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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194371/non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-in-south-african-wildlife-neglected-pathogens-and-potential-impediments-for-bovine-tuberculosis-diagnosis
#1
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Tiny M Hlokwe
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are not only emerging and opportunistic pathogens of both humans and animals, but from a veterinary point of view some species induce cross-reactive immune responses that hamper the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in both livestock and wildlife. Little information is available about NTM species circulating in wildlife species of South Africa. In this study, we determined the diversity of NTM isolated from wildlife species from South Africa as well as Botswana. Thirty known NTM species and subspecies, as well as unidentified NTM, and NTM closely related to Mycobacterium goodii/Mycobacterium smegmatis were identified from 102 isolates cultured between the years 1998 and 2010, using a combination of molecular assays viz PCR and sequencing of different Mycobacterial house-keeping genes as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185619/diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#2
Alfred A Lardizabal, Lee B Reichman
For 2015, tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the United States has plateaued at 3.0 per 100,000. This remains the lowest case rate since recording started. On the global level, although the TB epidemic is larger than previously estimated, TB deaths and incidence rate continue to fall. For both low and high incidence countries, accelerating the decline in TB incidence towards elimination goals requires that more emphasis be placed on strengthening systems for detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) in addition to improving TB care globally...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176607/factors-affecting-the-gamma-interferon-test-in-the-detection-of-bovine-tuberculosis-in-cattle
#3
Geoffrey W de Lisle, Richard S Green, Bryce M Buddle
The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) test has been used for many years as an ancillary test in the detection of bovine tuberculosis. We investigated the effect of skin testing and the length of time between blood collection and processing on the performance of the IFN-γ test. A series of blood samples were taken from groups of experimentally infected cattle ( n = 10), naturally infected ( n = 11), and uninfected animals ( n = 12) that were examined with a caudal fold skin test. Blood was taken on the day of tuberculin injection, 3 d later when the skin tests were read, and 11-19 d post-tuberculin injection, and was processed for the IFN-γ test at 8, 30, and 36 h postcollection...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28172646/dop063-serial-tuberculin-skin-test-improves-the-detection-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#4
C Taxonera, A Ponferrada, F Bermejo, J P Gisbert, S Riestra, C Saro, J L Cabriada, M Barreiro-de Acosta, J Barrio, E Flores, I Ferrer, A Hernandez, M Van Domselaar, D Olivares, C Alba, L Fernández-Salazar, O Merino, B Botella, D Ceballos, I Moral, M Peñate, A Algaba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170135/diagnostic-potential-of-interferon-gamma-release-assay-to-detect-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#5
Jameela Edathodu, Bright Varghese, Abdulrahman A Alrajhi, Mohammed Shoukri, Ahmad Nazmi, Hazem Elgamal, Hassan Aleid, Fahad Alrabiah, Aattia Ashraff, Ihab Mahmoud, Sahal Al-Hajoj
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is screened by using clinical assessment, tuberculin skin test (TST), chest radiography and recently by interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of QuantiFERON(®) -TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT) for diagnosing LTBI in patients planned for kidney transplantation. METHODS: All adult patients with end-stage renal disease, evaluated for kidney transplantation in a referral center from August 2008 till May 2013, were enrolled, after consenting in a prospective, observational, non-interventional study...
February 7, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168855/vaccination-of-calves-with-mycobacterium-bovis-bacillus-calmette-guerin-reduces-the-frequency-and-severity-of-lesions-of-bovine-tuberculosis-under-a-natural-transmission-setting-in-ethiopia
#6
G Ameni, K Tafess, A Zewde, T Eguale, M Tilahun, T Hailu, A Sirak, F J Salguero, S Berg, A Aseffa, R G Hewinson, H M Vordermeier
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is highly prevalent in intensive dairy farms of the urban "milk-sheds" in Ethiopia, and vaccination could be a cost-effective disease control strategy. In the present study, the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to protect against bTB was assessed in Holstein-Friesian calves in a natural transmission setting. Twenty-three 2-week-old calves were subcutaneously vaccinated with BCG Danish SSI strain 1331, and matched 26 calves were injected with placebo. Six weeks later, calves were introduced into a herd of M...
February 6, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159608/safety-and-efficacy-of-the-c-tb-skin-test-to-diagnose-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-compared-with-an-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-and-the-tuberculin-skin-test-a-phase-3-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Morten Ruhwald, Henrik Aggerbeck, Rafael Vázquez Gallardo, Søren T Hoff, José I Villate, Bettine Borregaard, José A Martinez, Ingrid Kromann, Antón Penas, Luis L Anibarro, Maria Luiza de Souza-Galvão, Francisca Sánchez, Jose Ángel Rodrigo-Pendás, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Xavier Martínez-Lacasa, Maria Victoria Tuñez, Virginia Leiro Fernández, Joan P Millet, Antonio Moreno, Nazaret Cobos, José M Miró, Llanos Roldan, Angels Orcau, Peter Andersen, Joan A Caylá
BACKGROUND: Targeted screening and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection substantially reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis. C-Tb (Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark) is a novel specific skin test based on ESAT-6 and CFP10 antigens. We investigated the safety and diagnostic potential of C-Tb compared with established tests in the contact-tracing setting. METHODS: Negative controls, close contacts, occasional contacts, and patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled at 13 centres in Spain...
January 31, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157464/identifying-children-with-tuberculosis-among-household-contacts-in-the-gambia
#8
U Egere, T Togun, A Sillah, F Mendy, J Otu, M Hoelscher, N Heinrich, P C Hill, B Kampmann
SETTING: Greater Banjul Area of the Gambia. OBJECTIVES: To identify co-prevalent tuberculosis (TB) among child contacts of adults with smear-positive TB. DESIGN: Child contacts aged <15 years in the immediate household and compound were prospectively enrolled and evaluated for TB disease using screening questionnaires and the tuberculin skin test (TST). Symptomatic and/or TST-positive (10 mm) contacts were further investigated. RESULTS: Of 4042 child contacts who underwent symptom screening and TST, 3339 (82...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155806/human-immunology-of-tuberculosis
#9
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection. In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogeneous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152056/transmission-dynamics-and-elimination-potential-of-zoonotic-tuberculosis-in-morocco
#10
Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Hind Yahyaoui Azami, Philipp Justus Bless, Lisa Crump, Petra Lohmann, Mirjam Laager, Nakul Chitnis, Jakob Zinsstag
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is an endemic zoonosis in Morocco caused by Mycobacterium bovis, which infects many domestic animals and is transmitted to humans through consumption of raw milk or from contact with infected animals. The prevalence of BTB in Moroccan cattle is estimated at 18%, and 33% at the individual and the herd level respectively, but the human M. bovis burden needs further clarification. The current control strategy based on test and slaughter should be improved through local context adaptation taking into account a suitable compensation in order to reduce BTB prevalence in Morocco and decrease the disease burden in humans and animals...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151863/miliary-tuberculosis-epidemiologicaland-clinical-analysis-of-large-case-series-from-moderate-to-low-tuberculosis-endemic-country
#11
Ali Mert, Ferhat Arslan, Tülin Kuyucu, Emine Nur Koç, Mesut Ylmaz, Demet Turan, Sedat Altn, Filiz Pehlivanoglu, Gonul Sengoz, Dilek Yldz, Ilyas Dokmetas, Suheyla Komur, Behice Kurtaran, Tuna Demirdal, Hüseyin A Erdem, Oguz Resat Sipahi, Ayse Batirel, Emine Parlak, Recep Tekin, Özlem Güzel Tunçcan, Ilker Inanc Balkan, Osman Hayran, Bahadr Ceylan
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features, and outcome of the patients with miliary tuberculosis (TB).We retrospectively evaluated 263 patients (142 male, 121 female, mean age: 44 years, range: 16-89 years) with miliary TB. Criteria for the diagnosis of miliary TB were at least one of the followings in the presence of clinical presentation suggestive of miliary TB such as prolonged fever, night sweats, anorexia, weight loss: radiologic criterion and pathological criterion and/or microbiological criterion; pathological criterion and/or microbiological criterion...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151842/xpert-mtb-rif-on-stool-is-useful-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-young-children-with-severe-pulmonary-disease
#12
Elisabetta Walters, Marieke Magrieta van der Zalm, Megan Palmer, Corné Bosch, Anne-Marie Demers, Heather Draper, Pierre Goussard, Hendrik Simon Schaaf, Sven Olaf Friedrich, Andrew Whitelaw, Robin Warren, Robert P Gie, Anneke C Hesseling
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to result in high morbidity and mortality in children from resource-limited settings. Diagnostic challenges, including resource-intense sputum collection methods and insensitive diagnostic tests, contribute to diagnostic delay and poor outcomes in children. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of stool Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) compared with bacteriologic confirmation (combination of Xpert and culture of respiratory samples). METHODS: In a hospital-based study in Cape Town, South Africa, we enrolled children younger than 13 years of age with suspected pulmonary TB from April 2012- August 2015...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141782/effect-of-pregnancy-on-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test-detection-of-latent-tb-infection-among-hiv-infected-women-in-a-high-burden-setting
#13
Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Daniel Matemo, John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, David J Horne, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent TB infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. METHODS: HIV-infected women were serially-tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON® TB Gold In-tube [QFT]) in pregnancy and weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and M. tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126971/comparison-of-a-commercial-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test-for-the-detection-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-hong-kong-arthritis-patients-who-are-candidates-for-biologic-agents
#14
H So, C Sw Yuen, R Ml Yip
INTRODUCTION: It is universally agreed that screening for latent tuberculosis infection prior to biologic therapy is necessary, especially in endemic areas such as Hong Kong. There are still, however, controversies regarding how best to accomplish this task. The tuberculin skin test has been the routine screening tool for latent tuberculosis infection in Hong Kong for the past decade although accuracy is far from perfect, especially in patients who have been vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, who are immunocompromised, or who have atypical mycobacterium infection...
January 27, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123958/isoniazid-preventive-treatment-among-child-contacts-of-adults-with-smear-positive-tuberculosis-in-the-gambia
#15
U Egere, A Sillah, T Togun, S Kandeh, F Cole, A Jallow, A Able-Thomas, M Hoelscher, N Heinrich, P C Hill, B Kampmann
Setting: Greater Banjul area of The Gambia. Objectives: To evaluate uptake, adherence and completion of treatment among tuberculosis (TB) exposed children in The Gambia when isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) is delivered at home Design: Child (age <5 years) contacts of adults with smear-positive TB were prospectively enrolled. Following symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing and clinical evaluation where indicated, those without disease were placed on daily isoniazid, provided monthly at home. Adherence was assessed by pill counts and IsoScreen(™) urine test...
December 21, 2016: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121214/evaluation-of-the-performance-of-tuberculin-skin-test-and-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#16
Panagiotis T Diamantopoulos, Gerasimos D Tsilimidos, Konstantinos Zervakis, Katerina Polonyfi, Maria Sofotasiou, Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis, Athanasios Aessopos, Georgios Kyriakakis, Nora A Viniou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119743/preventing-the-transmission-of-tuberculosis-in-health-care-settings-administrative-control
#17
REVIEW
Kyung-Wook Jo
It is well established that health care workers (HCWs) have a considerably higher risk of occupationally acquired tuberculosis (TB). To reduce the transmission of TB to HCWs and patients, TB infection control programs should be implemented in health care settings. The first and most important level of all protection and control programs is administrative control. Its goals are to prevent HCWs, other staff, and patients from being exposed to TB, and to reduce the transmission of infection by ensuring rapid diagnosis and treatment of affected individuals...
January 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114976/close-contact-interferon-gamma-response-to-the-new-psts1-285-374-cpf10-a-preliminary-1-year-follow-up-study
#18
Leonardo Silva de Araujo, Nidai de Bárbara Moreira da Silva Lins, Janaina Aparecida Medeiros Leung, Fernanda Carvalho Queiroz Mello, Maria Helena Féres Saad
BACKGROUND: The available diagnostic tools for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) via interferon-gamma (IFN-g) release assays (IGRA) are based on ESAT6:CFP10 stimulation. However, the mycobacterial antigen PstS1 is also highly immunogenic and some of its fragments, such as PstS1(285-374), have shown higher immunoreactivity in LTBI than in active TB. PstS1(285-374), therefore, could increase the accuracy of the existing IGRA to detect LTBI. Thus, a new chimeric protein has recently been developed (PstS1(285-374):CFP10) showing potential for LTBI screening of recent close contacts (rCt) exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
January 23, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111432/comparing-tuberculin-skin-test-and-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-t-spot-tb-to-diagnose-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-household-contacts
#19
Hyun Woo Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Se Joong Kim, Jong Sun Park, Young-Jae Cho, Ho Il Yoon, Choon-Taek Lee, Jae-Ho Lee
Background/Aims: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon γ release assay are currently used as diagnostic tools to detect latent tuberculosis (TB) infection; however, there are inconsistencies about the degree of agreement between the tests. We aimed to evaluate the concordance rate between the two tests in household contacts of a country with intermediate TB burden, where most people were vaccinated. Methods: We recruited household contacts who spent > 8 hours daily with patients with microbiologically confirmed active pulmonary TB, and received both TST and T-SPOT...
January 24, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108140/steroid-treatment-in-ocular-tuberculosis-a-double-edged-sword
#20
S Souissi, T David, L Beral
INTRODUCTION: We report the case of a Caribbean patient with an atypical presentation of bilateral tuberculous chorioretinopathy. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 57-year-old woman, with hypertension and non-insulin dependent diabetes, was referred to our center for a sudden loss of vision in the right eye to hand motions. Ophthalmic examination revealed only right papilledema. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal. Laboratory examination revealed no signs of inflammation...
January 17, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
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