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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108588/inferring-recent-demography-from-isolation-by-distance-of-long-shared-sequence-blocks
#1
Harald Ringbauer, Graham Coop, Nicholas H Barton
Recently it has become feasible to detect long blocks of nearly identical sequence shared between pairs of genomes. These IBD blocks are direct traces of recent coalescence events and, as such, contain ample signal to infer recent demography. Here, we examine sharing of such blocks in two-dimensional populations with local migration. Using a diffusion approximation to trace genetic ancestry, we derive analytical formulae for patterns of isolation by distance of IBD blocks, which can also incorporate recent population density changes...
January 20, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107877/demography-and-health-of-village-dogs-in-rural-western-uganda
#2
David Hyeroba, Sagan Friant, Johnson Acon, James Okwee-Acai, Tony L Goldberg
"Village dogs" in developing economies are assumed to be heavily burdened by infectious disease. We followed a cohort of 61 village dogs in rural western Uganda prospectively for fifteen months to measure changes in health and demographic outcomes, and to examine risk factors for morbidity and mortality. The mean (±standard deviation) number of dogs per household was 2.4 (±2.0), of which 56.0% were male and 44.0% female. For females, average age at first estrus was 1.7 (±0.6)years with a mean litter size of 3...
February 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105721/bioarchaeology-in-the-ancient-near-east-challenges-and-future-directions-for-the-southern-levant
#3
Susan Guise Sheridan
The synthesis of biological anthropology, archaeology, and social theory provides a bioarchaeological model to reconstruct nuanced aspects of demography, diet, disease, death, daily activities, and biodistance, even in the absence of discrete burials. Numerous skeletal assemblages in the southern Levant are composed of mixed and fragmented bones resulting from generational use of cemeteries, mass burial, and additional communal burial practices. Others become commingled due to taphonomic processes such as flooding, geological events, or human mediated mechanisms like looting, improper excavation, and poor curation...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100590/inferring-individual-inbreeding-and-demographic-history-from-segments-of-identity-by-descent-in-ficedula-flycatcher-genome-sequences
#4
Marty Kardos, Anna Qvarnström, Hans Ellegren
Individual inbreeding and historical demography can be estimated by analyzing runs of homozygosity (ROH), which are indicative of chromosomal segments of identity by descent (IBD). Such analyses have so far been rare in natural populations due to limited genomic resources. We analyzed ROH in whole genome sequences from 287 Ficedula flycatchers representing four species, with the objectives of evaluating the causes of genome-wide variation in the abundance of ROH and inferring historical demography. ROH were clearly more abundant in genomic regions with low recombination rate...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099779/trapped-within-the-city-integrating-demography-time-since-isolation-and-population-specific-traits-to-assess-the-genetic-effects-of-urbanization
#5
André Lourenço, David Álvarez, Ian J Wang, Guillermo Velo-Antón
Urbanization is a severe form of habitat fragmentation that can cause many species to be locally extirpated and many others to become trapped and isolated within an urban matrix. The role of drift in reducing genetic diversity and increasing genetic differentiation is well recognized in urban populations. However, explicit incorporation and analysis of the demographic and temporal factors promoting drift in urban environments is poorly studied. Here, we genotyped 15 microsatellites in 320 fire salamanders from the historical city of Oviedo (Est...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095846/associations-between-degrees-of-task-delegation-and-job-satisfaction-of-general-practitioners-and-their-staff-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Helle Riisgaard, Jens Søndergaard, Maria Munch, Jette V Le, Loni Ledderer, Line B Pedersen, Jørgen Nexøe
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the healthcare system in the western world has undergone a structural development caused by changes in demography and pattern of disease. In order to maintain the healthcare system cost-effective, new tasks are placed in general practice urging the general practitioners to rethink the working structure without compromising the quality of care. However, there is a substantial variation in the degree to which general practitioners delegate tasks to their staff, and it is not known how these various degrees of task delegation influence the job satisfaction of general practitioners and their staff...
January 17, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089120/population-genetics-and-demography-unite-ecology-and-evolution
#7
REVIEW
Winsor H Lowe, Ryan P Kovach, Fred W Allendorf
The interplay of ecology and evolution has been a rich area of research for decades. A surge of interest in this area was catalyzed by the observation that evolution by natural selection can operate at the same contemporary timescales as ecological dynamics. Specifically, recent eco-evolutionary research focuses on how rapid adaptation influences ecology, and vice versa. Evolution by non-adaptive forces also occurs quickly, with ecological consequences, but understanding the full scope of ecology-evolution (eco-evo) interactions requires explicitly addressing population-level processes - genetic and demographic...
January 11, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078833/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-patients-with-severe-sepsis-treated-in-an-intensive-care-unit-in-india
#8
T T Paary, M S Kalaiselvan, M K Renuka, A S Arunkumar
Introduction: Sepsis is the leading cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and is associated with high mortality. Objectives: To identify the incidence, risk factors and outcome of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods: A prospective observational study was done in a multidisciplinary ICU over a period of 18 months. We included all adult patients admitted to ICU with features of severe sepsis and septic shock as per SCCM/ACCP guidelines...
30, 2016: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070855/place-and-child-health-the-interaction-of-population-density-and-sanitation-in-developing-countries
#9
Payal Hathi, Sabrina Haque, Lovey Pant, Diane Coffey, Dean Spears
A long literature in demography has debated the importance of place for health, especially children's health. In this study, we assess whether the importance of dense settlement for infant mortality and child height is moderated by exposure to local sanitation behavior. Is open defecation (i.e., without a toilet or latrine) worse for infant mortality and child height where population density is greater? Is poor sanitation is an important mechanism by which population density influences child health outcomes? We present two complementary analyses using newly assembled data sets, which represent two points in a trade-off between external and internal validity...
January 9, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070296/host-plant-density-and-patch-isolation-drive-occupancy-and-abundance-at-a-butterfly-s-northern-range-margin
#10
Yoan Fourcade, Erik Öckinger
Marginal populations are usually small, fragmented, and vulnerable to extinction, which makes them particularly interesting from a conservation point of view. They are also the starting point of range shifts that result from climate change, through a process involving colonization of newly suitable sites at the cool margin of species distributions. Hence, understanding the processes that drive demography and distribution at high-latitude populations is essential to forecast the response of species to global changes...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070214/youth-traffic-related-injuries-a-prospective-study
#11
Michal Grivna, Hani O Eid, Fikri M Abu-Zidan
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related injuries are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality of the youth. Our aim was to study epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of hospitalized youth patients injured in road traffic collisions in order to give recommendations for prevention. METHODS: We prospectively studied all youth (15-24 years) patients having traffic-related injuries who were admitted to Al Ain or Tawam Hospitals, Al Ain City, or who died after arrival to these hospitals during an 18 months period...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064355/population-pharmacokinetic-models-of-lamotrigine-in-different-age-groups-of-chinese-children-with-epilepsy
#12
Zhong-Bin Zhang, Shuang-Min Ji, Ying Han, Li-Li Zang, Ying-Hui Wang, Wei Lu, Li Wang, Ye Wu
PURPOSE: The study aims to establish population pharmacokinetic (PPK) models of lamotrigine (LTG) in different age groups of epileptic children by nonlinear mixed effect modelling(NONMEM), and provide essential tools and theoretical basis for individualised optimal drug dose. METHODS: Cases of 473 epileptic children were divided into infant, toddler and preschool age (≤6 years) (n = 211), school age (6-12 years) (n = 171) and adolescence age (>12 years) (n = 81)...
January 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059861/effect-of-threatening-life-experiences-and-adverse-family-relations-in-ulcerative-colitis-analysis-using-structural-equation-modeling-and-comparison-with-crohn-s-disease
#13
Vered Slonim-Nevo, Orly Sarid, Michael Friger, Doron Schwartz, Ruslan Sergienko, Avihu Pereg, Hillel Vardi, Terri Singer, Elena Chernin, Dan Greenberg, Shmuel Odes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We published that threatening life experiences and adverse family relations impact Crohn's disease (CD) adversely. In this study, we examine the influence of these stressors in ulcerative colitis (UC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients completed demography, economic status (ES), the Patient-Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (P-SCCAI), the Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Family Assessment Device (FAD), and the List of Threatening Life Experiences (LTE)...
January 4, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056768/a-combination-of-long-term-fragmentation-and-glacial-persistence-drove-the-evolutionary-history-of-the-italian-wall-lizard-podarcis-siculus
#14
Gabriele Senczuk, Paolo Colangelo, Emanuela De Simone, Gaetano Aloise, Riccardo Castiglia
BACKGROUND: The current distribution of genetic diversity is the result of a vast array of microevolutionary processes, including short-term demographic and ecological mechanisms and long-term allopatric isolation in response to Quaternary climatic fluctuations. We investigated past processes that drove the population differentiation and spatial genetic distribution of the Italian wall lizard Podarcis siculus by means of sequences of mitochondrial cytb (n = 277 from 115 localities) and nuclear mc1r and β-fibint7genes (n = 262 and n = 91, respectively) from all its distribution range...
January 5, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052500/fishing-induced-changes-in-adult-length-are-mediated-by-skipped-spawning
#15
Hui-Yu Wang, Ying-Shiuan Chen, Chien-Chung Hsu, Sheng-Feng Shen
Elucidating fishing effects on fish population dynamics is a critical step toward sustainable fisheries management. Despite previous studies that have suggested age or size truncation in exploited fish populations, other aspects of fishing effects on population demography, e.g., via altering life histories and density, have received less attention. Here, we investigated the fishing effects altering adult demography via shifting reproductive trade-offs in the iconic, overexploited, Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052497/coping-with-the-loss-of-large-energy-dense-prey-a-potential-bottleneck-for-weddell-seals-in-the-ross-sea
#16
Leo Salas, Nadav Nur, David Ainley, Jennifer Burns, Jay Rotella, Grant Ballard
Extraction of Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) in the Ross Sea began in 1997, following a management plan that targets the largest fish with a goal of reducing the spawning biomass by 50% over 35 yr. We investigate the potential long-term consequences of the reduced availability of this prey for Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). Energy demands in seals are acute, especially immediately following lactation, when females must recover substantial mass and cope with molting costs. We tested the hypothesis that toothfish are critically important for adult female seals during this period...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052387/invasion-of-a-dominant-floral-resource-effects-on-the-floral-community-and-pollination-of-native-plants
#17
Karen Goodell, Ingrid M Parker
Through competition for pollinators, invasive plants may suppress native flora. Community-level studies provide an integrative assessment of invasion impacts and insights into factors that influence the vulnerability of different native species. We investigated effects of the nonnative herb Lythrum salicaria on pollination of native species in 14 fens of the eastern United States. We compared visitors per flower for 122 native plant species in invaded and uninvaded fens and incorporated a landscape-scale experiment, removing L...
January 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050476/spectrum-of-abdominal-aortic-disease-in-a-tertiary-health-care-setup-mdct-based-observational-study
#18
Dg Santosh Kumar, Venkatraman Bhat, Karthik Gadabanahalli, Arjun Kalyanpur
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal aortic disease is an important cause of clinical disability that requires early detection by imaging methods for prompt and effective management. Understanding regional disease pattern and prevalence has a bearing on healthcare management and resource planning. Non-invasive, conclusive imaging strategy plays an important role in the detection of disease. Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) with its technological developments provides affordable, accurate and comprehensive imaging solution...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046090/spatial-pattern-and-scale-influence-invader-demographic-response-to-simulated-precipitation-change-in-an-annual-grassland-community
#19
Meghan J Skaer Thomason, Kevin J Rice
It is important to predict which invasive species will benefit from future changes in climate, and thereby identify those invaders that need particular attention and prioritization of management efforts. Because establishment, persistence, and spread determine invasion success, this prediction requires detailed demographic information. Explicit study of the impact of pattern on demographic response is particularly important for species that are naturally patchy, such as the invasive grass, Aegilops triuncialis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040876/host-coexistence-in-a-model-for-two-host-one-parasitoid-interactions
#20
Valentina Clamer, Andrea Pugliese, Davide Liessi, Dimitri Breda
Building from a continuous-time host-parasitoid model introduced by Murdoch et al. (Am Nat 129:263-282, 1987), we study the dynamics of a 2 host-parasitoid model assuming, for the sake of simplicity, that larval stages have a fixed duration. If each host is subjected to density-dependent mortality in its larval stage, we obtain explicit conditions for the existence of an equilibrium where the two host species coexist with the parasitoid. However, if host demography is density-independent, equilibrium coexistence is impossible...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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