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Demography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160189/after-fertility-s-nadir-ethnic-differentials-in-parity-specific-behaviours-in-kyrgyzstan
#1
Thomas Spoorenberg
After a swift decline in the 1990s, the countries of Central Asia have experienced significant fertility increases over the last 15 years. These fertility upturns have remained off the radar of demographers. This study examines the recent fertility increase in Kyrgyzstan, focusing on fertility development by parity and among the main ethnic groups, in order to go beyond classic fertility indicators and national averages. Using a sample from the 2009 Census micro-dataset, sibling progression ratios were computed using information on the relationships and dates of birth of children under the age of 15...
November 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159722/inbreeding-in-southeastern-spain-the-impact-of-geography-and-demography-on-marital-mobility-and-marital-distance-patterns-1900-1969
#2
R Calderón, C L Hernández, G García-Varela, D Masciarelli, P Cuesta
In this paper, the structure of a southeastern Spanish population was studied for the first time with respect to its inbreeding patterns and its relationship with demographic and geographic factors. Data on consanguineous marriages (up to second cousins) from 1900 to 1969 were taken from ecclesiastic dispensations. Our results confirm that the patterns and trends of inbreeding in the study area are consistent with those previously observed in most non-Cantabrian Spanish populations. The rate of consanguineous marriages was apparently stable between 1900 and 1935 and then sharply decreased since 1940, which coincides with industrialization in Spain...
November 20, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158411/holocene-fluctuations-in-human-population-demonstrate-repeated-links-to-food-production-and-climate
#3
Andrew Bevan, Sue Colledge, Dorian Fuller, Ralph Fyfe, Stephen Shennan, Chris Stevens
We consider the long-term relationship between human demography, food production, and Holocene climate via an archaeological radiocarbon date series of unprecedented sampling density and detail. There is striking consistency in the inferred human population dynamics across different regions of Britain and Ireland during the middle and later Holocene. Major cross-regional population downturns in population coincide with episodes of more abrupt change in North Atlantic climate and witness societal responses in food procurement as visible in directly dated plants and animals, often with moves toward hardier cereals, increased pastoralism, and/or gathered resources...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157108/morphological-classification-of-anatomical-variants-of-the-intra-articular-portion-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-brachii-tendon-and-analysis-of-the-incidence-and-the-relationship-with-shoulder-disease-for-each-subtype
#4
Jeung Yeol Jeong, Seung Min Park, Young Eun Park, Jae Chul Yoo
PURPOSE: Although several cases of anatomical variants of the proximal portion of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon have been reported, most are case reports on single patients; few studies have investigated the classification and incidence of this phenomenon. We aimed to classify the variants of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon by their morphology and characterize them in regard to incidence, demography, and the relationship with biceps tendon or other shoulder diseases...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154968/non-traumatic-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-is-associated-with-low-bone-mass
#5
Valérie Gangji, Muhammad S Soyfoo, Audrey Heuschling, Violaine Afzali, Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes, Joanne Rasschaert, Céline Gillet, Jean-Francois Fils, Jean-Philippe Hauzeur
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis (OP) and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) share common clinical and pathophysiological features we sought to determine whether ONFH was associated with an increased prevalence of OP and whether the increased prevalence of OP was related to the stage of ONFH at diagnosis. METHODS: We included 243 patients with ONFH and 399 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Data was gathered including demography, risk factors, ARCO staging of ONFH and bone mineral density (BMD)...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151852/ancient-oncogenesis-infection-and-human-evolution
#6
REVIEW
Riaan F Rifkin, Marnie Potgieter, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Don A Cowan
The recent discovery that malignant neoplastic lesions date back nearly 2 million years ago not only highlights the antiquity of cancer in the human lineage, but also provides remarkable insight into ancestral hominin disease pathology. Using these Early Pleistocene examples as a point of departure, we emphasize the prominent role of viral and bacterial pathogens in oncogenesis and evaluate the impact of pathogens on human evolutionary processes in Africa. In the Shakespearean vernacular "what's past is prologue," we highlight the significance of novel information derived from ancient pathogenic DNA...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150759/from-experiment-to-theory-what-can-we-learn-from-growth-curves
#7
Irina Kareva, Georgy Karev
Finding an appropriate functional form to describe population growth based on key properties of a described system allows making justified predictions about future population development. This information can be of vital importance in all areas of research, ranging from cell growth to global demography. Here, we use this connection between theory and observation to pose the following question: what can we infer about intrinsic properties of a population (i.e., degree of heterogeneity, or dependence on external resources) based on which growth function best fits its growth dynamics? We investigate several nonstandard classes of multi-phase growth curves that capture different stages of population growth; these models include hyperbolic-exponential, exponential-linear, exponential-linear-saturation growth patterns...
November 17, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147112/do-changes-in-welfare-and-health-policy-affect-life-satisfaction-of-older-citizens-in-europe
#8
Marinela Olaroiu, Ioana Dana Alexa, Wim J A van den Heuvel
Objectives: Ageing of societies causes serious political concerns on well-being of old citizens and care for the (frail) old. These concerns increased with the economic crisis of 2008. In European countries policy measures were taken to deal with the consequences of this crisis. This study explores the possible effects of these measures on life satisfaction of older citizens. Methods: Life satisfaction was assessed through international surveys in 2007 and 2013 and changes in societal conditions, using eight indicators on demography, welfare, and health, are assessed in 31 European countries in 2006 and in 2014...
2017: Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143350/dna-variants-and-organophosphate-neurotoxicity-among-emerging-farmers-in-the-western-cape-of-south-africa
#9
Tracy Glass, Mohamed A Dalvie, Zelda Holtman, Anna A Vorster, Rajkumar S Ramesar, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies investigating modification of organophosphate (OP) neurotoxicity by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) polymorphisms have produced inconsistent results. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 301 emerging farmers was conducted. Neurotoxicity testing included forward and backward recall, digit span, and vibration sensitivity testing. Questionnaire data included demography, potential confounders, and work history of pesticide exposures...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139359/oral-lichen-planus-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study-of-33-patients
#10
Virendra N Sehgal, Nazim Hussain Syed, Ashok Aggarwal, Shruti Sehgal
Oral lichen planus (OLP), a well-known entity, is often neglected; however, its assessment is considered essential for evolving future strategies for treatment. Thirty-three patients with OLP from 200 consecutive patients with oral mucosal lesions were studied according to demography. Tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol intake were recorded. Examination of the oral cavity, using a head light and tongue depressor, was undertaken to define the morphology of the lesion(s). Colored photographs were an essential part of the process...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138652/trauma-a-major-cause-of-death-among-surgical-inpatients-of-a-nigerian-tertiary-hospital
#11
Onyeanunam Ngozi Ekeke, Kelechi Emmanuel Okonta
Introduction: Trauma presents a significant global health burden. Death resulting from trauma remains high in low income countries despite a steady decrease in developed countries. Analysis of the pattern of death will enable intervention to reduce these deaths from trauma in developing countries. This study aims to present the pattern of trauma-related deaths in the surgical wards of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Methods: This was a retrospective study of all patients who died from trauma during admission into the surgical wards of UPTH from 2007 to 2012...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134521/metals-in-diplodus-sargus-cadenati-and-sparisoma-cretense-a-risk-assessment-for-consumers
#12
Aridani Afonso, Ángel J Gutiérrez, Gonzalo Lozano, Dailos González-Weller, Enrique Lozano-Bilbao, Carmen Rubio, José M Caballero, Consuelo Revert, Arturo Hardisson
The increases in urbanization, demography and industrial activity, along with growing human needs which exploit the resources of the planet, have exponentially exacerbated pollution. In particular, the discharge of heavy metals into the marine ecosystem is a problem of global magnitude, as this may damage the diversity of marine species and ecosystems because of their toxicity, long persistence and bioaccumulation. Consequently, it is necessary to carry out an assessment of the risk of human exposure from the consumption of marine species potentially exposed to this type of pollutants...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132403/the-interplay-of-demography-and-selection-during-maize-domestication-and-expansion
#13
Li Wang, Timothy M Beissinger, Anne Lorant, Claudia Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey Ross-Ibarra, Matthew B Hufford
BACKGROUND: The history of maize has been characterized by major demographic events, including population size changes associated with domestication and range expansion, and gene flow with wild relatives. The interplay between demographic history and selection has shaped diversity across maize populations and genomes. RESULTS: We investigate these processes using high-depth resequencing data from 31 maize landraces spanning the pre-Columbian distribution of maize, and four wild teosinte individuals (Zea mays ssp...
November 13, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130035/demography-and-risk-factors-of-suicide-in-bangladesh-a-six-month-paper-content-analysis
#14
Md Mohsin Ali Shah, Srijony Ahmed, S M Yasir Arafat
Background: Suicide is a global public health problem too often neglected by researchers and Bangladesh is not an exception. There is no suicide surveillance and nationwide study is yet to be conducted in the country. Objectives: This paper aimed to look into suicide based on newspaper reporting in Bangladesh focusing on the demographic variables and risk factors. Methods: 6 national newspapers were scrutinized from November 2016 to April 2017...
2017: Psychiatry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127263/coalescent-processes-with-skewed-offspring-distributions-and-non-equilibrium-demography
#15
Sebastian Matuszewski, Marcel E Hildebrandt, Guillaume Achaz, Jeffrey D Jensen
Non-equilibrium demography impacts coalescent genealogies leaving detectable, well-studied signatures of variation. However, similar genomic footprints are also expected under models of large reproductive skew, posing a serious problem when trying to make inference. Furthermore, current approaches consider only one of the two processes at a time, neglecting any genomic signal that could arise from their simultaneous effects, preventing the possibility of jointly inferring parameters relating to both offspring distribution and population history...
November 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123347/referral-patterns-of-gynecological-cancer-patients-to-a-palliative-medicine-unit-a-2-years-retrospective-analysis
#16
Shrikant Atreya
Introduction: Patients with advanced gynecological malignancies often present with a high burden of symptoms endangering their quality of life. Objective: This study aims at assessing the symptom prevalence in patients with gynecological malignancies referred to palliative care and identify factors that predict high symptom burden. Methodology: This was a retrospective data analysis of gynecological cancer patients referred to palliative medicine department...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118578/changes-in-definition-lead-to-changes-in-the-clinical-characteristics-across-copd-categories-according-to-gold-2017-a-national-cross-sectional-survey-in-china
#17
Lina Sun, Yahong Chen, Rui Wu, Ming Lu, Wanzhen Yao
Purpose: To investigate how the changes of definition in assessment of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stratification 2017 lead to changes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient clinical characteristics across categories in China. Patients and methods: COPD patients from 11 medical centers in China were stratified into old and new groups A-D twice according to the GOLD 2011 and 2017 comprehensive assessment. Demography and clinical characteristics were compared between old and new groups A-D...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117321/the-international-glossary-on-infertility-and-fertility-care-2017
#18
Fernando Zegers-Hochschild, G David Adamson, Silke Dyer, Catherine Racowsky, Jacques de Mouzon, Rebecca Sokol, Laura Rienzi, Arne Sunde, Lone Schmidt, Ian D Cooke, Joe Leigh Simpson, Sheryl van der Poel
STUDY QUESTION: Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individuals and couples experiencing fertility problems? SUMMARY ANSWER: A set of 283 consensus-based and evidence-driven terminologies used in infertility and fertility care has been generated through an inclusive consensus-based process with multiple stakeholders...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114872/racism-in-trump-s-america-reflections-on-culture-sociology-and-the-2016-us-presidential-election
#19
Lawrence D Bobo
Despite much positive change in the post civil rights era, U.S. notions of racism and white supremacy remain powerful elements of American culture. The adaptability and enduring power of these forces can be seen in the emergence of a new historical epoch best describe as the era of Laissez Faire Racism. Prevalent attitudes among white Americans, certain theoretical arguments and hypotheses in American sociology, as well the election of Donald Trump rest upon the on-going operation of racism. In particular, I attribute Trump's electoral success to three critical dilemmas of race that defined contours of the 2016 presidential election: (1) worsening economic inequality in the presence of rapidly changing ethno-racial demography; (2) intensified political partisanship in the presence of well-institutionalized racially coded campaign strategies and rhetoric; and (3) the failure of the Clinton campaign to simultaneously champion the interests of working and middle class families and galvanize the previously powerful multiracial Obama coalition...
November 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114194/audiology-and-speech-language-pathology-practice-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Ahmad A Alanazi
Objectives: Audiology and speech-language pathology (SLP) are relatively new professions in Saudi Arabia. The idea of establishing new audiology and SLP programs in some education facilities has become popular across Saudi Arabia; yet, only four undergraduate and graduate programs are currently available. This study aimed to explore the fields of audiology and SLP in Saudi Arabia, obtain demography of audiologists and Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), understand their current practices, and identify their perspective on what both professions need to improve...
November 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
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