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Demography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790921/mascot-parameter-and-state-inference-under-the-marginal-structured-coalescent-approximation
#1
Nicola F Müller, David Rasmussen, Tanja Stadler
Motivation: The structured coalescent is widely applied to study demography within and migration between sub-populations from genetic sequence data. Current methods are either exact but too computationally inefficient to analyse large datasets with many sub-populations, or make strong approximations leading to severe biases in inference. We recently introduced an approximation based on weaker assumptions to the structured coalescent enabling the analysis of larger datasets with many different states...
May 22, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789129/trends-in-linoleic-acid-intake-in-the-united-states-adult-population-nhanes-1999-2014
#2
Susan K Raatz, Zach Conrad, Lisa Jahns
Linoleic acid (LA), the primary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the US diet, is an essential fatty acid. LA is available from a wide variety of foods, although it is primarily sourced from plant seed oils. Individual-level data on demography and food and nutrient intake were acquired from the NHANES waves 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014. Mean daily intake of (LA) was estimated for each survey wave overall, and by age, gender, educational attainment, race/ethnicity, and income-to-poverty ratio...
June 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787622/mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-australia-and-other-high-income-countries-trends-in-perinatal-exposure-demography-and-uptake-of-prevention-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Kelly O'Donovan, Theophilus I Emeto
Virtual elimination of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global target. A review of the literature was conducted using medical databases and health department websites to examine the current trends related to perinatal HIV exposure and MTCT in Australia in comparison with other high-income countries (HICs). The review discusses the uptake of prevention strategies and barriers that impede MTCT prevention. The literature suggests an increase in the numbers of HIV-exposed deliveries, but a marked decline in the rates of MTCT within HICs...
May 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783257/burden-of-premature-mortality-caused-by-four-main-non-communicable-diseases-in-ukraine
#4
Natalia O Ryngach, Lyubov Y Vlasyk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The scale and socio-economic implications of the non-communicable diseases (NCD) epidemic are growing in Ukraine. The aim: To determine the mode of mortality resulted from main non-communicable diseases in Ukraine, calculate and estimate the number of years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to premature mortality from them. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: The information base of the study was official data of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine on the distribution of the deceased by gender, age groups and causes of death in 2016 and World Health Statistics 2016 data...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781682/factors-influencing-regular-physical-exercise-among-the-elderly-in-residential-care-facilities-in-a-south-african-health-district
#5
Abiodun A Aro, Sam Agbo, Olufemi B Omole
BACKGROUND:  Physical exercise plays an important role in healthy ageing, but the elderly do not engage in it regularly. METHODS:  In this cross-sectional study, we sampled 139 residents of residential care facility. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on participants' demography, health problems, nature, motivators and barriers to exercise. Chi-square test examined the relationship between participants' characteristics and their engagement in regular exercise...
April 11, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779824/assessing-the-appropriateness-of-parenteral-nutrition-use-in-hospitalized-patients-a-comparison-on-parenteral-nutrition-bag-prescription-in-different-wards-and-nutritional-outcomes
#6
Monica Laura Ponta, Laura Rabbione, Cristina Borgio, Eliana Quirico, Elena Patrito, Maria Novella Petrachi, Elisabetta Girotto, Marisa Sillano, Silvio Geninatti, Michela Zanardi, Andrea Pezzana
PURPOSE: Our aim is to assess parenteral nutrition (PN) bag prescription in hospitalized patients and evaluate clinical outcomes linked to PN therapy. METHODS: We performed an observational longitudinal retrospective study on PN prescription in a General Public Hospital in Turin, Italy, on ninety-five patients receiving PN prescribed by the Nutrition Support Team (NST). We described patients' demography and assessed nutritional outcomes, as well as PN bag prescription in different wards...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771862/efficacy-and-safety-of-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-thalassemic-children
#7
Shivadatta Padhi, Sudhir Maharshi, Gaurav K Gupta, Kapil Garg, Sandeep Nijhawan
OBJECTIVES: There is limited data on the efficacy and safety of directly acting antiviral therapy (DAA) for chronic hepatitis C in pediatric population. The aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of DAA in chronic hepatitis C β-thalassemic major pediatric patients. METHODS: Prospective study was conducted from September 2015 to January 2017. All β-thalassemic major chronic hepatitis C pediatric patients with age between 5 and 14 years were included in this study...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768416/poverty-dynamics-poverty-thresholds-and-mortality-an-age-stage-markovian-model
#8
Shayna Fae Bernstein, David Rehkopf, Shripad Tuljapurkar, Carol C Horvitz
Recent studies have examined the risk of poverty throughout the life course, but few have considered how transitioning in and out of poverty shape the dynamic heterogeneity and mortality disparities of a cohort at each age. Here we use state-by-age modeling to capture individual heterogeneity in crossing one of three different poverty thresholds (defined as 1×, 2× or 3× the "official" poverty threshold) at each age. We examine age-specific state structure, the remaining life expectancy, its variance, and cohort simulations for those above and below each threshold...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766494/digest-demographic-inferences-accounting-for-selection-at-linked-sites
#9
Alexis Simon, Maud Duranton
Complex demography and selection at linked sites can generate spurious signatures of divergent selection. Unfortunately, many attempts at demographic inference consider overly simple models and neglect the effect of selection at linked sites. In this issue, Rougemont and Bernatchez (2018) applied an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework that accounts for indirect selection to reveal a complex history of secondary contacts in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that might explain a high rate of latitudinal clines in this species...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765245/the-epidemiology-of-outpatient-pain-treatment-in-pediatrics
#10
Stacy Baldridge, Laura Wallace, Aditi Kadakia
Background: There is limited real-world, population-level data on the prevalence and treatment of pain in children. An understanding of pediatric pain conditions and its management can help inform provider education, treatment guidelines, and design of pediatric pain studies. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to describe the prevalence of conditions associated with acute and chronic pain in pediatric patients and to characterize pediatric pain treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, opioids (immediate release or extended release), antidepressants, topical analgesics, anticonvulsants, and other therapies based on a large, real-world sample...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761058/exotic-lagomorph-may-influence-eagle-abundances-and-breeding-spatial-aggregations-a-field-study-and-meta-analysis-on-the-nearest-neighbor-distance
#11
Facundo Barbar, Gonzalo O Ignazi, Fernando Hiraldo, Sergio A Lambertucci
The introduction of alien species could be changing food source composition, ultimately restructuring demography and spatial distribution of native communities. In Argentine Patagonia, the exotic European hare has one of the highest numbers recorded worldwide and is now a widely consumed prey for many predators. We examine the potential relationship between abundance of this relatively new prey and the abundance and breeding spacing of one of its main consumers, the Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle ( Geranoaetus melanoleucus )...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760079/selection-and-environmental-adaptation-along-a-path-to-speciation-in-the-tibetan-frog-nanorana-parkeri
#12
Guo-Dong Wang, Bao-Lin Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhou, Yong-Xin Li, Jie-Qiong Jin, Yong Shao, He-Chuan Yang, Yan-Hu Liu, Fang Yan, Hong-Man Chen, Li Jin, Feng Gao, Yaoguang Zhang, Haipeng Li, Bingyu Mao, Robert W Murphy, David B Wake, Ya-Ping Zhang, Jing Che
Tibetan frogs, Nanorana parkeri , are differentiated genetically but not morphologically along geographical and elevational gradients in a challenging environment, presenting a unique opportunity to investigate processes leading to speciation. Analyses of whole genomes of 63 frogs reveal population structuring and historical demography, characterized by highly restricted gene flow in a narrow geographic zone lying between matrilines West (W) and East (E). A population found only along a single tributary of the Yalu Zangbu River has the mitogenome only of E, whereas nuclear genes of W comprise 89-95% of the nuclear genome...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756005/peripheral-lymph-node-excisional-biopsy-yield-relevance-and-outcomes-in-a-remote-surgical-setup
#13
Ashish Lal Shrestha, Pradita Shrestha
Objective: To study the patient profile for symptomatic peripheral lymphadenopathy in terms of histopathological findings and demography and evaluate the yield, relevance, and outcomes of peripheral lymph node biopsy (PLNB) as a diagnostic step in a remote setup in the absence of less invasive options like fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or ultrasonogram- (USG-) guided FNAC. Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing PLNB between 1 May 2011 and 30 April 2013 was done...
2018: Surgery Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753760/gluten-free-living-in-china-the-characteristics-food-choices-and-difficulties-in-following-a-gluten-free-diet-an-online-survey
#14
Zhenxing Lu, Haoyang Zhang, Sanna Luoto, Xiang Ren
BACKGROUND: Individuals adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD) have been scarcely researched within a Chinese population. This present study was conducted to assess the characteristics, food choices, shopping preferences, and emotions and attitudes of individuals following a GFD. METHODS: Individuals following a GFD were invited to complete an online questionnaire about their demography and geography characteristics, gluten-free food choices, shopping preferences, GFD management and subjective difficulty towards the diet...
May 15, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753307/antenatal-risk-factors-associated-with-neonatal-morbidity-in-large-for-gestational-age-infants-an-international-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Matias C Vieira, Lesley Me McCowan, Robyn A North, Jenny E Myers, James J Walker, Philip N Baker, Gustaaf A Dekker, Louise C Kenny, Lucilla Poston, Dharmintra Pasupathy
INTRODUCTION: Large for gestational age (LGA) infants are associated with increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality, however most of them will not have adverse outcomes. Our aim was to identify antenatal clinical factors associated with neonatal morbidity in LGA infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nulliparous women from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study were included. We compared maternal and fetal factors between LGA infants (birthweight >90th customized centile) with and without neonatal morbidity, defined as admission to neonatal intensive care unit or severe neonatal morbidity...
May 12, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750111/demography-and-disorders-of-the-french-bulldog-population-under-primary-veterinary-care-in-the-uk-in-2013
#16
Dan G O'Neill, Lauren Baral, David B Church, Dave C Brodbelt, Rowena M A Packer
Background: Despite its Gallic name, the French Bulldog is a breed of both British and French origin that was first recognised by The Kennel Club in 1906. The French Bulldog has demonstrated recent rapid rises in Kennel Club registrations and is now (2017) the second most commonly registered pedigree breed in the UK. However, the breed has been reported to be predisposed to several disorders including ocular, respiratory, neurological and dermatological problems. The VetCompass™ Programme collates de-identified clinical data from primary-care veterinary practices in the UK for epidemiological research...
2018: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748431/health-care-spending-on-diabetes-in-the-u-s-1996-2013
#17
Ellen Squires, Herbert Duber, Madeline Campbell, Jackie Cao, Abigail Chapin, Cody Horst, Zhiyin Li, Taylor Matyasz, Alex Reynolds, Irl B Hirsch, Joseph L Dieleman
OBJECTIVE: Health care spending on diabetes in the U.S. has increased dramatically over the past several decades. This research describes health care spending on diabetes to quantify how that spending has changed from 1996 to 2013 and to determine what drivers are increasing spending. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Spending estimates were extracted from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation's Disease Expenditure 2013 database. Estimates were produced for each year from 1996 to 2013 for each of 38 age and sex groups and six types of care...
May 10, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743651/drivers-of-demographic-decline-across-the-annual-cycle-of-a-threatened-migratory-bird
#18
Scott Wilson, James F Saracco, Richard Krikun, D T Tyler Flockhart, Christine M Godwin, Kenneth R Foster
Migratory species are rapidly declining but we rarely know which periods of the annual cycle are limiting for most species. This knowledge is needed to effectively allocate conservation resources to the periods of the annual cycle that best promote species recovery. We examined demographic trends and response to human footprint for Canada warblers (Cardellina canadensis), a threatened Neotropical migrant, using range-wide data (1993-2016) from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program on the breeding grounds...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741234/local-adaptation-and-ecological-differentiation-under-selection-migration-and-drift-in-arabidopsis-lyrata
#19
Tuomas Hämälä, Tiina M Mattila, Outi Savolainen
How the balance between selection, migration and drift influences the evolution of local adaptation has been under intense theoretical scrutiny. Yet, empirical studies that relate estimates of local adaptation to quantification of gene flow and effective population sizes have been rare. Here, we conducted a reciprocal transplant trial, a common garden trial, and a whole-genome based demography analysis to examine these effects among Arabidopsis lyrata populations from two altitudinal gradients in Norway. Demography simulations indicated that populations within the two gradients are connected by gene flow (0...
May 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739910/comparative-population-genomics-analysis-of-the-mammalian-fungal-pathogen-pneumocystis
#20
Ousmane H Cissé, Liang Ma, Da Wei Huang, Pavel P Khil, John P Dekker, Geetha Kutty, Lisa Bishop, Yueqin Liu, Xilong Deng, Philippe M Hauser, Marco Pagni, Vanessa Hirsch, Richard A Lempicki, Jason E Stajich, Christina A Cuomo, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis species are opportunistic mammalian pathogens that cause severe pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. These fungi are highly host specific and uncultivable in vitro Human Pneumocystis infections present major challenges because of a limited therapeutic arsenal and the rise of drug resistance. To investigate the diversity and demographic history of natural populations of Pneumocystis infecting humans, rats, and mice, we performed whole-genome and large-scale multilocus sequencing of infected tissues collected in various geographic locations...
May 8, 2018: MBio
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