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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818427/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-nadph-dependent-cytochrome-p450-reductase-from-the-green-microalga-botryococcus-braunii-b-race
#1
Chung-Yau Tsou, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The green microalga Botryococcus braunii of the B race accumulates various lipophilic compounds containing a 10,11-oxidosqualene epoxide moiety in addition to large amounts of triterpene hydrocarbons. While 2,3-squalene epoxidases have already been isolated and characterized from the alga, the enzyme that catalyzes the 10,11-epoxidation of squalene has remained elusive. In order to obtain a molecular tool to explore a 10,11-squalene epoxidase, cDNA cloning of an NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that is required by both squalene epoxidases and cytochrome P450 enzymes was carried out...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818393/the-modulation-of-the-phosphorylation-status-of-nkcc1-in-organ-cultured-bovine-lenses-implications-for-the-regulation-of-fiber-cell-and-overall-lens-volume
#2
Irene Vorontsova, Paul J Donaldson, Zhiying Kong, Chiharu Wickremesinghe, Leo Lam, Julie C Lim
In this study we have used an antibody that specifically detects the phosphorylation status of the Sodium/Potassium/2 Chloride Cotransporter (NKCC1) to study whether the activity of NKCC1 can be regulated in organ cultured bovine lenses. Western blotting was first used to confirm the expression of NKCC1, phosphorylated NKCC1 (NKCC1-P) and the regulatory kinases WNK/SPAK and phosphatases PP1/PP2A in bovine lenses at the protein level. Changes to NKCC1-P status were then assessed by organ culturing bovine lenses in either isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic solutions in the presence or absence of the NKCC inhibitor, bumetanide, or phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A...
August 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815284/analysis-of-lipophilic-marine-biotoxins-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-in-seawater-from-the-catalan-coast
#3
Cristina Bosch-Orea, Josep Sanchís, Marinella Farré, Damià Barceló
Marine biotoxins regularly occur along the coast, with several consequences for the environment as well as the food industry. Monitoring of these compounds in seawater is required to assure the safety of marine resources for human consumption, providing a means for forecasting shellfish contamination events. In this study, an analytical method was developed for the detection of ten lipophilic marine biotoxins in seawater: azaspiracids 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, classified as azaspiracid shellfish poisoning toxins, and pectenotoxin 2, okadaic acid and the related dinophysistoxin 1, yessotoxin and homoyessotoxin, classified as diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins...
August 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807153/c1q-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-protein-3-enhances-the-contractility-of-cardiomyocyte-by-increasing-calcium-sensitivity
#4
Cheng-Lin Zhang, Zheng-Ju Chen, Han Feng, Qian Zhao, Yang-Po Cao, Li Li, Jin-Yu Wang, Yan Zhang, Li-Ling Wu
C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is an adipokine that protects against myocardial infarction-induced cardiac dysfunction through its pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, and anti-fibrotic effects. However, whether CTRP3 can directly affect the systolic and diastolic function of cardiomyocytes remains unknown. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and loaded with Fura-2AM. The contraction and Ca(2+) transient data was collected and analyzed by IonOptix system. 1 and 2μg/ml CTRP3 significantly increased the contraction of cardiomyocytes...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801073/newborn-screening-for-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-ii-deficiency-using-c16-c18-1-c2-evaluation-of-additional-indices-for-adequate-sensitivity-and-lower-false-positivity
#5
Go Tajima, Keiichi Hara, Miyuki Tsumura, Reiko Kagawa, Satoshi Okada, Nobuo Sakura, Shinsuke Maruyama, Atsuko Noguchi, Tomonari Awaya, Mika Ishige, Nobuyuki Ishige, Ikuma Musha, Sayaka Ajihara, Akira Ohtake, Etsuo Naito, Yusuke Hamada, Tomotaka Kono, Tomoko Asada, Hideo Sasai, Toshiyuki Fukao, Ryoji Fujiki, Osamu Ohara, Ryosuke Bo, Kenji Yamada, Hironori Kobayashi, Yuki Hasegawa, Seiji Yamaguchi, Masaki Takayanagi, Ikue Hata, Yosuke Shigematsu, Masao Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II deficiency is one of the most common forms of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder (FAOD). However, newborn screening (NBS) for this potentially fatal disease has not been established partly because reliable indices are not available. METHODS: We diagnosed CPT II deficiency in a 7-month-old boy presenting with hypoglycemic encephalopathy, which apparently had been missed in the NBS using C16 and C18:1 concentrations as indices...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801063/chondroitin-sulfates-do-not-impede-axonal-regeneration-in-goldfish-spinal-cord
#6
Akihito Takeda, Soichiro Okada, Kengo Funakoshi
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans produced in glial scar tissue are a major inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury in mammals. The inhibition is largely due to chondroitin sulfates, whose effects differ according to the sulfation pattern. In contrast to mammals, fish nerves spontaneously regenerate beyond the scar tissue after spinal cord injury, although the mechanisms that allow for axons to pass through the scar are unclear. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of two chondroitin sulfates with different sulfation variants at the lesion site in goldfish spinal cord...
August 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780732/assessment-of-the-target-engagement-and-d-serine-biomarker-profiles-of-the-d-amino-acid-oxidase-inhibitors-sodium-benzoate-and-pgm030756
#7
Eimear Howley, Michael Bestwick, Rosa Fradley, Helen Harrison, Mathew Leveridge, Kengo Okada, Charlotte Fieldhouse, Will Farnaby, Hannah Canning, Andy P Sykes, Kevin Merchant, Katherine Hazel, Catrina Kerr, Natasha Kinsella, Louise Walsh, David G Livermore, Isaac Hoffman, Jonathan Ellery, Phillip Mitchell, Toshal Patel, Mark Carlton, Matt Barnes, David J Miller
Irregular N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function is one of the main hypotheses employed to facilitate understanding of the underlying disease state of schizophrenia. Although direct agonism of the NMDAR has not yielded promising therapeutics, advances have been made by modulating the NMDAR co-agonist site which is activated by glycine and D-serine. One approach to activate the co-agonist site is to increase synaptic D-serine levels through inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), the major catabolic clearance pathway for this and other D-amino acids...
August 5, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768857/molecular-function-analysis-of-rabies-virus-rna-polymerase-l-protein-by-using-an-l-gene-deficient-virus
#8
Kento Nakagawa, Yuki Kobayashi, Naoto Ito, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Kazuma Okada, Machiko Makino, Hideo Goto, Tatsuki Takahashi, Makoto Sugiyama
While the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein of rabies virus (RABV), a member of the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, has potential to be a therapeutic target for rabies, the molecular functions of this protein have remained largely unknown. In this study, to obtain a novel experimental tool for molecular function analysis of the RABV L protein, we established by using a reverse genetics approach an L gene-deficient RABV (Nishi-ΔL/Nluc), which infects, propagates and correspondingly produces NanoLuc luciferase in cultured neuroblastoma cells [20013240291] transfected to express the L protein...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768723/lamtor1-is-critically-required-for-cd4-t-cell-proliferation-and-regulatory-t-cell-suppressive-function
#9
Takashi Hosokawa, Tetsuya Kimura, Shigeyuki Nada, Tatsusada Okuno, Daisuke Ito, Sujin Kang, Satoshi Nojima, Kazuya Yamashita, Takeshi Nakatani, Yoshitomo Hayama, Yasuhiro Kato, Yuhei Kinehara, Masayuki Nishide, Norihisa Mikami, Syohei Koyama, Hyota Takamatsu, Daisuke Okuzaki, Naganari Ohkura, Shimon Sakaguchi, Masato Okada, Atsushi Kumanogoh
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 integrates intracellular sufficiency of nutrients and regulates various cellular functions. Previous studies using mice with conditional knockout of mTORC1 component proteins (i.e., mTOR, Raptor, and Rheb) gave conflicting results on the roles of mTORC1 in CD4(+) T cells. Lamtor1 is the protein that is required for amino acid sensing and activation of mTORC1; however, the roles of Lamtor1 in T cells have not been investigated. In this article, we show that Lamtor1-deficient CD4(+) T cells exhibited marked reductions in proliferation, IL-2 production, mTORC1 activity, and expression of purine- and lipid-synthesis genes...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760745/a-pp2a-mediated-feedback-mechanism-controls-ca-2-dependent-no-synthesis-under-physiological-oxygen
#10
Thomas P Keeley, Richard C M Siow, Ron Jacob, Giovanni E Mann
Intracellular O2 is a key regulator of NO signaling, yet most in vitro studies are conducted in atmospheric O2 levels, hyperoxic with respect to the physiologic milieu. We investigated NO signaling in endothelial cells cultured in physiologic (5%) O2 and stimulated with histamine or shear stress. Culture of cells in 5% O2 (>5 d) decreased histamine- but not shear stress-stimulated endothelial (e)NOS activity. Unlike cells adapted to a hypoxic environment (1% O2), those cultured in 5% O2 still mobilized sufficient Ca(2+) to activate AMPK...
July 31, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755633/embryotoxic-effects-of-dissolved-okadaic-acid-on-the-development-of-longfin-yellowtail-seriola-rivoliana
#11
J Le Du, D Tovar-Ramírez, E J Núñez-Vázquez
In the context of global climate change where harmful algal blooms (HABs) might become more frequent and more severe, several studies have been conducted on the perturbation of embryonic development of marine animals by microalgal toxins. Okadaic acid (OA) and analogs (DSP toxins) produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Dynophysis and Prorocentrum are known to disturb embryogenesis. This study investigated the impact of dissolved DSP toxin (OA and Dinophysistoxin 1, DTX-1) exposure on embryo development of Longfin yellowtail Seriola rivoliana...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751156/performance-evaluation-of-the-verigene-%C3%A2-clostridium-difficile-nucleic-acid-test-an-automated-multiplex-molecular-testing-system-for-detection-of-c-%C3%A2-difficile-toxin
#12
Kosuke Kosai, Yuki Iwanaga, Norihiko Akamatsu, Yuya Okada, Norihito Kaku, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
The Verigene(®)Clostridium difficile nucleic acid test (Verigene(®) CDF test) is an automatic and rapid detection system for the genes encoding tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin, and the single nucleotide deletion at base pair 117 in the tcdC based on microarray and PCR amplification. We compared the performance of the Verigene(®) CDF test to that of two enzyme immunoassays, C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE and X/Pect Toxin A/B, using 118 specimens. We found overall concordance rates of 81.4% and 78.8% between C. DIFF QUIK CHEK COMPLETE and Verigene(®) CDF test, and X/Pect Toxin A/B and Verigene(®) CDF test...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742439/damab-2-anti-human-dgk%C3%AE-monoclonal-antibody-for-immunocytochemistry
#13
Tomoyuki Nakano, Satoshi Ogasawara, Toshiaki Tanaka, Yasukazu Hozumi, Satoru Mizuno, Eri Satoh, Fumio Sakane, Naoki Okada, Akinobu Taketomi, Ryusuke Honma, Takuro Nakamura, Noriko Saidoh, Miyuki Yanaka, Shunsuke Itai, Saori Handa, Yao-Wen Chang, Shinji Yamada, Mika K Kaneko, Yukinari Kato, Kaoru Goto
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is responsible for the enzymatic conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Since both diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid serve as signaling molecules, DGK is regarded as a hub between diacylglycerol-mediated and phosphatidic acid-mediated signaling. One of the 10 DGK isozymes, DGKα, is shown to be involved in T cell function. Transfection studies using tagged expression vectors revealed that DGKα localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to T cell receptor stimulation...
August 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740483/a-case-with-spondyloenchondrodysplasia-treated-with-growth-hormone
#14
Takanori Utsumi, Satoshi Okada, Kazushi Izawa, Yoshitaka Honda, Gen Nishimura, Ryuta Nishikomori, Rika Okano, Masao Kobayashi
Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD) is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia caused by loss of function mutations in acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant (ACP5). Hypomorphic ACP5 mutations impair endochondral bone growth and create an interferon (INF) signature, which lead to distinctive spondylar and metaphyseal dysplasias, and extraskeletal morbidity, such as neurological involvement and immune dysregulation, respectively. We report an affected boy with novel ACP5 mutations, a splice-site mutation (736-2 A>C) and a nonsense mutation (R176X)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738073/the-n-terminal-region-of-serum-amyloid-a3-protein-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-up-regulates-muc2-mucin-mrna-expression-in-mouse-colonic-epithelial-cells
#15
Manami Tashiro, Ami Iwata, Marika Yamauchi, Kaori Shimizu, Ayaka Okada, Naotaka Ishiguro, Yasuo Inoshima
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the major acute-phase protein and a precursor of amyloid A (AA) in AA amyloidosis in humans and animals. SAA isoforms have been identified in a wide variety of animals, such as SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4 in mouse. Although the biological functions of SAA isoforms are not completely understood, recent studies have suggested that SAA3 plays a role in host defense. Expression of SAA3 is increased on the mouse colon surface in the presence of microbiota in vivo, and it increases mRNA expression of mucin 2 (MUC2) in murine colonic epithelial cells in vitro, which constitutes a protective mucus barrier in the intestinal tract...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710988/intestinal-fatty-acid-binding-protein-level-as-a-predictor-of-28-day-mortality-and-bowel-ischemia-in-patients-with-septic-shock-a-preliminary-study
#16
Motohiro Sekino, Hiroyuki Funaoka, Shuntaro Sato, Kyoko Okada, Haruka Inoue, Rintaro Yano, Sojiro Matsumoto, Taiga Ichinomiya, Ushio Higashijima, Shuhei Matsumoto, Tetsuya Hara
PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the levels of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), a biomarker of enterocyte injury, as a predictor of 28-day mortality and bowel ischemia in septic shock patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this preliminary prospective observational study, 57 adult septic shock patients under mechanical ventilation were enrolled. Serum I-FABP levels and prognostic biomarkers were recorded upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: The overall 28-day mortality rate of participants was 23% (13/57)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672931/resveratrol-enhances-vascular-reactivity-in-mice-following-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-via-the-rhoa-rock-mlcp-pathway
#17
Xu-Qing Wang, Yu-Ping Zhang, Li-Min Zhang, Niu-Niu Feng, Ming-Zhu Zhang, Zi-Gang Zhao, Chun-Yu Niu
The aim of the present study was to identify whether sepsis-induced vascular hyporeactivity is associated with microcirculation disturbance and multiple organ injuries. The current study assessed the impact of resveratrol (Res) treatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge mediated vascular hyporeactivity. Effects of Res treatment (30 mg/kg; i.m.) at 1 h following LPS stimulation (5 mg/kg; i.v.) on the survival time, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and maximal difference of MAP (ΔMAP) to norepinephrine (NE; 4...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672788/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-decrease-the-protein-expression-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-via-oxidative-stress-induced-p38-kinase-in-rat-endothelial-cells
#18
Takashi Okada, Katsutaro Morino, Fumiyuki Nakagawa, Masashi Tawa, Keiko Kondo, Osamu Sekine, Takeshi Imamura, Tomio Okamura, Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve endothelial function. The arachidonic acid-derived metabolites (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)) are part of the endothelial hyperpolarization factor and are vasodilators independent of nitric oxide. However, little is known regarding the regulation of EET concentration by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in blood vessels. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control or fish oil diet for 3 weeks. Compared with the control, the fish oil diet improved acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and reduced the protein expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key EET metabolic enzyme, in aortic strips...
June 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671289/mechanistic-characterization-of-two-chimeric-sesterterpene-synthases-from-penicillium
#19
Takaaki Mitsuhashi, Jan Rinkel, Masahiro Okada, Ikuro Abe, Jeroen S Dickschat
The products of two bifunctional fungal sesterterpene synthases (StTPS), with prenyl transferase (PT) and terpene synthase (TPS) domains from Penicillium, were structurally characterized and their mechanisms studied in detail by labeling experiments. A phylogenetic analysis of the TPS domains of the new and previously characterized enzymes revealed six distinct clades. Enzymes from the same clade catalyze a common initial cyclization step, which suggests the potential for structural predictions from amino acid sequences...
July 3, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662503/the-effects-of-switching-to-vonoprazan-a-novel-potassium-competitive-acid-blocker-on-gastric-acidity-and-reflux-patterns-in-patients-with-erosive-esophagitis-refractory-to-proton-pump-inhibitors
#20
Hiroshi Yamashita, Atsushi Kanamori, Chise Kano, Hiroki Hashimura, Kei Matsumoto, Masahiro Tsujimae, Tetsuya Yoshizaki, Kenji Momose, Daisuke Obata, Takaaki Eguchi, Mikio Fujita, Akihiko Okada
BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of vonoprazan and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with reflux esophagitis (RE) have not yet been compared using multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH). METHODS: A total of 8 patients with persistent gastric mucosal injury, despite completing an 8-week standard PPI therapy, were enrolled in the study. While they were on standard PPI therapy, the baseline values of reflux parameters, holding time ratio (HTR) of gastric pH >4, and esophageal pH <4 were obtained by using 24 h MII-pH monitoring...
2017: Digestion
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