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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331096/promoting-physical-activity-and-improving-dietary-quality-of-singaporean-adolescents-effectiveness-of-a-school-based-fitness-and-wellness-program
#1
Claudine Loong, Latasha Leo, Danielle Goh, Pei Sin Lim, Wai Mun Loke
Limited data are available on the effectiveness of the school-based structured fitness and wellness program to influence dietary quality and physical activity levels in Singaporean adolescents. The study examined if a 20-h (over 10 weeks) school-based structured fitness and wellness module affects the diet quality indices, energy intakes, physical activity levels and the associated energy expenditures in a group of healthy, male adolescents with low diet quality and physical activity levels. Participant demography, anthropometry, dietary intake and daily physical activity were obtained at the beginning, mid-point and end of the 10-week program...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330534/when-increasing-population-density-can-promote-the-evolution-of-metabolic-cooperation
#2
Richard J Lindsay, Bogna J Pawlowska, Ivana Gudelj
Microbial cooperation drives ecological and epidemiological processes and is affected by the ecology and demography of populations. Population density influences the selection for cooperation, with spatial structure and the type of social dilemma, namely public-goods production or self-restraint, shaping the outcome. While existing theories predict that in spatially structured environments increasing population density can select either for or against cooperation, experimental studies with both public-goods production and self-restraint systems have only ever shown that increasing population density favours cheats...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324758/settlement-and-post-settlement-survival-rates-of-the-white-seabream-diplodus-sargus-in-the-western-mediterranean-sea
#3
Amalia Cuadros, Gotzon Basterretxea, Luis Cardona, Adrien Cheminée, Manuel Hidalgo, Joan Moranta
Survival during the settlement window is a limiting variable for recruitment. The survival is believed to be strongly determined by biological interactions and sea conditions, however it has been poorly investigated. We examined the settlement patterns related to relevant biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. Density-dependence, wind stress, wave height and coastal current velocity) potentially determining post-settler survival rates of a coastal necto-benthic fish of wide distribution in the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic, the white seabream (Diplodus sargus)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322963/botulinum-toxin-in-meige-s-syndrome-a-video-based-case-series
#4
Sanjay Pandey, Soumya Sharma
CONTEXT: Despite being the most common cause of cranial dystonia, Meige's syndrome remains a rare clinical entity. Characterized by blepharospasm and orofacial dystonia, patients suffering from Meige's syndrome benefit from the injection of botulinum toxin (BTX). AIMS: As the majority of the studies tend to discuss Meige's syndrome with blepharospasm patients, there is a paucity of case-based studies dealing exclusively with this syndrome. Hence, we intended to characterize and define the evolution of this syndrome and objectively determine the response of the patients suffering from this entity to BTX therapy...
January 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321860/incorporating-variability-in-simulations-of-seasonally-forced-phenology-using-integral-projection-models
#5
Devin W Goodsman, Brian H Aukema, Nate G McDowell, Richard S Middleton, Chonggang Xu
Phenology models are becoming increasingly important tools to accurately predict how climate change will impact the life histories of organisms. We propose a class of integral projection phenology models derived from stochastic individual-based models of insect development and demography. Our derivation, which is based on the rate summation concept, produces integral projection models that capture the effect of phenotypic rate variability on insect phenology, but which are typically more computationally frugal than equivalent individual-based phenology models...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316964/genome-wide-diversity-and-runs-of-homozygosity-in-the-braque-fran%C3%A3-ais-type-pyr%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-es-dog-breed
#6
Salvatore Mastrangelo, Filippo Biscarini, Barbara Auzino, Marco Ragatzu, Andrea Spaterna, Roberta Ciampolini
OBJECTIVE: Braque Français, type Pyrénées is a French hunting-dog breed whose origin is traced back to old pointing gun-dogs used to assist hunters in finding and retrieving game. This breed is popular in France, but seldom seen elsewhere. Despite the ancient background, the literature on its genetic characterization is surprisingly scarce. A recent study looked into the demography and inbreeding using pedigree records, but there is yet no report on the use of molecular markers in this breed...
January 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311687/demographic-expansion-of-two-tamarix-species-along-the-yellow-river-caused-by-geological-events-and-climate-change-in-the-pleistocene
#7
Hong-Yan Liang, Zhi-Pei Feng, Bing Pei, Yong Li, Xi-Tian Yang
The geological events and climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene played important roles in shaping patterns of species distribution. However, few studies have evaluated the patterns of species distribution that were influenced by the Yellow River. The present work analyzed the demography of two endemic tree species that are widely distributed along the Yellow River, Tamarix austromongolica and Tamarix chinensis, to understand the role of the Yellow River and Pleistocene climate in shaping their distribution patterns...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305873/on-the-decidability-of-population-size-histories-from-finite-allele-frequency-spectra
#8
Soheil Baharian, Simon Gravel
Understanding the historical events that shaped current genomic diversity has applications in historical, biological, and medical research. However, the amount of historical information that can be inferred from genetic data is finite, which leads to an identifiability problem. For example, different historical processes can lead to identical distribution of allele frequencies. This identifiability issue casts a shadow of uncertainty over the results of any study which uses the frequency spectrum to infer past demography...
January 3, 2018: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305685/frontoethmoidal-encephalocele-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-treatment-and-complications-in-400-cases
#9
Muhammad Arifin, Wihasto Suryaningtyas, Abdul Hafid Bajamal
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to review a large series of frontoethmoidal encephalocele (FEE) regarding their clinical presentation, the progressiveness of the mass volume, the skin stigmata as well as its surgical approach and post-surgical complications. METHOD: Records of all FEE patients treated in Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, and Charity Foundation Program from 2008 to 2015 were reviewed. Detailed patient's demography, clinical findings, radiology results, operative procedures, and complications were documented...
January 5, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304820/degloving-injuries-with-versus-without-underlying-fracture-in-a-sub-saharan-african-tertiary-hospital-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Hervé Monka Lekuya, Rose Alenyo, Isaac Kajja, Alexander Bangirana, Ronald Mbiine, Ater Ngoth Deng, Moses Galukande
BACKGROUND: Degloving injuries are surgical conditions in which an extensive portion of skin and subcutaneous tissue is detached from the underlying fasciae, muscles, or bone surface. Frequently, there is an association of fracture underlying the degloved area. We aimed to compare the short-term outcomes of degloving injuries with and without underlying fracture. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. We recruited patients with degloving injuries, and followed them up for 30 days to assess the outcomes...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304794/socio-demographic-and-household-attributes-may-not-necessarily-influence-malaria-evidence-from-a-cross-sectional-study-of-households-in-an-urban-slum-setting-of-chennai-india
#11
Shalu Thomas, Sangamithra Ravishankaran, Aswin Asokan, N A Johnson Amala Justin, T Maria Jusler Kalsingh, Manu Thomas Mathai, Neena Valecha, Alex Eapen
BACKGROUND: Household and environmental factors are reported to influence the malaria endemicity of a place. Hence, a careful assessment of these factors would, potentially help in locating the possible areas under risk to plan and adopt the most suitable and appropriate malaria control strategies. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in the study site, Besant Nagar, Chennai, through random sampling method from February 2014 to February 2015...
January 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301967/demography-and-mating-system-shape-the-genome-wide-impact-of-purifying-selection-in-arabis-alpina
#12
Benjamin Laenen, Andrew Tedder, Michael D Nowak, Per Toräng, Jörg Wunder, Stefan Wötzel, Kim A Steige, Yiannis Kourmpetis, Thomas Odong, Andreas D Drouzas, Marco C A M Bink, Jon Ågren, George Coupland, Tanja Slotte
Plant mating systems have profound effects on levels and structuring of genetic variation and can affect the impact of natural selection. Although theory predicts that intermediate outcrossing rates may allow plants to prevent accumulation of deleterious alleles, few studies have empirically tested this prediction using genomic data. Here, we study the effect of mating system on purifying selection by conducting population-genomic analyses on whole-genome resequencing data from 38 European individuals of the arctic-alpine crucifer Arabis alpina We find that outcrossing and mixed-mating populations maintain genetic diversity at similar levels, whereas highly self-fertilizing Scandinavian A...
January 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300816/phylogeographic-analysis-of-the-east-asian-goldenrod-solidago-virgaurea-complex-asteraceae-reveals-hidden-ecological-diversification-with-recurrent-formation-of-ecotypes
#13
Shota Sakaguchi, Takuma Kimura, Ryuta Kyan, Masayuki Maki, Takako Nishino, Naoko Ishikawa, Atsushi J Nagano, Mie N Honjo, Masaki Yasugi, Hiroshi Kudoh, Pan Li, Hyeok Jae Choi, Olga A Chernyagina, Motomi Ito
Background and Aims: The processes and mechanisms underlying lineage diversification are major topics in evolutionary biology. Eurasian goldenrod species of the Solidago virgaurea complex show remarkable morphological and ecological diversity in the Japanese Archipelago, with ecotypic taxa well adapted to specific environments (climate, edaphic conditions and disturbance regimes). The species complex is a suitable model to investigate the evolutionary processes of actively speciating plant groups, due to its ability to evolve in relation to environmental adaptation and its historical population dynamics...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299799/historical-demography-of-common-carp-estimated-from-individuals-collected-from-various-parts-of-the-world-using-the-pairwise-sequentially-markovian-coalescent-approach
#14
Zihao Yuan, Wei Huang, Shikai Liu, Peng Xu, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
The inference of historical demography of a species is helpful for understanding species' differentiation and its population dynamics. However, such inference has been previously difficult due to the lack of proper analytical methods and availability of genetic data. A recently developed method called Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent (PSMC) offers the capability for estimation of the trajectories of historical populations over considerable time periods using genomic sequences. In this study, we applied this approach to infer the historical demography of the common carp using samples collected from Europe, Asia and the Americas...
January 3, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299273/does-forest-extent-affect-salamander-survival-evidence-from-a-long-term-demographic-study-of-a-tropical-newt
#15
Anthony Lau, Nancy E Karraker, David Dudgeon
Forest loss has been associated with reduced survival in many vertebrates, and previous research on amphibians has mostly focused on effects at early life stages. Paramesotriton hongkongensis is a tropical newt that breeds in streams but spends up to 10 months per year in terrestrial habitats. Populations are threatened by habitat degradation and collection for the pet trade, but the cryptic terrestrial lifestyle of this newt has limited our understanding of its population ecology, which inhibits development of a species-specific conservation plan...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299257/marked-reduction-in-demographic-rates-and-reduced-fitness-advantage-for-early-breeding-is-not-linked-to-reduced-thermal-matching-of-breeding-time
#16
Debora Arlt, Tomas Pärt
Warmer springs may cause animals to become mistimed if advances of spring timing, including available resources and of timing of breeding occur at different speed. We used thermal sums (cumulative sum of degree days) during spring to describe the thermal progression (timing) of spring and investigate its relationship to breeding phenology and demography of a long-distant migrant bird, the northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe L.). We first compare 20-year trends in spring timing, breeding time, selection for breeding time, and annual demographic rates...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298172/psoriatic-arthritis-in-nigeria-case-series-and-literature-review
#17
Akpabio Akanimo Akpabio, Babatunde Hakeem Olaosebikan, Olufemi Oladipo Adelowo
BACKGROUND: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an extracutaneous manifestation of psoriasis occurring in 6% to 42% of patients. Both conditions are common among whites but rarely reported among black Africans.Few African studies, however, have reported PsA frequencies of 0% to 4.6%, with a previous case report of 2 patients from a Nigerian rheumatology clinic. METHODS: Case records of PsA patients from the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Rheumatology Clinic seen over a 5-year period from January 2012 to December 2016 were retrieved and documented...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296730/a-population-based-longitudinal-study-on-the-implication-of-demographic-changes-on-blood-donation-and-transfusion-demand
#18
Andreas Greinacher, Kerstin Weitmann, Linda Schönborn, Ulf Alpen, Doris Gloger, Wolfgang Stangenberg, Kerstin Stüpmann, Nico Greger, Volker Kiefel, Wolfgang Hoffmann
Transfusion safety includes the risk of transmission of pathogens, appropriate transfusion thresholds, and sufficient blood supply. All industrialized countries experience major ongoing demographic changes resulting from low birth rates and aging of the baby boom generation. Little evidence exists about whether future blood supply and demand correlate with these demographic changes. The ≥50% decline in birth rate in the eastern part of Germany after 1990 facilitates systematic study of the effects of pronounced demographic changes on blood donation and demand...
June 13, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294573/-multivariate-ordinal-logistic-regression-analysis-on-the-association-between-consumption-of-fried-food-and-both-esophageal-cancer-and-precancerous-lesions
#19
L W Guo, S Z Liu, M Zhang, Q Chen, S K Zhang, X B Sun
Objective: To investigate the effect of fried food intake on the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Methods: From 2005 to 2013, all the residents aged 40-69 years from 11 counties (cities) where cancer screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer had been conducted in rural areas of Henan province, were recruited as the subjects of study. Information on demography and lifestyle was collected. The residents under study were screened with iodine staining endoscopic examination and biopsy samples were diagnosed pathologically, under standardized criteria...
December 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291115/the-shape-of-the-contact-density-function-matters-when-modelling-parasite-transmission-in-fluctuating-populations
#20
Benny Borremans, Jonas Reijniers, Niel Hens, Herwig Leirs
Models of disease transmission in a population with changing densities must assume a relation between infectious contacts and density. Typically, a choice is made between a constant (frequency-dependence) and a linear (density-dependence) contact-density function, but it is becoming increasingly clear that intermediate, nonlinear functions are more realistic. It is currently not clear, however, what the exact consequences would be of different contact-density functions in fluctuating populations. By combining field data on rodent host (Mastomys natalensis) demography, experimentally derived contact-density data, and laboratory and field data on Morogoro virus infection dynamics, we explored the effects of different contact-density function shapes on transmission dynamics and invasion/persistence...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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