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okadaic acid

Thiago Pereira Alves, Luiz Laureno Mafra
Dinophysis spp. are a major source of diarrheic toxins to marine food webs, especially during blooms. This study documented the occurrence, in late May 2016, of a massive toxic bloom of the Dinophysis acuminata complex along the southern coast of Brazil, associated with an episode of marked salinity stratification. The study tracked the daily vertical distribution of Dinophysis spp. cells and their ciliate prey, Mesodinium cf. rubrum , and quantified the amount of lipophilic toxins present in seston and accumulated by various marine organisms in the food web...
June 6, 2018: Toxins
Thomas Vanhercke, Srinivas Belide, Matthew C Taylor, Anna El Tahchy, Shoko Okada, Vivien Rolland, Qing Liu, Madeline Mitchell, Pushkar Shrestha, Ingrid Venables, Lina Ma, Cheryl Blundell, Anu Mathew, Lisa Ziolkowski, Nathalie Niesner, Dawar Hussain, Bei Dong, Guoquan Liu, Ian D Godwin, Jiwon Lee, Melanie Rug, Xue-Rong Zhou, Surinder P Singh, James R Petrie
Synthesis and accumulation of the storage lipid triacylglycerol in vegetative plant tissues has emerged as a promising strategy to meet the world's future need for vegetable oil. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a particularly attractive target crop given its high biomass, drought resistance and C4 photosynthesis. While oilseed-like triacylglycerol levels have been engineered in the C3 model plant tobacco, progress in C4 monocot crops has been lagging behind. In this study, we report the accumulation of triacylglycerol in sorghum leaf tissues to levels between 3 and 8...
June 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Derya Metin, Duygu Gezen-Ak, Erdinç Dursun, İrema L Atasoy, Arzu Karabay, Selma Yılmazer, Melek Öztürk
Hyperphosphorylation of tau leading to neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) is one of the key pathological hallmarks in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (Pin1) regulates the phosphorylation of Ser/Thr sites of tau protein, and promotes microtubule assembly. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of tau hyperphosphorylation on Pin1 expression in primary cortical neurons in order to investigate the results of the pathological process on Pin1, an important enzyme involved in various cellular mechanisms...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Cinzia Mallozzi, Mariacristina Parravano, Lucia Gaddini, Marika Villa, Flavia Pricci, Fiorella Malchiodi-Albedi, Andrea Matteucci
Curcumin is one of the major compounds contained in turmeric, the powdered rhizome of Curcuma longa. Results obtained in various experimental models indicate that curcumin has the potential to treat a large variety of neuronal diseases. Excitotoxicity, the toxicity due to pathological glutamate receptors stimulation, has been considered to be involved in several ocular pathologies including ischemia, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. The NMDA receptor (NMDAR), a heteromeric ligand-gated ion channel, is composed of GluN1 and GluN2 subunits...
May 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Wiebke Schmidt, Hayley L Evers-King, Carlos J A Campos, Darren B Jones, Peter I Miller, Keith Davidson, Jamie D Shutler
Microbiological contamination or elevated marine biotoxin concentrations within shellfish can result in temporary closure of shellfish aquaculture harvesting, leading to financial loss for the aquaculture business and a potential reduction in consumer confidence in shellfish products. We present a method for predicting short-term variations in shellfish concentrations of Escherichia coli and biotoxin (okadaic acid and its derivates dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins). The approach was evaluated for 2 contrasting shellfish harvesting areas...
April 19, 2018: Aquaculture Environment Interactions
Tetsuya Takamizawa, Tetsurou Satoh, Tomoko Miyamoto, Yasuyo Nakajima, Takahiro Ishizuka, Takuya Tomaru, Satoshi Yoshino, Akiko Katano-Toki, Ayaka Nishikido, Santosh Sapkota, Takuya Watanabe, Takashi Okamura, Emi Ishida, Kazuhiko Horiguchi, Syunichi Matsumoto, Sumiyasu Ishii, Atsushi Ozawa, Nobuyuki Shibusawa, Shuichi Okada, Masanobu Yamada
Mutations in TBL1X, a component of the nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) and silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor co-repressor complexes, have recently been implicated in isolated central hypothyroidism (CeH). However, the mechanisms by which TBL1X mutations affect negative feedback regulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis remain unclear. N-CoR was previously reported to paradoxically enhance the ligand-independent stimulation of TRH and TSHβ gene promoters by thyroid hormone receptors (TR) in cell culture systems...
May 23, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Yen-Chuan Ou, Jian-Ri Li, Jiaan-Der Wang, Wen-Ying Chen, Yu-Hsiang Kuan, Ching-Ping Yang, Su-Lan Liao, Hsi-Chi Lu, Chun-Jung Chen
Aspirin is a novel chemopreventive agent against malignancy. However, outcomes of aspirin monotherapy of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are inconsistent across studies. ABT-737, an BH3 mimetic inhibitor, is also a promising antitumor drug. Cancer cells including those from RCC, that have high levels of Mcl-1, are refractory to ABT-737-induced apoptosis. We here investigated how aspirin treatment modulates the ABT-737-induced apoptosis. Using the in vitro model of human 786-O cells, we showed that aspirin had sensitized cells to ABT-737 induced apoptosis...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Qi Sun, Shiyue Li, Junjun Li, Qiuxia Fu, Zhongyuan Wang, Bo Li, Shan-Shan Liu, Zijie Su, Jiaxing Song, Desheng Lu
BACKGROUND: Homoharringtonine (HHT) is a natural alkaloid with potent antitumor activity, but its precise mechanism of action is still poorly understood. METHODS: We examined the effect of HHT on alternative splicing of Bcl-x and Caspase 9 in various cells using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mechanism of HHT-affected alternative splicing in these cells was investigated by treatment with protein phosphatase inhibitors and overexpression of a protein phosphatase...
May 22, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Keita Nishiyama, Aki Nagai, Kazuya Uribayashi, Yuji Yamamoto, Takao Mukai, Nobuhiko Okada
We investigated the roles of extracellular sialidases (SiaBb1 and SiaBb2) in cross-feeding between sialidase-carrying Bifidobacterium bifidum and sialic acid-utilizing Bifidobacterium breve. Using 6' sialyllactose (6'SL) as a carbon source, the number of wild-type B. bifidum cells increased while that of a siabb2-inactivated strain (Δsiabb2) did not. Coculture of these two strains in the presence of 6'SL resulted in similar increase in cell numbers. Coculture of wild-type B. bifidum, but not the Δsiabb2 strain, with sialic acid-utilizing Bifidobacterium breve, which cannot release sialic acids from carbohydrates, in the presence of 6'SL increased the number of B...
May 19, 2018: Anaerobe
Salman Ul Islam, Muhammad Bilal Ahmed, Su Jin Lee, Adeeb Shehzad, Jong Kyung Sonn, Oh-Shin Kwon, Young Sup Lee
Cell actin cytoskeleton is primarily modulated by Rho family proteins. RhoA regulates several downstream targets, including Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), LIM-Kinase (LIMK), and cofilin. Pre-mRNA processing factor 4B (PRP4) modulates the actin cytoskeleton of cancer cells via RhoA activity inhibition. In this study, we discovered that PRP4 over-expression in HCT116 colon cancer cells induces cofilin dephosphorylation by inhibiting the Rho-ROCK-LIMK-cofilin pathway. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis indicated increased expression of protein phosphatase 1A (PP1A) in PRP4-transfected HCT116 cells...
May 19, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Keishu Murakami, Takashi Kawaguchi, Yumiko Hashizume, Kengo Kitamura, Misato Okada, Kohei Okumoto, Shoich Sakamoto, Yuko Ishida, Mizuho Nosaka, Akihiko Kimura, Akihiro Takatsu, Toshikazu Kondo
We describe a case of suicidal asphyxiation using a plastic bag combined with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas. A 20-year-old male, whose head was covered with a plastic bag, was found dead in his room. In the plastic bag, there were two glass-made cups containing liquid-like substance. Through crime scene investigation by police staffs, a bottle of citric acid and a box of baking soda were also discovered in his room. The forensic autopsy revealed that there were neither lesions nor injuries in all of the organs...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Meng-Shan Tsai, Chihiro Miyashita, Atsuko Araki, Sachiko Itoh, Yu Ait Bamai, Houman Goudarzi, Emiko Okada, Ikuko Kashino, Hideyuki Matsuura, Reiko Kishi
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent bio-accumulative chemicals that impact the health of pregnant women and their children. PFAS derive from environmental and consumer products, which depend on human lifestyle, socioeconomic characteristics, and time variation. Here, we aimed to explore the temporal trends of PFAS in pregnant women and the characteristics related to maternal PFAS concentration. Our study is part of the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health, the Hokkaido large-scale cohort that recruited pregnant women between 2003 and 2011...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Juan Chen, Yang He, Yan Wu, Hang Zhou, Li-Da Su, Wei-Nan Li, Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang, Yu-Dong Zhou, Yi Shen
Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) is one of the most widely abused drugs with profound effects on brain function and behavior. GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) are one of the major targets for EtOH in the brain. Temporary plastic changes in GABAA Rs after withdrawal from a single EtOH exposure occur both in vivo and in vitro , which may be the basis for chronic EtOH addiction, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. Extrasynaptic δ-GABAA R endocytosis is implicated in EtOH-induced GABAA R plasticity, but the mechanisms by which the relative abundance and localization of specific GABAA Rs are altered by EtOH exposure and withdrawal remain unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
T P Alves, M A Schramm, L A O Proença, T O Pinto, L L Mafra
This study evaluated an 8-year dataset (2007 to 2015, except 2008) in the attempt to identify the most susceptible periods for the occurrence of diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) episodes associated with the presence of toxigenic dinoflagellates, Dinophysis spp., in the mussel farming area of Babitonga Bay (southern Brazil). Dinophysis acuminata complex was the most frequent (present in 66% of the samples) and abundant (max. 4100 cells L-1 ) taxon, followed by D. caudata (14%; max. 640 cells L-1 ) and D...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hidenobu Uchida, Koremitsu Sumimoto, Tomoka Oki, Ichiro Nishii, Eiichi Mizohata, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The B race of a green microalga Botryococcus braunii Kützing produces triterpene hydrocarbons that is a promising source for biofuel. In this algal race, precursors of triterpene hydrocarbons are provided from the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The terminal enzyme of this pathway, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) is regarded as one of the key enzymes that affect yields of products in terpene biosynthesis. In order to better understand the MEP pathway of the alga, cDNA and genomic clones of HDR were obtained from B...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Bettina M Foidl, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, characterized by extracellular aggregation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylation of tau causing intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). There is urgent need to study the interactions between Aβ and tau, especially to solve the question of the pathological cascade. In the present study, we aim to develop a model of organotypic brain slices in which both plaque and tau pathology can be examined. Organotypic brain slices (150 μm thick, coronal, at the hippocampal level) from adult (9 month) wildtype (WT, C57BL/6N) and transgenic AD mice (TG, APP_SweDI) were cultured for 2 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Naomi Mochizuki, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Masao Kobayashi, Yukinao Yamazaki, Shuichi Terao, Tsuyoshi Sanuki, Akihiko Okada, Masayasu Adachi, Manabu Murakami, Yoshifumi Arisaka, Koji Uno, Atsuhiro Masuda, Masaru Yoshida, Eiji Umegaki, Hiromu Kutsumi, Takeshi Azuma
BACKGROUND: We aimed to clarify the factors associated with the presentation of erosive esophagitis (EE) symptoms in subjects undergoing health checkups. METHODS: We utilized baseline data from 7,552 subjects who underwent upper endoscopy for health screening in a prospective, multicenter cohort study. The subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire detailing their upper abdominal symptoms and lifestyle. Based on the heartburn and/or acid regurgitation frequency, the EE subjects were stratified into the following three groups: (1) at least one day a week (symptomatic EE [sEE]), (2) less than one day a week (mild symptomatic EE [msEE]), and (3) never (asymptomatic EE [aEE])...
2018: PloS One
Yasuyuki Inoue, Kenzo Nakamura, Yoshitaka Kuwahara, Yan Lu, Nanako Masuda, Shigeo Horie, Hiroshi Okada, Hisamitsu Ide
Numerous reports point to the beneficial effects of testosterone replacement therapy for patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intramuscular injection of testosterone enantholactam acid ester on Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scores in hemodialysis patients with LOH. A total of 24 male patients with LOH (total AMS scores ≥27) were randomized into groups receiving intramuscular injections of either placebo or testosterone enantholactam acid ester at the dose of 250 mg for 6 months...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Takeshi Okada, Asumi Sakai, Tomoaki Hinoue, Tetsuya Satoh, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Susumu Kawauchi, Kona Chandrababunaidu, Masahiro Miura
The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct alkenylation of N-phenylindole-3-carboxylic acids with alkenes including acrylate ester, acrylamide, and acrylonitrile proceeds smoothly at the C4-position through regioselective C-H bond cleavage directed by the carboxyl group. In marked contrast, the indole substrates react with diarylacetylenes accompanied by cleavage of the C2-H and C2'-H bonds and decarboxylation to produce 5,6-diarylindolo[1,2- a]quinolone derivatives. DFT calculations have suggested that the smooth insertion of an alkene to a C4-rhodated six-membered metallacycle intermediate leads to the C4 alkenylated products, while the latter annulation at the C2- and C2'-positions is attributable to facile reductive elimination in the corresponding seven-membered metallacycles formed by the double C-H bond cleavage and alkyne insertion...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Rei Suo, Kentaro Takada, Raku Irie, Ryuichi Watanabe, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Yuji Ise, Susumu Ohtsuka, Shigeru Okada, Shigeki Matsunaga
Poecillastrin H (1), a chondropsin-type macrolide with a conjugated pentaene moiety, was isolated from the Characella sp. marine sponge. The planar structure of 1 was elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of the β-hydroxyaspartic acid residue (β-OHAsp) was determined to be d- threo by Marfey's analysis, and the mode of lactone ring formation through the OHAsp residue was determined by chemical degradation. Poecillastrin H was extremely sensitive toward light and showed potent cytotoxic activity against 3Y1 cells with an IC50 value of 4...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
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