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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231043/transient-oxytocin-signaling-primes-the-development-and-function-of-excitatory-hippocampal-neurons
#1
Silvia Ripamonti, Mateusz C Ambrozkiewicz, Francesca Guzzi, Marta Gravati, Gerardo Biella, Ingo Bormuth, Matthieu Hammer, Liam P Tuffy, Albrecht Sigler, Hiroshi Kawabe, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Mauro Toselli, Nils Brose, Marco Parenti, JeongSeop Rhee
Beyond its role in parturition and lactation, oxytocin influences higher brain processes that control social behavior of mammals, and perturbed oxytocin signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders. However, it is still largely unknown how oxytocin exactly regulates neuronal function. We show that early, transient oxytocin exposure in vitro inhibits the development of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons, leading to reduced dendrite complexity, synapse density, and excitatory transmission, while sparing GABAergic neurons...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228790/successful-neridronate-therapy-in-pregnancy-associated-osteoporosis
#2
Agostino Gaudio, Carmelo Erio Fiore
Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition. The pathogenesis is probably multifactorial but has not yet been completely clarified. In this case report, a 38-year-old woman was referred to hospital after suffering an acute, non-traumatic back pain one month after delivering her first child. The radiological examination revealed four vertebral fractures. Bone mineral density was reduced, particularly at spine level. Biochemical tests were within normal range, except for increased urinary deoxypyridinoline and a slight reduction of the serum 25-OH vitamin D level...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228781/denosumab-is-really-effective-in-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis-secondary-to-hypogonadism-in-prostate-carcinoma-patients-a-prospective-randomized-multicenter-international-study
#3
Carlo Doria, Paolo Tranquilli Leali, Federico Solla, Gianluca Maestretti, Massimo Balsano, Robero Mario Scarpa
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a complication of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in men with prostate carcinoma. The best defense against osteoporosis in prostate cancer is to identify patients with a high risk for fracture during the first clinical visit, select an effective anti-osteoporosis agent, and advise the patient to change his lifestyle and diet to prevent further bone loss. New agents include denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the RANK ligand (RANKL). RANKL promotes the formation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts and, thus, supports the breakdown of bone...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228252/complete-disruption-of-the-kainate-receptor-gene-family-results-in-corticostriatal-dysfunction-in-mice
#4
Jian Xu, John J Marshall, Herman B Fernandes, Toshihiro Nomura, Bryan A Copits, Daniele Procissi, Susumu Mori, Lei Wang, Yongling Zhu, Geoffrey T Swanson, Anis Contractor
Kainate receptors are members of the glutamate receptor family that regulate synaptic function in the brain. They modulate synaptic transmission and the excitability of neurons; however, their contributions to neural circuits that underlie behavior are unclear. To understand the net impact of kainate receptor signaling, we generated knockout mice in which all five kainate receptor subunits were ablated (5ko). These mice displayed compulsive and perseverative behaviors, including over-grooming, as well as motor problems, indicative of alterations in striatal circuits...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225309/anabolic-bone-window-with-weekly-teriparatide-therapy-in-post-menopausal-osteoporosis-a-pilot-study
#5
Vinaya Gopalaswamy, Deba Prasad Dhibar, Vipin Gupta, Ashutosh Kumar Arya, Niranjan Khandelwal, Anil Bhansali, Sudhir Kumar Garg, Neelam Agarwal, Sudhaker D Rao, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, which reduces bone strength and increases risk of fracture. Teriparatide is an established and the only currently available anabolic therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) with recommended daily dose of 20 μg subcutaneously. However data regarding the long term effect of once-weekly teriparatide therapy on bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers (BTMs) and anabolic bone window is limited. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 26 patients with PMO were treated with weekly teriparatide therapy (60 μg) for 2 years...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223918/rpph1-upregulates-cdc42-expression-and-promotes-hippocampal-neuron-dendritic-spine-formation-by-competing-with-mir-330-5p
#6
Yifei Cai, Ziling Sun, Huizhen Jia, Hongxue Luo, Xiaoyang Ye, Qi Wu, Yi Xiong, Wei Zhang, Jun Wan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease. Recent studies employing microRNA-seq and genome-wide sequencing have identified some non-coding RNAs that are influentially involved in AD pathogenesis. Non-coding RNAs can compete with other endogenous RNAs by microRNA response elements (MREs) and manipulate biological processes, such as tumorigenesis. However, only a few non-coding RNAs have been reported in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, we constructed the first competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network leveraging whole transcriptome sequencing and a previously studied microRNA-seq of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222408/severe-osteoporosis-with-multiple-spontaneous-vertebral-fractures-in-a-young-male-carrying-triple-polymorphisms-in-the-vitamin-d-receptor-collagen-type-1-and-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related-peptide-5-genes
#7
Maria P Yavropoulou, Panagoulia Kollia, Dimitris Chatzidimitriou, Stavroula Samara, Lemonia Skoura, John G Yovos
: Osteoporosis is a common disease with a strong genetic component. Several studies have reported the vitamin D receptor (VDR), collagen type I (COL1A1), and LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) genes as the most likely candidates. However, most of the studies have been carried out in postmenopausal women and older men and show inconsistent results. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 26-year old male who presented with severe back pain of acute onset, unrelated to any kind of trauma, and diffuse myalgia...
October 2016: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219715/metabolic-syndrome-causes-rec-ognition-memory-impairments-and-reduced-the-hippocampal-neuronal-plasticity-in-rats
#8
Samuel Treviño, Rubén A Vázquez-Roque, Gustavo López-López, Claudia Perez-Cruz, Carolina Moran, Anhabella Handal-Silva, Enrique González-Vergara, Gonzalo Flores, Jorge Guevara, Alfonso Díaz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious public health problem, which can promote neuronal alterations in cognitive regions related to memory processes and learning, such as the hippocampus. However, up to now there is no information of a regional segregation of this damage. In this study, we evaluate the MS effect on the neuronal morphology of the hippocampus by a regional segregation approach. Our results demonstrate that 90days of a high-calorie diet altered metabolic energy markers and caused memory impairments, as evaluated by the recognition of novel objects test (NORT)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217672/effects-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-daily-calcium-intake-on-bone-mineral-density-and-osteoporosis-in-korean-postmenopausal-woman
#9
Seung Joo Chon, Yae Kyu Koh, Jin Young Heo, Jinae Lee, Min Kyoung Kim, Bo Hyon Yun, Byung Seok Lee, Seok Kyo Seo
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the combined effects of vitamin D and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study consisting of 1,921 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years without thyroid dysfunction, from the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified into six groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and daily calcium intake...
January 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217392/bariatric-bypasses-contribute-to-loss-of-bone-mineral-density-but-reduce-axial-back-pain-in-morbidly-obese-patients-considering-spine-surgery
#10
EDITORIAL
Nancy E Epstein
BACKGROUND: Many spine surgeons recommend stringent weight loss, including bariatric bypass procedures, prior to "elective" spine surgery (should not be for axial back pain alone) in morbidly obese patients (defined by a body mass index (BMI) of >40 mg/kg(2) or >35 mg/kg(2) with two or more major comorbidities) to reduce their greater risk for major perioperative complications. Although bypasses typically lead to marked weight reduction and even reduced axial back pain, they also promote unrecognized and often insufficiently treated vitamin D deficiency and loss of bone mineral density...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217238/fetus-in-fetu-case-report-and-brief-review-of-literature-on-embryologic-origin-clinical-presentation-imaging-and-differential-diagnosis
#11
Suhas Aithal Sitharama, Bibekanand Jindal, Mrudula Kumari Vuriti, Bikash Kumar Naredi, Sriram Krishnamurthy, Deepak Barathi Subramania
BACKGROUND: Fetus in fetu (FIF) is a rare entity in which a malformed diamniotic monochorionic parasitic fetal twin develops inside a normal co-twin's body, most commonly in the abdominal cavity. FIF is differentiated from the teratoma by the presence of vertebral column often with an appropriate arrangement of other organs or limbs around it. CASE REPORT: A two-and-a-half-year-old girl presented with a painless abdominal swelling in the right hypochondrium. On imaging, a heterogenous soft tissue mass with internal calcific densities was noted in the retroperitoneum...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215296/neurotrophins-in-the-brain-interaction-with-alcohol-exposure-during-development
#12
K E Boschen, A Y Klintsova
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a result of the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the developing fetus. Decades of research examining both individuals with FASDs and animal models of developmental alcohol exposure have revealed the devastating effects of alcohol on brain structure, function, behavior, and cognition. Neurotrophic factors have an important role in guiding normal brain development and cellular plasticity in the adult brain. This chapter reviews the current literature showing that alcohol exposure during the developmental period impacts neurotrophin production and proposes avenues through which alcohol exposure and neurotrophin action might interact...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213865/location-of-vertebral-fractures-is-associated-with-bone-mineral-density-and-history-of-traumatic-injury
#13
Jennifer Watt, Richard Crilly
The upper and lower thoracolumbar spine have been associated with different biomechanical outcomes. This concept, as it applies to osteoporotic fracture risk, has not been well documented. This was a case-control study of 120 patients seen in an osteoporosis clinic. Vertebral fractures were identified from lateral radiographs using Genant's semi-quantitative assessment method. An association between bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores and vertebral fracture location was assessed. In an additional analysis, the association between a history of any traumatic injury and possible predictor variables was also explored...
February 17, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212898/low-serum-iron-is-associated-with-high-serum-intact-fgf23-in-elderly-men-the-swedish-mros-study
#14
Catharina Lewerin, Östen Ljunggren, Herman Nilsson-Ehle, Magnus K Karlsson, Hans Herlitz, Mattias Lorentzon, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes. Increased serum levels of FGF23 have been associated with increased risks of osteoporotic fractures and cardiovascular disease, particularly in participants with poor renal function. Serum iron (Fe) has been suggested as a regulator of FGF23 homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Fe and iron status are determinants of the levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23) in elderly men...
February 14, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210985/lumbar-disc-degeneration-was-not-related-to-spine-and-hip-bone-mineral-densities-in-chinese-facet-joint-osteoarthritis-may-confound-the-association
#15
Jianjiang Pan, Xuan Lu, Ge Yang, Yongmei Han, Xiang Tong, Yue Wang
: A sample of 512 Chinese was studied and we observed that greater disc degeneration on MRI was associated with greater spine DXA BMD. Yet, this association may be confounded by facet joint osteoarthritis. BMD may not be a risk factor for lumbar disc degeneration in Chinese. PURPOSE: Evidence suggested that lumbar vertebral bone and intervertebral disc interact with each other in multiple ways. The current paper aims to determine the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and lumbar disc degeneration using a sample of Chinese...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208233/neonatal-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-impair-learning-behaviour-by-disrupting-hippocampal-organization-in-male-swiss-albino-mice
#16
Rakesh Bhaskar, Ashish K Mishra, Banalata Mohanty
Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In the present study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29 and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63...
February 16, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205591/protective-effect-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-upon-hippocampal-spine-density-and-cognitive-function-in-an-animal-model-of-vascular-dementia
#17
Ying Zhu, Quanguang Zhang, Wenli Zhang, Ning Li, Yongxin Dai, Jingyi Tu, Fang Yang, Darrell W Brann, Ruimin Wang
The current study examined whether the steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2) can exert long-lasting beneficial effects upon axonal health, synaptic plasticity, dementia-related amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein expression, and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function in an animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and vascular dementia (VaD). Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and VaD was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Low dose E2 administered for the first 3-months after BCCAO exerted long-lasting beneficial effects, including significant neuroprotection of hippocampal CA1 neurons and preservation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive function when examined at 6-months after BCCAO...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203357/wrist-bone-mineral-density-utility-in-diagnosing-hip-osteoporosis-in-postmenopausal-women
#18
Bina Eftekhar-Sadat, Mostafa Ghavami, Vahideh Toopchizadeh, Masood Ghahvechi Akbari
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a common bone disease that increases with age. Wrist bone mineral density (BMD) has significant correlation with other skeletal sites and it could be used as a diagnostic method for osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of wrist BMD in diagnosing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 99 postmenopausal women with mean age of 57 ± 6.9 (range 50-76) years were evaluated...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202389/targeting-the-hdac2-hnf-4a-mir-101b-ampk-pathway-rescues-tauopathy-and-dendritic-abnormalities-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Dan Liu, Hui Tang, Xin-Yan Li, Man-Fei Deng, Na Wei, Xiong Wang, Ya-Fan Zhou, Ding-Qi Wang, Peng Fu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Sébastien S Hébert, Jian-Guo Chen, Youming Lu, Ling-Qiang Zhu
Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) plays a major role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that HDAC2 expression is strongly increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a major neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Moreover, previous studies have linked HDAC2 to Aβ overproduction in AD; however, its involvement in tau pathology and other memory-related functions remains unclear. Here, we show that increased HDAC2 levels strongly correlate with phosphorylated tau in a mouse model of AD...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201994/risedronate-therapy-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-chronic-kidney-disease-with-osteoporosis-post-hoc-analysis-of-data-from-the-risedronate-phase-iii-clinical-trials
#20
Takashi Shigematsu, Ryoichi Muraoka, Toshitsugu Sugimoto, Yoshiki Nishizawa
BACKGROUND: The clinical effect of bisphosphonate treatment has not been clearly evaluated by kidney function in Japanese Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients with osteoporosis. This study analyzed the data from three risedronate Japanese phase III trials. The clinical effect of risedronate therapy was evaluated in CKD patients with osteoporosis. METHODS: The Japanese clinical trials involved 852 subjects who received risedronate (2.5 mg once daily or 17.5 mg once weekly) and whose estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculable and at ≥ 30 mL/min...
February 15, 2017: BMC Nephrology
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