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Demography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220330/synchronous-cardiocerebral-infarction-in-the-era-of-endovascular-therapy-which-to-treat-first
#1
Leonard L L Yeo, Tommy Andersson, Kong Wan Yee, Benjamin Y Q Tan, Prakash Paliwal, Anil Gopinathan, Mahendran Nadarajah, Eric Ting, Hock L Teoh, Robin Cherian, Erik Lundström, Edgar L W Tay, Vijay K Sharma
A cardiocerebral ischemic attack (CCI) or a concurrent acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and myocardial infarction (AMI) is a severe event with no clear recommendations for ideal management because of the rarity of the scenario. The narrow time window for treatment and complexity of the treatment decision puts immense pressure on the treating physician. We evaluated this challenging situation at our tertiary center. Using our prospective stroke database out of a total of 555 patients with acute ischemic stroke between 2009 and 2014, we identified five consecutive cases with CCI (incidence 0...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215010/key-actions-towards-the-sustainable-management-of-european-geese
#2
David A Stroud, Jesper Madsen, Anthony D Fox
Increasing abundance of geese in North America and Europe constitutes a major conservation success, but has caused increasing conflicts with economic, health and safety interests, as well as ecosystem impacts. Potential conflict resolution through a single, 'one size fits all' policy is hindered by differences in species' ecology, behaviour, abundance and population status, and in contrasting political and socio-economic environments across the flyways. Effective goose management requires coordinated application of a suite of tools from the local level to strategic flyway management actions...
March 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213681/quantifying-functionals-of-age-distributions-in-the-wild-by-solving-an-operator-equation
#3
Hao Ji, Hans-Georg Müller, Nikos T Papadopoulos, James R Carey
Residual demography is a recent concept that has proved to be a useful tool to gain insights about the age distributions of wild populations, especially insects. We develop an operator equation that permits the derivation of functionals of the age distribution in wild populations, such as mean age, within the framework of residual demography. Our method combines information from an observed captive cohort, which consists of subjects that are sampled from the wild with unknown ages and then raised in the laboratory until death, and from a reference cohort that consists of subjects raised in the laboratory since birth of the same population...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209192/learning-from-2523-trauma-deaths-in-india-opportunities-to-prevent-in-hospital-deaths
#4
Nobhojit Roy, Deepa Kizhakke Veetil, Monty Uttam Khajanchi, Vineet Kumar, Harris Solomon, Jyoti Kamble, Debojit Basak, Göran Tomson, Johan von Schreeb
BACKGROUND: A systematic analysis of trauma deaths is a step towards trauma quality improvement in Indian hospitals. This study estimates the magnitude of preventable trauma deaths in five Indian hospitals, and uses a peer-review process to identify opportunities for improvement (OFI) in trauma care delivery. METHODS: All trauma deaths that occurred within 30 days of hospitalization in five urban university hospitals in India were retrospectively abstracted for demography, mechanism of injury, transfer status, injury description by clinical, investigation and operative findings...
February 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207173/sensitivity-analysis-of-effective-population-size-to-demographic-parameters-in-house-sparrow-populations
#5
Marlene Waege Stubberud, Ane Marlene Myhre, Håkon Holand, Thomas Kvalnes, Thor Harald Ringsby, Bernt-Erik Saether, Henrik Jensen
The ratio between the effective and the census population size, Ne/N, is an important measure of the long-term viability and sustainability of a population. Understanding which demographic processes that affect Ne/N most will improve our understanding of how genetic drift and the probability of fixation of alleles is affected by demography. This knowledge may also be of vital importance in management of endangered populations and species. Here, we use data from 13 natural populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Norway to calculate the demographic parameters that determine Ne/N...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197046/outcome-of-noncardiac-surgical-patients-admitted-to-a-multidisciplinary-intensive-care-unit
#6
Pradeep Kumar, M K Renuka, M S Kalaiselvan, A S Arunkumar
CONTEXT: Surgical procedures carry significant morbidity and mortality depending on the type of surgery and patients. There is a dearth of evidence from India on the outcome of surgical patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). AIMS: We aimed to describe the incidence and risk factors of postoperative complications and mortality in noncardiac surgical patients admitted to the ICU. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study on all perioperative patients admitted to a multidisciplinary ICU for 18 months...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196291/factors-influencing-attendance-at-structured-education-for-type-1-diabetes-in-south-london
#7
S M Harris, P Shah, H Mulnier, A Healey, S M Thomas, S A Amiel, D Hopkins
AIM: To investigate the factors influencing uptake of structured education for people with Type 1 diabetes in our local population in order to understand why such uptake is low. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional database study of adults with Type 1 diabetes in two south London boroughs, analysed according to Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) attendance or non-attendance. Demographics, glycaemic control and service use, with subset analysis by ethnicity, were compared using univariate analysis...
February 14, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188767/social-network-analysis-of-food-sharing-among-households-in-opisthorchiasis-endemic-villages-of-lawa-lake-thailand
#8
Waraphon Phimpraphai, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Piya Sereerak, Suwicha Kasemsuwan, Banchob Sripa
Consumption of raw fish is a well-documented risk factor for Opisthorchis viverrini infection. Sharing of food, especially raw fish recipes may influence the spread of disease through a community. Using social network analysis of an ego network, we investigated food sharing among households in an Opisthorchis-endemic area. Network centrality properties were used to explain the differences in O. viverrini transmission and control between villages with a low and high prevalence of infection. Information on demography and O...
February 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188649/a-survey-of-microparasites-present-in-adult-migrating-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha-in-south-western-british-columbia-determined-by-high-throughput-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#9
A L Bass, S G Hinch, A K Teffer, D A Patterson, K M Miller
Microparasites play an important role in the demography, ecology and evolution of Pacific salmonids. As salmon stocks continue to decline and the impacts of global climate change on fish populations become apparent, a greater understanding of microparasites in wild salmon populations is warranted. We used high-throughput, quantitative PCR (HT-qRT-PCR) to rapidly screen 82 adult Chinook salmon from five geographically or genetically distinct groups (mostly returning to tributaries of the Fraser River) for 45 microparasite taxa...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184060/do-high-tuition-fees-make-a-difference-characteristics-of-applicants-to-uk-medical-and-dental-schools-before-and-after-the-introduction-of-high-tuition-fees-in-2012
#10
J E Gallagher, A Calvert, V Niven, L Cabot
Aim To compare trends in the volume, socio-demography and academic experience of UK applicants and entrants to medicine and dentistry in the UK with university in general, before and after the major increase in university fees in England in 2012.Methods Descriptive trend analyses of University and College Admissions Services (UCAS) data for focused (preferred subject was medicine or dentistry) and accepted applicants, 2010-14, compared with university in general in relation to socio-demography (age, sex, ethnicity, POLAR 2, region) and academic experience (school type)...
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183038/supplementary-feeding-and-endoparasites-in-threatened-avian-scavengers-coprologic-evidence-from-red-kites-in-their-wintering-stronghold
#11
Guillermo Blanco, Jesús Cardells, María M Garijo-Toledo
Many obligate and facultative avian scavengers are increasingly dependent on food provided in supplementary feeding stations (SFS), which are managed for the conservation of these species. Deliberate feeding can influence disease-related host demography and population dynamics through physiological changes and density-dependent parasite acquisition and transmission, but information on this threat to avian scavengers is scarce. Due to their effects on host aggregation and density, we hypothesised that the predictability and concentration of food in SFS can exacerbate parasite infection...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182624/socio-demographic-characteristics-of-danish-blood-donors
#12
Kristoffer Sølvsten Burgdorf, Jacob Simonsen, Anna Sundby, Klaus Rostgaard, Ole Birger Pedersen, Erik Sørensen, Kaspar René Nielsen, Mie Topholm Bruun, Morten Frisch, Gustaf Edgren, Christian Erikstrup, Henrik Hjalgrim, Henrik Ullum
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. METHODS: The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179694/functional-and-anatomical-outcome-in-closed-globe-combat-ocular-injuries
#13
Qamar Ul Islam, Mazhar Ishaq, Amer Yaqub, Muhammad Kamran Saeed
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the pattern, visual and anatomical outcome of closed globe combat-related ocular injuries sustained by troops. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised patients with ocular injuries from January 2010 to June 2014. Record of each patient was evaluated and demography, mode and type of injury, initial and final visual acuity, associated globe injuries, concomitant non-ocular injuries, type of surgical procedures and complications were endorsed on a pre-devised proforma...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173687/distribution-and-determinants-of-low-birth-weight-in-developing-countries
#14
Rashidul Alam Mahumud, Marufa Sultana, Abdur Razzaque Sarker
Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries, and is frequently related to child morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to identify key determinants that influence the prevalence of LBW in selected developing countries. Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted using 10 recent Demography and Health Surveys from developing countries based on the availability of the required information for the years 2010 to 2013...
January 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169989/clustering-of-770-000-genomes-reveals-post-colonial-population-structure-of-north-america
#15
Eunjung Han, Peter Carbonetto, Ross E Curtis, Yong Wang, Julie M Granka, Jake Byrnes, Keith Noto, Amir R Kermany, Natalie M Myres, Mathew J Barber, Kristin A Rand, Shiya Song, Theodore Roman, Erin Battat, Eyal Elyashiv, Harendra Guturu, Eurie L Hong, Kenneth G Chahine, Catherine A Ball
Despite strides in characterizing human history from genetic polymorphism data, progress in identifying genetic signatures of recent demography has been limited. Here we identify very recent fine-scale population structure in North America from a network of over 500 million genetic (identity-by-descent, IBD) connections among 770,000 genotyped individuals of US origin. We detect densely connected clusters within the network and annotate these clusters using a database of over 20 million genealogical records...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164780/a-fitness-trade-off-between-seasons-causes-multigenerational-cycles-in-phenotype-and-population-size
#16
Gustavo Sigrist Betini, Andrew G McAdam, Cortland K Griswold, D Ryan Norris
Although seasonality is widespread and can cause fluctuations in the intensity and direction of natural selection, we have little information about the consequences of seasonal fitness trade-offs for population dynamics. Here we exposed populations of Drosophila melanogaster to repeated seasonal changes in resources across 58 generations and used experimental and mathematical approaches to investigate how viability selection on body size in the non-breeding season could affect demography. We show that opposing seasonal episodes of natural selection on body size interacted with both direct and delayed density dependence to cause populations to undergo predictable multigenerational density cycles...
February 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164157/interactions-between-demography-and-environmental-effects-are-important-determinants-of-population-dynamics
#17
Marlène Gamelon, Vidar Grøtan, Anna L K Nilsson, Steinar Engen, James W Hurrell, Kurt Jerstad, Adam S Phillips, Ole W Røstad, Tore Slagsvold, Bjørn Walseng, Nils C Stenseth, Bernt-Erik Sæther
Climate change will affect the population dynamics of many species, yet the consequences for the long-term persistence of populations are poorly understood. A major reason for this is that density-dependent feedback effects caused by fluctuations in population size are considered independent of stochastic variation in the environment. We show that an interplay between winter temperature and population density can influence the persistence of a small passerine population under global warming. Although warmer winters favor an increased mean population size, density-dependent feedback can cause the local population to be less buffered against occasional poor environmental conditions (cold winters)...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159863/a-temporal-perspective-on-the-interplay-of-demography-and-selection-on-deleterious-variation-in-humans
#18
Evan Koch, John Novembre
When mutations have small effects on fitness, population size plays an important role in determining the amount and nature of deleterious genetic variation. The extent to which recent population size changes have impacted deleterious variation in humans has been a question of considerable interest and debate. An emerging consensus is that the Out-of-Africa bottleneck and subsequent growth events have been too short to cause meaningful differences in genetic load between populations; though changes in the number and average frequencies of deleterious variants have taken place...
February 3, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158213/reproductive-output-of-a-non-zooxanthellate-temperate-coral-is-unaffected-by-temperature-along-an-extended-latitudinal-gradient
#19
Valentina Airi, Selena Prantoni, Marco Calegari, Veronica Lisini Baldi, Francesca Gizzi, Chiara Marchini, Oren Levy, Giuseppe Falini, Zvy Dubinsky, Stefano Goffredo
Global environmental change, in marine ecosystems, is associated with concurrent shifts in water temperature, circulation, stratification, and nutrient input, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Variations in seawater temperature might alter physiological functioning, reproductive efficiency, and demographic traits of marine organisms, leading to shifts in population size and abundance. Differences in temperature tolerances between organisms can identify individual and ecological characteristics, which make corals able to persist and adapt in a climate change context...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154966/reproductive-allocation-in-pulsed-resource-environments-a-comparative-study-in-two-populations-of-wild-boar
#20
Marlène Gamelon, Stefano Focardi, Eric Baubet, Serge Brandt, Barbara Franzetti, Francesca Ronchi, Samuel Venner, Bernt-Erik Sæther, Jean-Michel Gaillard
Pulsed resources influence the demography and evolution of consumer populations and, by cascading effect, the dynamics of the entire community. Mast seeding provides a case study for exploring the evolution of life history traits of consumers in fluctuating environments. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) population dynamics is related to seed availability (acorns/beechnuts). From a long-term monitoring of two populations subjected to markedly different environmental contexts (i.e., both low vs. high frequency of pulsed resources and low vs...
February 3, 2017: Oecologia
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