, Kofoworola Olaide Savage
AIM: To assess the knowledge of Nigerian dentists regarding dentine hypersensitivity (DH) and their methods of diagnosis and management. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of dentists practicing in all six geopolitical zones of Nigeria was conducted. The questionnaire focussed on participant's demography, exposure to patients with DH, knowledge-based questions, diagnosis and management of DH. Data analysis using EPI Info statistical software determined frequencies and proportions...
May 20, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542642/early-upper-paleolithic-colonization-across-europe-time-and-mode-of-the-gravettian-diffusion
#4
Nuno Bicho, João Cascalheira, Célia Gonçalves
This study presents new models on the origin, speed and mode of the wave-of-advance leading to the definitive occupation of Europe's outskirts by Anatomically Modern Humans, during the Gravettian, between c. 37 and 30 ka ago. These models provide the estimation for possible demic dispersal routes for AMH at a stable spread rate of c. 0.7 km/year, with the likely origin in Central Europe at the site of Geissenklosterle in Germany and reaching all areas of the European landscape. The results imply that: 1. The arrival of the Gravettian populations into the far eastern European plains and to southern Iberia found regions with very low human occupation or even devoid of hominins; 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525252/-medical-supply-planning-dynamic-registry-of-physicians-sixth-reform-of-the-state-and-numerus-clausus
#5
N Benahmed, A De Wever, M Pirson
INTRODUCTION: The last few years have seen major changes in the Belgian medical planning. The paper aims to describe them and to assess how they will affect the medical demography. METHOD: Grey literature review and federal and federated entities legislation summary. RESULTS: A new dynamic register allows a better knowledge of medical workforce in all sectors of labour market. Recent legislation evolutions induce fragmentation of competences related to human resource for health planning : federal authorities are responsive for the fixation of number of GP and specialists and community authorities for registration of health professionals and fixation of sub-quotas in different branches of specialised medicine...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523064/use-of-oral-vitamin-d-glass-ampoule-and-tablet-experience-of-patients-and-physicians
#6
Syed Umair Maroof, Faizan Shaukat, Junaid Aslam, Masood Jawaid
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain patients and physician views regarding hazard and compliance of oral liquid Vitamin D glass ampoule and tablets. METHODS: This cross sectional survey was conducted from November 1(st) 2016 to 15(th) December 2016. Patients who were prescribed Vitamin D glass ampoule from oral route in last three months were included along with physicians who routinely prescribe vitamin D after taking informed consent. The participants were asked about injuries related to the use of glass ampoule, ease of using this from, after taste preference of tablet or injectable form as well as demography...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508296/modeling-the-fear-effect-in-predator-prey-interactions-with-adaptive-avoidance-of-predators
#7
Xiaoying Wang, Xingfu Zou
Recent field experiments on vertebrates showed that the mere presence of a predator would cause a dramatic change of prey demography. Fear of predators increases the survival probability of prey, but leads to a cost of prey reproduction. Based on the experimental findings, we propose a predator-prey model with the cost of fear and adaptive avoidance of predators. Mathematical analyses show that the fear effect can interplay with maturation delay between juvenile prey and adult prey in determining the long-term population dynamics...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508098/patient-mortality-following-alcohol-use-and-trauma-a-propensity-matched-analysis
#8
N Ahmed, P Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcomes of trauma patients who tested positive for alcohol at the time of hospital arrival versus those who tested negative. METHODS: Data were pulled from the National Trauma Data Bank (2007-2010). All injured patients who were ≥14 years of age, sustained a "blunt" or "penetrating" injury, had complete systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) records, were taken to a level 1 or 2 trauma center, and who received a confirmed blood alcohol test were included in the study...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505138/estimating-density-and-temperature-dependence-of-juvenile-vital-rates-using-a-hidden-markov-model
#9
Robert M McElderry
Organisms in the wild have cryptic life stages that are sensitive to changing environmental conditions and can be difficult to survey. In this study, I used mark-recapture methods to repeatedly survey Anaea aidea (Nymphalidae) caterpillars in nature, then modeled caterpillar demography as a hidden Markov process to assess if temporal variability in temperature and density influence the survival and growth of A. aidea over time. Individual encounter histories result from the joint likelihood of being alive and observed in a particular stage, and I have included hidden states by separating demography and observations into parallel and independent processes...
May 15, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503842/demographic-histories-of-three-predatory-lady-beetles-reveal-complex-patterns-of-diversity-and-population-size-change-in-the-united-states
#10
Arun Sethuraman, Fredric J Janzen, Michael A Rubio, Yumary Vasquez, John J Obrycki
Predatory lady beetles (Coccinellidae) contribute to biological control of agricultural pests, however, multiple species frequently compete for similar resources in the same environment. Numerous studies have examined ecological interactions among the native North American convergent lady beetle (Hippodamia convergens) and two introduced species, the seven spotted lady beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) and the Asian lady beetle (Harmonia axyridis), in agricultural fields and described multi-year population dynamics...
May 15, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502018/evolutionary-processes-in-populations-of-cryptosporidium-inferred-from-gp60-sequence-data
#11
Juan C Garcia-R, David T S Hayman
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common human infectious diseases globally. The gp60 gene has been adopted as a key marker for molecular epidemiological investigations into this protozoan disease because of the capability to characterize genotypes and detect variants within Cryptosporidium species infecting humans. However, we know relatively little about the potential spatial and temporal variation in population demography that can be inferred from this gene beyond that it is recognized to be under selective pressure...
May 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499348/total-delay-in-treatment-among-tuberculous-meningitis-patients-in-china-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Yu He, Chao Han, Kai-Feng Chang, Mao-Shui Wang, Tian-Ren Huang
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is limited data on the risk factors associated with treatment delay in tuberculous meningitis (TBM). This study aimed to assess the duration of delay in the treatment TBM and to investigate its determinants. METHODS: During the period from September 2009 to February 2016, a retrospective cohort study of consecutive TBM patients admitted to our hospital was conducted to determine the risk factors associated with treatment delay in TBM...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493917/the-impact-of-hcv-therapy-in-a-high-hiv-hcv-prevalence-population-a-modeling-study-on-people-who-inject-drugs-in-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#13
Ruthie B Birger, Thuy Le, Roger D Kouyos, Bryan T Grenfell, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) coinfection is a major global health problem especially among people who inject drugs (PWID), with significant clinical implications. Mathematical models have been used to great effect to shape HIV care, but few have been proposed for HIV/HCV. METHODS: We constructed a deterministic compartmental ODE model that incorporated layers for HIV disease progression, HCV disease progression and PWID demography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489134/dialectics-of-a-medical-provision-policy-in-priority-areas-in-brazil
#14
César Augusto Trinta Weber
Introduction: The people living in vulnerable areas that are difficult to access in Brazil represent a portion of the population that has proven very sensitive to lack of medical and health services. The government, seeking to solve the situation urgently, implemented the More Doctors Program [Programa Mais Médicos, in the Portuguese original] in 2013. Objective: To discuss the More Doctors Program, with the purpose of contributing to the debate on the provision of medical policies in Brazil...
March 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486007/concomitant-laparoscopic-perisplenic-artery-ligation-facilitates-surgery-for-hepatobiliary-disease-coexisting-with-portal-hypertension
#15
Youlong Wang, Fei Chen, Yajuan Chu, Xiaofang Tan, Jingwang Tan, Wenbin Ji
BACKGROUND: Although liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension (PH) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in abdominal surgery, many authors still consider this disease as an indication for surgery. In many reports, however, numerous treatment modalities focus on hypersplenism secondary to PH, irrespective of splenomegaly and PH. The proven benefits of laparoscopy seem especially applicable to patients with this complex disease. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic perisplenic artery ligation (SAL) in patients with hepatobiliary disease and PH...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484633/predictors-and-immunological-correlates-of-sublethal-mercury-exposure-in-vampire-bats
#16
Daniel J Becker, Matthew M Chumchal, Alexandra B Bentz, Steven G Platt, Gábor Á Czirják, Thomas R Rainwater, Sonia Altizer, Daniel G Streicker
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive heavy metal that often enters the environment from anthropogenic sources such as gold mining and agriculture. Chronic exposure to Hg can impair immune function, reducing the ability of animals to resist or recover from infections. How Hg influences immunity and susceptibility remains unknown for bats, which appear immunologically distinct from other mammals and are reservoir hosts of many pathogens of importance to human and animal health. We here quantify total Hg (THg) in hair collected from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), which feed on blood and are the main reservoir hosts of rabies virus in Latin America...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484615/reproductive-seasonality-sex-ratio-and-philopatry-in-argentina-s-common-vampire-bats
#17
H A Delpietro, R G Russo, G G Carter, R D Lord, G L Delpietro
Common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are a key rabies vector in South America. Improved management of this species requires long-term, region-specific information. To investigate patterns of demography and dispersal, we analysed 13 642 captures of common vampire bats in Northern Argentina from the period 1969-2004. In contrast with findings from more tropical regions, we found reproductive seasonality with peak pregnancy in September and peak lactation in February. Curiously, sex ratios were consistently male-biased both in maternity roosts and at foraging sites...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484472/inferring-genetic-variation-and-demographic-history-of-michelia-yunnanensis-franch-magnoliaceae-from-chloroplast-dna-sequences-and-microsatellite-markers
#18
Xue Zhang, Shikang Shen, Fuqin Wu, Yuehua Wang
Michelia yunnanensis Franch., is a traditional ornamental, aromatic, and medicinal shrub that endemic to Yunnan Province in southwest China. Although the species has a large distribution pattern and is abundant in Yunnan Province, the populations are dramatically declining because of overexploitation and habitat destruction. Studies on the genetic variation and demography of endemic species are necessary to develop effective conservation and management strategies. To generate such knowledge, we used 3 pairs of universal cpDNA markers and 10 pairs of microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history of 7 M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483873/effect-of-extreme-sea-surface-temperature-events-on-the-demography-of-an-age-structured-albatross-population
#19
Deborah Pardo, Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Henri Weimerskirch, Christophe Barbraud
Climate changes include concurrent changes in environmental mean, variance and extremes, and it is challenging to understand their respective impact on wild populations, especially when contrasted age-dependent responses to climate occur. We assessed how changes in mean and standard deviation of sea surface temperature (SST), frequency and magnitude of warm SST extreme climatic events (ECE) influenced the stochastic population growth rate log(λs) and age structure of a black-browed albatross population. For changes in SST around historical levels observed since 1982, changes in standard deviation had a larger (threefold) and negative impact on log(λs) compared to changes in mean...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481897/macroscale-patterns-in-body-size-of-intertidal-crustaceans-provide-insights-on-climate-change-effects
#20
Eduardo Jaramillo, Jenifer E Dugan, David M Hubbard, Heraldo Contreras, Cristian Duarte, Emilio Acuña, David S Schoeman
Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA...
2017: PloS One
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