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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448578/evolutionary-history-of-tibetans-inferred-from-whole-genome-sequencing
#1
Hao Hu, Nayia Petousi, Gustavo Glusman, Yao Yu, Ryan Bohlender, Tsewang Tashi, Jonathan M Downie, Jared C Roach, Amy M Cole, Felipe R Lorenzo, Alan R Rogers, Mary E Brunkow, Gianpiero Cavalleri, Leroy Hood, Sama M Alpatty, Josef T Prchal, Lynn B Jorde, Peter A Robbins, Tatum S Simonson, Chad D Huff
The indigenous people of the Tibetan Plateau have been the subject of much recent interest because of their unique genetic adaptations to high altitude. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Tibetan EPAS1 haplotype is involved in high altitude-adaptation and originated in an archaic Denisovan-related population. We sequenced the whole-genomes of 27 Tibetans and conducted analyses to infer a detailed history of demography and natural selection of this population. We detected evidence of population structure between the ancestral Han and Tibetan subpopulations as early as 44 to 58 thousand years ago, but with high rates of gene flow until approximately 9 thousand years ago...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448508/a-longitudinal-cline-characterizes-the-genetic-structure-of-human-populations-in-the-tibetan-plateau
#2
Choongwon Jeong, Benjamin M Peter, Buddha Basnyat, Maniraj Neupane, Cynthia M Beall, Geoff Childs, Sienna R Craig, John Novembre, Anna Di Rienzo
Indigenous populations of the Tibetan plateau have attracted much attention for their good performance at extreme high altitude. Most genetic studies of Tibetan adaptations have used genetic variation data at the genome scale, while genetic inferences about their demography and population structure are largely based on uniparental markers. To provide genome-wide information on population structure, we analyzed new and published data of 338 individuals from indigenous populations across the plateau in conjunction with worldwide genetic variation data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444211/effects-of-sample-size-and-full-sibs-on-genetic-diversity-characterization-a-case-study-of-three-syntopic-iberian-pond-breeding-amphibians
#3
Gregorio Sánchez-Montes, Arturo H Ariño, José L Vizmanos, Jinliang Wang, Íñigo Martínez-Solano
Accurate characterization of genetic diversity is essential for understanding population demography, predicting future trends and implementing efficient conservation policies. For that purpose, molecular markers are routinely developed for non-model species, but key questions regarding sampling design, like calculation of minimum sample sizes or the effect of relatives in the sample, are often neglected. We used accumulation curves and sibship analyses to explore how these two factors affect marker performance in the characterization of genetic diversity...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442569/density-dependence-in-demography-and-dispersal-generates-fluctuating-invasion-speeds
#4
Lauren L Sullivan, Bingtuan Li, Tom E X Miller, Michael G Neubert, Allison K Shaw
Density dependence plays an important role in population regulation and is known to generate temporal fluctuations in population density. However, the ways in which density dependence affects spatial population processes, such as species invasions, are less understood. Although classical ecological theory suggests that invasions should advance at a constant speed, empirical work is illuminating the highly variable nature of biological invasions, which often exhibit nonconstant spreading speeds, even in simple, controlled settings...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441935/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-influenza-vaccination
#5
Martin Eichner, Markus Schwehm, Linda Eichner, Laetitia Gerlier
BACKGROUND: After vaccination, vaccinees acquire some protection against infection and/or disease. Vaccination, therefore, reduces the number of infections in the population. Due to this herd protection, not everybody needs to be vaccinated to prevent infections from spreading. METHODS: We quantify direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination examining the standard Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model as well as simulation results of a sophisticated simulation tool which allows for seasonal transmission of four influenza strains in a population with realistic demography and age-dependent contact patterns...
April 26, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440109/the-demography-of-words-the-global-decline-in-non-numeric-fertility-preferences-1993-2011
#6
Margaret Frye, Lauren Bachan
This paper examines the decline in non-numeric responses to questions about fertility preferences among women in the developing world. These types of response-such as 'don't know' or 'it's up to God'-have often been interpreted through the lens of fertility transition theory as an indication that reproduction has not yet entered women's 'calculus of conscious choice'. However, this has yet to be investigated cross-nationally and over time. Using 19 years of data from 32 countries, we find that non-numeric fertility preferences decline most substantially in the early stages of a country's fertility transition...
April 25, 2017: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434190/mixed-severity-fire-history-at-a-forest-grassland-ecotone-in-west-central-british-columbia-canada
#7
Jill E Harvey, Dan J Smith, Thomas T Veblen
This study examines spatially variable stand structure and fire-climate relationships at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada. Fire history reconstructions were based on samples from 92 fire-scarred trees and stand demography from 27 plots collected over an area of about 7 km(2) . We documented historical chronologies of widespread fires and localized grassland fires between AD 1600 and 1900. Relationships between fire events, reconstructed values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index and annual precipitation were examined using superposed epoch and bivariate event analyses...
April 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426818/alternative-glacial-interglacial-refugia-demographic-hypotheses-tested-on-cephalocereus-columna-trajani-cactaceae-in-the-intertropical-mexican-drylands
#8
Amelia Cornejo-Romero, Carlos Fabián Vargas-Mendoza, Gustavo F Aguilar-Martínez, Javier Medina-Sánchez, Beatriz Rendón-Aguilar, Pedro Luis Valverde, Jose Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado, Alejandra Serrato, Sombra Rivas-Arancibia, Marco Aurelio Pérez-Hernández, Gerardo López-Ortega, Cecilia Jiménez-Sierra
Historic demography changes of plant species adapted to New World arid environments could be consistent with either the Glacial Refugium Hypothesis (GRH), which posits that populations contracted to refuges during the cold-dry glacial and expanded in warm-humid interglacial periods, or with the Interglacial Refugium Hypothesis (IRH), which suggests that populations contracted during interglacials and expanded in glacial times. These contrasting hypotheses are developed in the present study for the giant columnar cactus Cephalocereus columna-trajani in the intertropical Mexican drylands where the effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes on phylogeography of cacti remain largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418105/climate-and-successional-related-changes-in-functional-composition-of-european-forests-are-strongly-driven-by-tree-mortality
#9
Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Sophia Ratcliffe, Miguel A Zavala, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Albert Vilà-Cabrera, Francisco Lloret, Jaime Madrigal-González, Christian Wirth, Sarah Greenwood, Gerald Kändler, Aleksi Lehtonen, Jens Kattge, Jonas Dahlgren, Alistair S Jump
Intense droughts combined with increased temperatures are one of the major threats to forest persistence in the 21(st) century. Despite the direct impact of climate change on forest growth and shifts in species abundance, the effect of altered demography on changes in the composition of functional traits is not well known. We sought to: (1) quantify the recent changes in functional composition of European forests; (2) identify the relative importance of climate change, mean climate and forest development for changes in functional composition; and (3) analyse the roles of tree mortality and growth underlying any functional changes in different forest types...
April 18, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413304/simultaneous-single-staged-repair-of-anorectal-malformation-with-tracheoesophageal-fistula-lessons-learned
#10
Ajay Narayan Gangopadhyay, Vaibhav Pandey
INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malformation (ARM) associated esophageal atresia (EA) with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) spawns special therapeutic propositions. The outcome of these patients banks on numerous factors. We performed this study with an aim to compare the outcome of single-staged simultaneous primary repair of both anomalies versus staged repair of these disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of cases with ARM and associated EA with TEF managed over a period of 5 years from July 2010 to June 2015 after ethical approval was undertaken...
April 2017: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413302/primary-definitive-procedure-versus-conventional-three-staged-procedure-for-the-management-of-low-type-anorectal-malformation-in-females-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Alisha Gupta, Sandeep Agarwala, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Madhur Srinivas, Veereshwar Bhatnagar
INTRODUCTION: Females with Krickenbeck low-type anorectal malformations - vestibular fistula (VF) and perineal fistula (PF) - are managed either by a primary definitive or conventional three-staged approach. Ultimate outcome in these children may be affected by wound dehiscence leading to healing by fibrosis. Most of the literature favors one approach over other based on retrospective analysis of their outcomes. Whether a statistically significant difference in wound dehiscence rates between these approaches exists needed to be seen...
April 2017: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411160/life-on-the-rocks-multilocus-phylogeography-of-rock-hyrax-procavia-capensis-from-southern-africa
#12
K Amanda Maswanganye, Michael J Cunningham, Nigel C Bennett, Christian T Chimimba, Paulette Bloomer
Understanding the role of geography and climatic cycles in determining patterns of biodiversity is important in comparative and evolutionary biology and conservation. We studied the phylogeographic pattern and historical demography of a rock-dwelling small mammal species from southern Africa, the rock hyrax Procavia capensis. Using a multilocus coalescent approach, we assessed the influence of strong habitat dependence and fluctuating regional climates on genetic diversity. We sequenced a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) and two nuclear introns (AP5, PRKC1) supplemented with microsatellite genotyping, in order to assess evolutionary processes over multiple temporal scales...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406555/international-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-outcome-study-igos-protocol-of-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study-on-clinical-and-biological-predictors-of-disease-course-and-outcome-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#13
Bart C Jacobs, Bianca van den Berg, Christine Verboon, Govindsinh Chavada, David R Cornblath, Kenneth C Gorson, Thomas Harbo, Hans-Peter Hartung, Richard A C Hughes, Susumu Kusunoki, Pieter A van Doorn, Hugh J Willison
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute polyradiculoneuropathy with a highly variable clinical presentation, course, and outcome. The factors that determine the clinical variation of GBS are poorly understood which complicates the care and treatment of individual patients. The protocol of the ongoing International GBS Outcome Study (IGOS), a prospective, observational, multi-centre cohort study that aims to identify the clinical and biological determinants and predictors of disease onset, subtype, course and outcome of GBS is presented here...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406105/patients-feelings-about-the-presence-of-medical-students-in-a-new-teaching-hospital-in-southwestern-nigeria
#14
Philip Babatunde Adebayo, Stephen Olabode Asaolu, Adeolu Oladayo Akinboro, Adeseye Abiodun Akintunde, Olawale Adebayo Olakulehin, Olugbenga Edward Ayodele
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate how patients feel about the introduction of medical students into a former general hospital transformed to a teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria and to also assess the extent to which they are willing to involve medical students in the management of their conditions. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a sample of 251 randomly selected patients were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire that assessed patients' demography, patients' acceptance of and reaction to the involvement of medical students in their clinical care including the specific procedures the patients would allow medical students to perform...
September 2016: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405986/assessment-of-compliance-to-treatment-of-diabetes-and-hypertension-amongst-previously-diagnosed-patients-from-rural-community-of-raigad-district-of-maharashtra
#15
Kiranmayi Venkata Kakumani, Prasad Waingankar
INTRODUCTION: Substantial burden of diabetes and hypertension is on rise in India, leading to a twin epidemic. India, being a rural country, has unique problems regarding the treatment compliance which is a serious risk for morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To assess the compliance to treatment of hypertension and diabetes amongst the diagnosed patients from rural area and to study reasons of non-compliance and knowledge and attitude. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Community based, cross sectional, observational study conducted in the rural communities of Tara and Barapada villages of Raigad district of Maharashtra...
December 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405285/habitat-suitability-and-demography-a-time-dependent-relationship
#16
Léo Bacon, Yves Hingrat, Frédéric Jiguet, Anne-Christine Monnet, François Sarrazin, Alexandre Robert
The habitat suitability index, which reflects spatial variability in species occurrence probability, has been shown to exhibit various contrasting relationships with local demographic performances (survival, productivity) in several species. One proposed explanation for these discrepancies is that the link between the habitat suitability index and demography is influenced by density-dependent, temporally variable processes. Based on the survival rates of more than 3,000 nests monitored over 12 years in the North African Houbara Bustard, we investigated whether the habitat suitability index computed over the species breeding range is related to nest survival throughout the breeding season, accounting for variation in meteorological conditions...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405027/virus-genomes-reveal-factors-that-spread-and-sustained-the-ebola-epidemic
#17
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Trevor Bedford, Andrew J Tatem, Guy Baele, Nuno R Faria, Daniel J Park, Jason T Ladner, Armando Arias, Danny Asogun, Filip Bielejec, Sarah L Caddy, Matthew Cotten, Jonathan D'Ambrozio, Simon Dellicour, Antonino Di Caro, Joseph W Diclaro, Sophie Duraffour, Michael J Elmore, Lawrence S Fakoli, Ousmane Faye, Merle L Gilbert, Sahr M Gevao, Stephen Gire, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Augustine Goba, Donald S Grant, Bart L Haagmans, Julian A Hiscox, Umaru Jah, Jeffrey R Kugelman, Di Liu, Jia Lu, Christine M Malboeuf, Suzanne Mate, David A Matthews, Christian B Matranga, Luke W Meredith, James Qu, Joshua Quick, Suzan D Pas, My V T Phan, Georgios Pollakis, Chantal B Reusken, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Stephen F Schaffner, John S Schieffelin, Rachel S Sealfon, Etienne Simon-Loriere, Saskia L Smits, Kilian Stoecker, Lucy Thorne, Ekaete Alice Tobin, Mohamed A Vandi, Simon J Watson, Kendra West, Shannon Whitmer, Michael R Wiley, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Roman Wölfel, Nathan L Yozwiak, Kristian G Andersen, Sylvia O Blyden, Fatorma Bolay, Miles W Carroll, Bernice Dahn, Boubacar Diallo, Pierre Formenty, Christophe Fraser, George F Gao, Robert F Garry, Ian Goodfellow, Stephan Günther, Christian T Happi, Edward C Holmes, Brima Kargbo, Sakoba Keïta, Paul Kellam, Marion P G Koopmans, Jens H Kuhn, Nicholas J Loman, N'Faly Magassouba, Dhamari Naidoo, Stuart T Nichol, Tolbert Nyenswah, Gustavo Palacios, Oliver G Pybus, Pardis C Sabeti, Amadou Sall, Ute Ströher, Isatta Wurie, Marc A Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Andrew Rambaut
The 2013-2016 West African epidemic caused by the Ebola virus was of unprecedented magnitude, duration and impact. Here we reconstruct the dispersal, proliferation and decline of Ebola virus throughout the region by analysing 1,610 Ebola virus genomes, which represent over 5% of the known cases. We test the association of geography, climate and demography with viral movement among administrative regions, inferring a classic 'gravity' model, with intense dispersal between larger and closer populations. Despite attenuation of international dispersal after border closures, cross-border transmission had already sown the seeds for an international epidemic, rendering these measures ineffective at curbing the epidemic...
April 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399913/the-readiness-and-motivation-interview-for-families-rmi-family-managing-pediatric-obesity-study-protocol
#18
Geoff D C Ball, Nicholas D Spence, Nadia E Browne, Kathleen O'Connor, Suja Srikameswaran, Joanna Zelichowska, Josephine Ho, Rebecca Gokiert, Louise C Mâsse, Valerie Carson, Katherine M Morrison, Jennifer L Kuk, Nicholas L Holt, Maryam Kebbe, Nicole D Gehring, Melody Cesar, Heidi Virtanen, Josie Geller
BACKGROUND: Experts recommend that clinicians assess motivational factors before initiating care for pediatric obesity. Currently, there are no well-established clinical tools available for assessing motivation in youth with obesity or their families. This represents an important gap in knowledge since motivation-related information may shed light on which patients might fail to complete treatment programs. Our study was designed to evaluate the measurement properties and utility of the Readiness and Motivational Interview for Families (RMI-Family), a structured interview that utilizes a motivational interviewing approach to (i) assess motivational factors in youth and their parents, and (ii) examine the degree to which motivation and motivation-related concordance between youth and parents are related to making changes to lifestyle habits for managing obesity in youth...
April 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398288/spatiotemporal-historical-datasets-at-micro-level-for-geocoded-individuals-in-five-swedish-parishes-1813-1914
#19
Finn Hedefalk, Patrick Svensson, Lars Harrie
This paper presents datasets that enable historical longitudinal studies of micro-level geographic factors in a rural setting. These types of datasets are new, as historical demography studies have generally failed to properly include the micro-level geographic factors. Our datasets describe the geography over five Swedish rural parishes, and by linking them to a longitudinal demographic database, we obtain a geocoded population (at the property unit level) for this area for the period 1813-1914. The population is a subset of the Scanian Economic Demographic Database (SEDD)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396826/the-association-between-continual-year-round-hunting-and-bellowing-rate-of-bison-bulls-during-the-rut
#20
Ronald J Sarno, Melissa M Grigione, Alessandra Higa, Eddie Childers, Trudy Ecoffey
The impact of hunting (selective harvest, trophy hunting) on the demography of mammals is well documented. However, despite continual year-round hunting of bison in some populations, little is known about how the behavior of survivors may be altered. Therefore, in this initial study, we used focal-animal observations in adjacent populations of continually hunted and protected Plains bison (Bison bison bison) in western South Dakota, to examine the potential impact of hunting on bellowing rate-an important behavior that serves to intimidate rival bulls and potentially influences mate choice by females...
2017: PeerJ
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