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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164360/risk-of-osteoporosis-after-gastrectomy-in-long-term-gastric-cancer-survivors
#1
Seung Hyun Yoo, Jung Ah Lee, Seo Young Kang, Young Sik Kim, Sung Sunwoo, Beom Soo Kim, Jeong-Hwan Yook
INTRODUCTION: Although early detection and successful gastrectomy have improved the survival of patients with gastric cancer, long-term health problems remain troubling. We evaluated the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in long-term survivors of gastric cancer after gastrectomy. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2014 to identify survivors of gastric cancer who had visited our center at around 5 years after gastrectomy...
November 21, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164001/paradoxical-elevation-of-serum-tracp5b-levels-despite-increase-in-lumbar-spine-bone-mineral-density-during-anti-tnf%C3%AE-therapy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease-a-2-year-prospective-assessment-of-bone-mass-bone-metabolism-and-the-trabecular-bone
#2
Éric Toussirot, Laurent Mourot, Barbara Dehecq, Fabrice Michel, Daniel Wendling, Émilie Grandclément, Gilles Dumoulin
Objective: To examine the impact of long-term anti-TNFα therapy on bone mass, bone metabolism, and the trabecular bone score (TBS) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: In eight patients with RA and 12 with AS, bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the lumbar spine (LS), left and right femoral neck, and total skeleton were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and then at 6, 12, and 24 months after anti TNFα therapy...
September 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163054/motor-deficits-and-cerebellar-atrophy-in-elovl5-knock-out-mice
#3
Eriola Hoxha, Rebecca M C Gabriele, Ilaria Balbo, Francesco Ravera, Linda Masante, Vanessa Zambelli, Cristian Albergo, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Eleonora Di Gregorio, Alfredo Brusco, Barbara Borroni, Filippo Tempia
Spino-Cerebellar-Ataxia type 38 (SCA38) is caused by missense mutations in the very long chain fatty acid elongase 5 gene, ELOVL5. The main clinical findings in this disease are ataxia, hyposmia and cerebellar atrophy. Mice in which Elovl5 has been knocked out represent a model of the loss of function hypothesis of SCA38. In agreement with this hypothesis, Elovl5 knock out mice reproduced the main symptoms of patients, motor deficits at the beam balance test and hyposmia. The cerebellar cortex of Elovl5 knock out mice showed a reduction of thickness of the molecular layer, already detectable at 6 months of age, confirmed at 12 and 18 months...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163013/motor-areas-show-altered-dendritic-structure-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mouse-model
#4
Matthew J Fogarty, Erica W H Mu, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes, Mark C Bellingham
Objective: Motor neurons (MNs) die in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. In human or rodent studies, MN loss is preceded by increased excitability. As increased neuronal excitability correlates with structural changes in dendritic arbors and spines, we have examined longitudinal changes in dendritic structure in vulnerable neuron populations in a mouse model of familial ALS. Methods: We used a modified Golgi-Cox staining method to determine the progressive changes in dendritic structure of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, striatal medium spiny neurons, and resistant (trochlear, IV) or susceptible (hypoglossal, XII; lumbar) MNs from brainstem and spinal cord of mice over-expressing the human SOD1(G93A) (SOD1) mutation, in comparison to wild-type (WT) mice, at four postnatal (P) ages of 8-15, 28-35, 65-75, and 120 days...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159979/ultrasound-microbubbles-enhance-the-activity-of-vancomycin-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilms-in-vivo
#5
Ying Dong, Junshuai Li, Pan Li, Jialin Yu
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the predominant pathogen of device-associated infections. By forming biofilms on the device surface, S epidermidis has substantial resistance to antibiotics and is difficult to eradicate. This study aimed to explore the synergistic effect of ultrasound (US)-mediated microbubbles combined with vancomycin on S epidermidis biofilms in a rabbit model. METHODS: Two polytetrafluoroethene catheters with preformed S epidermidis biofilms were implanted subcutaneously in a rabbit, one on either side of the spine...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159533/reduced-bone-mineral-density-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-a-meta-analysis-of-its-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#6
S S L Goh, P S M Lai, A T B Tan, S Ponnampalavanar
A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was significantly higher than respective controls. Evidence regarding bone loss within first year of HIV infection or ART initiation was preliminary. PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to systematically review published literature on the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis and its associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals...
November 20, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158666/tenofovir-alafenamide-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Eiichi Ogawa, Norihiro Furusyo, Mindie H Nguyen
Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV), has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. TAF has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HBV replication at a low dose, with high intracellular concentration and more than 90% lower systemic TFV concentration than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). In two randomized, double-blind, multinational, Phase 3, non-inferiority trials for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and -negative patients (primary analysis: 48 weeks), TAF 25 mg orally once-daily was not inferior to TDF 300 mg in achieving an HBV DNA level <29 IU/mL at week 48...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157086/abdominal-aortic-calcification-score-among-several-vascular-calcification-scores-of-plain-radiograph-is-the-most-reliable-predictor-of-severe-coronary-artery-calcification-in-dialysis-patients
#8
Su Mi Lee, Hye Won Lee, Young Ki Son, Seong Eun Kim, Won Suk An
AIM: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on computed tomography (CT) or vascular calcification (VC) scores on plain radiographs are associated with cardiovascular events and fracture. We investigated which VC score among several VC scores on plain radiographs is predictor of CAC, and whether VC scores are related with bone mineral density (BMD) in dialysis patients. METHODS: We checked several plain radiographs (hands and pelvis [HP], feet and lateral lumbar spine), BMD and multidetector CT scans of 55 patients maintaining dialysis in this cross-sectional study...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155868/tocilizumab-potentially-prevents-bone-loss-in-patients-with-anticitrullinated-protein-antibody-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
Yi-Ming Chen, Hsin-Hua Chen, Wen-Nan Huang, Tsai-Ling Liao, Jun-Peng Chen, Wen-Cheng Chao, Ching-Tsai Lin, Wei-Ting Hung, Chia-Wei Hsieh, Tsu-Yi Hsieh, Yi-Hsing Chen, Der-Yuan Chen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with a high risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Interleukin (IL)-6 inhibitors may suppress osteoclast activation. Anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) titers are inversely associated with bone mineral density (BMD). However, the differential effect of ACPA on bone turnover marker (BTM) and BMD changes after IL-6 inhibition remains unclear. This prospective study recruited patients with active RA with inadequate response to methotrexate or biologics. BMD was measured before and after 2-year tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154969/adults-with-cystic-fibrosis-have-deficits-in-bone-structure-and-strength-at-the-distal-tibia-despite-similar-size-and-measuring-standard-and-relative-sites
#10
Kyle K Nishiyama, Sanchita Agarwal, Anna Kepley, Fernando Rosete, Yizhong Hu, X Edward Guo, Claire L Keating, Emily A DiMango, Elizabeth Shane
Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have lower bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA and are at higher risk of fracture than healthy controls. However, the 2-dimensional measurement of areal BMD (aBMD) provided by DXA is influenced by bone size and the true extent of the bone deficit is unclear. Our objective was to use high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) analysis to compare volumetric BMD (vBMD), microarchitecture and estimated strength at the distal radius and tibia in 26 young adults with CF and 26 controls matched for age, gender, and race...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154968/non-traumatic-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-is-associated-with-low-bone-mass
#11
Valérie Gangji, Muhammad S Soyfoo, Audrey Heuschling, Violaine Afzali, Rodrigo Moreno-Reyes, Joanne Rasschaert, Céline Gillet, Jean-Francois Fils, Jean-Philippe Hauzeur
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis (OP) and osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) share common clinical and pathophysiological features we sought to determine whether ONFH was associated with an increased prevalence of OP and whether the increased prevalence of OP was related to the stage of ONFH at diagnosis. METHODS: We included 243 patients with ONFH and 399 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Data was gathered including demography, risk factors, ARCO staging of ONFH and bone mineral density (BMD)...
November 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154300/fracture-generation-in-human-vertebrae-under-compression-loading-the-influence-of-pedicle-preservation-and-bone-mineral-density-on-in-vitro-fracture-behavior
#12
Michael Kraxenberger, Christian Schröder, Tobias Geith, Andreas Büttner, Christoph von SchulzePeelengahr, Christof Birkenmaier, Peter Muller, Volkmar Jansson, Bernd Wegener
BACKGROUND: Fractured vertebral bodies are a common and wide spread health issue. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized method to experimentally generate compression fractures in vertebral bodies. The influence of the pedicles has been investigated with regards to the fracture behavior. The correlation between bone mineral density (BMD), the cause of fractures and the fracture behavior was investigated. METHODS: Twenty-one fresh frozen human lumbar spines were examined for bone mineral density (BMD) by means of quantitative computed tomography (qCT)...
November 10, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153023/-bone-metabolism-in-adults-with-phenylketonuria-hungarian-data
#13
András Gellért Barta, Csaba Sumánszki, Péter Reismann
INTRODUCTION: Patients with phenylketonuria have lower bone mineral density compared to healthy people, however, the ethiology of these alterations is not clear. Hungarian data were missing in this topic. AIM: The main aim of our study was to survey the correlation between metabolic control and change of bone mineral density in early treated Hungarian adult patients with phenylketonuria. METHOD: In this monocentric study bone mineral density of 59 adult PKU patients have been repeatedly measured in a 4-year interval using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
November 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151265/cnn3-regulates-neural-tube-morphogenesis-and-neuronal-stem-cell-properties
#14
Dirk Junghans, Sebastian Herzog
Calponin 3 (Cnn3) is a member of the calponin family of actin binding molecules that is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been shown to control dendritic spine morphology, density and plasticity by regulating actin cytoskeletal reorganization and dynamics. However, little is known about the role of Cnn3 during embryonic development. In this study we analyzed mutant animals deficient in Cnn3 to gain a better understanding of its role in brain morphogenesis. Embryos lacking Cnn3 exhibited massive malformation of the developing brain including exoencephaly, closure defects at the rostral neural tube and strong enlargement of brain tissue...
November 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150661/morphological-differentiation-of-brachionus-calyciflorus-caused-by-predation-and-coal-ash-pollution
#15
Ying-Hao Xue, Xiao-Xue Yang, Gen Zhang, Yi-Long Xi
Different rotifer stains exhibited remarkably morphological differences which could not be eliminated under laboratory conditions. In the present study, we hypothesized that predation pressure and pollution might be two forces driving morphological differentiation of rotifer. To test this hypothesis, rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus) belonging to two sibling species were collected from three special lakes (with coal ash pollution, high predation pressure or neither) and cultured for more than three months to investigate their potential differentiation in morphology...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146231/is-hungry-bone-syndrome-a-cause-of-postoperative-hypocalcemia-after-total-thyroidectomy-in-thyrotoxicosis-a-prospective-study-with-bone-mineral-density-correlation
#16
Poongkodi Karunakaran, Chandrasekaran Maharajan, Srinivasan Ramalingam, Suresh Venkatesh Rachmadugu
BACKGROUND: Hungry bone syndrome is a well-established cause of postoperative hypocalcemia in thyrotoxicosis. To date, the incidence of hungry bone syndrome after total thyroidectomy is unclear. This prospective study examined the incidence of postthyroidectomy hungry bone syndrome and its correlation with preoperative bone mineral density. METHODS: Forty thyrotoxic subjects (Group A; age: mean ± SD; 36.5 ± 9.8 years) and 40 euthyroid controls with benign thyroid nodules (Group B) undergoing total thyroidectomy were evaluated for preoperative bone mineral density and serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D serially...
November 14, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145609/the-differential-effects-of-hiv-and-hcv-on-bone-micro-architecture-and-fracture-risk
#17
Roger J Bedimo, Beverley Adams-Huet, John Poindexter, Geri Brown, Irfan Farukhi, Rosinda Castanon, Diana Turner, Teresa Moore, Pablo Tebas, Naim M Maalouf
Background: HIV/HCV co-infected subjects have a significantly greater osteoporotic fracture risk than HIV-infected, despite the fact that HIV/HCV co-infection has not been associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) than HIV or HCV alone. We evaluated if changes in bone microarchitecture , measured by trabecular bone score (TBS) could explain these differences. Design: We performed a prospective, cross-sectional cohort study of virologically suppressed HIV, untreated HCV, HIV/HCV co-infected and non-infected controls...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144808/osteoporotic-fractures-during-bisphosphonate-drug-holiday-fractures-bisphosphonate-drug-holidays
#18
Brittany Bindon, William Adams, Neelam Balasubramanian, Jasmin Sandhu, Pauline Camacho
OBJECTIVE: Bisphosphonate (BP) drug holidays are recommended to lower the risk of rare adverse events, such as atypical femoral fractures and osteonecrosis of the jaw. However, there are minimal data on the optimal duration of these holidays. Our aim was to determine the clinical and laboratory parameters associated with increased fracture risk in patients on BP drug holiday. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 401 patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis who began a BP drug holiday from 2004 to 2013...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143140/impact-of-conventional-medical-therapy-on-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-turnover-in-adult-patients-with-x-linked-hypophosphatemia-a-6-year-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Vikram Vinod Shanbhogue, Stinus Hansen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Signe Sparre Beck-Nielsen
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare, inheritable disorder manifesting as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. While conventional medical treatment with oral phosphate and alfacalcidol is recommended in childhood, it is undecided whether adults should continue therapy. The aim of this 6-year prospective study was to determine the impact of conventional medical treatment on areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone turnover markers (BTMs) and measures of calcium homeostasis in 27 adult patients with XLH, 11 of whom received medical treatment...
November 15, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142062/the-serine-protease-inhibitor-neuroserpin-is-required-for-normal-synaptic-plasticity-and-regulates-learning-and-social-behavior
#20
Rebecca Reumann, Ricardo Vierk, Lepu Zhou, Frederice Gries, Vanessa Kraus, Julia Mienert, Eva Romswinkel, Fabio Morellini, Isidre Ferrer, Chiara Nicolini, Margaret Fahnestock, Gabriele Rune, Markus Glatzel, Giovanna Galliciotti
The serine protease inhibitor neuroserpin regulates the activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the nervous system. Neuroserpin expression is particularly prominent at late stages of neuronal development in most regions of the central nervous system (CNS), whereas it is restricted to regions related to learning and memory in the adult brain. The physiological expression pattern of neuroserpin, its high degree of colocalization with tPA within the CNS, together with its dysregulation in neuropsychiatric disorders, suggest a role in formation and refinement of synapses...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
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