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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898965/late-boosting-phenomenon-in-tst-conversion-among-health-care-workers
#1
W H Farah, L E Breeher, R D Newcomb, M H Murad, A I S Vaughn, P T Hagen, R G Molella
Background: Available information is insufficient to guide determination of whether tuberculin skin test (TST) conversions of health care workers (HCWs) within 2 years of two-step testing are related to occupational exposures or to other causes, including late boosting. Aims: To describe the epidemiologic factors of TST conversion in HCWs, comparing early TST conversion (≤2 years after two-step testing) with late conversion to possibly distinguish late boosting phenomenon from occupational TST conversion...
August 1, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888636/efficacy-of-oral-bcg-vaccination-in-protecting-free-ranging-cattle-from-natural-infection-by-mycobacterium-bovis
#2
Graham Nugent, Ivor J Yockney, Jackie Whitford, Frank E Aldwell, Bryce M Buddle
Vaccination of cattle against bovine tuberculosis could be a valuable control strategy, particularly in countries faced with intractable ongoing infection from a disease reservoir in wildlife. A field vaccination trial was undertaken in New Zealand. The trial included 1286 effectively free-ranging cattle stocked at low densities in a remote 7600ha area, with 55% of them vaccinated using Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Danish strain 1311). Vaccine was administered orally in all but 34 cases (where it was injected)...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875155/risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-for-health-care-workers-an-updated-meta-analysis
#3
Lydia Uden, Ella Barber, Nathan Ford, Graham S Cooke
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge to global health. Healthcare workers (HCWs) appear to be at increased risk of TB compared with the general population, despite efforts to scale up infection control and reduce nosocomial TB transmission. This review aims to provide an updated estimate of the occupational risk of latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB among HCWs compared with the general population. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify studies published over the last 10 years reporting TB prevalence or incidence among HCWs and a control group...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858089/adherence-tolerability-and-outcome-after-36-months-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-2-rural-clinics-of-swaziland-a-prospective-observational-feasibility-study
#4
MULTICENTER STUDY
Yolanda Mueller, Qhubekani Mpala, Bernhard Kerschberger, Barbara Rusch, Gugu Mchunu, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Maryline Bonnet
Although efficacy of 36 months isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among HIV-positive individuals has been proven in trial settings, outcome, tolerance, and adherence have rarely been evaluated in real-life settings.This is a prospective observational cohort study conducted in 2 primary care rural clinics in Swaziland.After negative tuberculosis symptom screening, patients either with the positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or after tuberculosis treatment were initiated on IPT for 144 weeks. In addition to routine clinic visits, adherence was assessed every semester...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854216/quantiferon%C3%A2-tb-gold-in-tube-for-contact-screening-in-bcg-vaccinated-adults-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#5
Laura Muñoz, Lucia Gonzalez, Laura Soldevila, Jordi Dorca, Fernando Alcaide, Miguel Santin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) for targeting preventive therapy in BCG-vaccinated contacts of tuberculosis (TB), based on its high specificity and negative predictive value for development of TB. METHODS: We compared two screening strategies for TB contact tracing in two consecutive periods: the tuberculin skin test (TST) period, when all contacts were screened with the TST alone; and the QFT-GIT period, when BCG-vaccinated contacts underwent TST and QFT-GIT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851285/the-impact-of-drug-resistance-on-the-risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-in-child-household-contacts-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Vera Golla, Kathryn Snow, Anna M Mandalakas, Simon H Schaaf, Karen Du Preez, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon
BACKGROUND: The relative fitness of organisms causing drug-susceptible (DS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. We compared the risk of TB infection and TB disease in young child household contacts of adults with confirmed DS-TB and MDR-TB. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis we included data from two community-based contact cohort investigation studies conducted in parallel in Cape Town, South Africa. Children <5 years of age with household exposure to an infectious TB case were included between August 2008 to June 2011...
August 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840092/smear-grading-and-the-mantoux-skin-test-can-be-used-to-predict-sputum-smear-conversion-in-patients-suffering-from-tuberculosis
#7
Mahmood Saffari, Hadis Alizadeh Jolandimi, Mojtaba Sehat, Nastarn Vali Nejad, Mehrdad Hedayati, Mahbobeh Zamani, Amir Ghasemi
Purpose: Smear scores and induration sizes resulting from the PPD (tuberculin purified protein derivative) test can serve as indicators of whether a patient suffering from tuberculosis shows smear conversion or not. Methods: Using microbiological methods smear and sputum tests, patients diagnosed as infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. All of the assumed factors that may have a role in smear conversion were studied, in addition to the prolongation of tuberculosis...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836068/rates-and-predictors-of-vaccinations-among-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-receiving-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-agents
#8
Hung-Viet Pham, Imran Hasan, Natalia Udaltsova, Kathy Pham, Oren Abramson, Mary Anne Armstrong, Debbie Postlethwaite, Dan Li
BACKGROUND: As an important quality measure, the rates of recommended immunizations among immunocompromised inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients in community practice have not been well studied. AIMS: This study sought to investigate the rates and predictors of recommended immunizations and screening tests among IBD patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in a large integrated healthcare organization. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1401 IBD patients on anti-TNF therapy between 2010 and 2013 within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California healthcare system...
August 23, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830585/mycobacterium-kansasii-isolated-from-tuberculinpositive-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-in-the-absence-of-disease
#9
Steven T Shipley, David K Johnson, Morteza Roodgar, David Glenn Smith, Charles A Montgomery, Steven M Lloyd, James A Higgins, Edwin H Kriel, Hilton J Klein, William P Porter, Jerome B Nazareno, Paul W Houghton, Aruna Panda, Louis J DeTolla
Mycobacterial infections are of primary health concern in NHP colonies in biomedical research. NHP are constantly monitored and screened for Mycobacterium spp. We report 6 Chinese-origin rhesus macaques infected with Mycobacterium kansasii that exhibited positive tuberculin skin tests in the absence of disease. Two of these macaques were being used for research purposes; the remaining 4 macaques were residing at the contract quarantine company. Histopathology and acid-fast staining of fixed tissues from all macaques showed that all were free of disease...
August 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827142/a-score-to-predict-and-stratify-risk-of-tuberculosis-in-adult-contacts-of-tuberculosis-index-cases-a-prospective-derivation-and-external-validation-cohort-study
#10
Matthew J Saunders, Tom Wingfield, Marco A Tovar, Matthew R Baldwin, Sumona Datta, Karine Zevallos, Rosario Montoya, Teresa R Valencia, Jon S Friedland, Larry H Moulton, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
BACKGROUND: Contacts of tuberculosis index cases are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Screening, preventive therapy, and surveillance for tuberculosis are underused interventions in contacts, particularly adults. We developed a score to predict risk of tuberculosis in adult contacts of tuberculosis index cases. METHODS: In 2002-06, we recruited contacts aged 15 years or older of index cases with pulmonary tuberculosis who lived in desert shanty towns in Ventanilla, Peru...
August 18, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821234/incident-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-household-contacts-of-infectious-tuberculosis-patients-in-brazil
#11
Edward C Jones-López, Carlos Acuña-Villaorduña, Geisa Fregona, Patricia Marques-Rodrigues, Laura F White, David Jamil Hadad, Lucilia Pereira Dutra-Molina, Solange Vinhas, Avery I McIntosh, Mary Gaeddert, Rodrigo Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Padmini Salgame, Moises Palaci, David Alland, Jerrold J Ellner, Reynaldo Dietze
BACKGROUND: In household contact investigations of tuberculosis (TB), a second tuberculin skin test (TST) obtained several weeks after a first negative result consistently identifies individuals that undergo TST conversion. It remains unclear whether this delay in M. tuberculosis infection is related to differences in the infectious exposure, TST boosting, partial host resistance, or some other factor. METHODS: We conducted a household contact study Vitória, Brazil...
August 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820170/paradoxical-worsening-of-a-case-of-tb-subretinal-abscess-with-serpiginous-like-choroiditis-following-the-initiation-of-antitubercular-therapy
#12
Sudha K Ganesh, B Sowkath Ali
A 37-year-old immunocompetent male patient presented with the blurring of vision, both eyes for the past1 year. Fundus examination revealed bilateral multiple subretinal abscesses with areas of healed serpiginous-like choroiditis. Laboratory investigations showed positive tuberculin skin test, positive QuantiFERON TB-Gold Test, and high resolution computed tomography chest showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. The aqueous sample revealed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (MPB64 genome)...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802407/immunological-characterization-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-low-endemic-country
#13
Roelof A de Paus, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Corine Prins, Margreet H Kamphorst, Sandra M Arend, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Simone A Joosten
The diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is based on detection of immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The tuberculin skin test (TST), the Quantiferon (QFT) and a prolonged lymphocyte stimulation test using either ESAT-6/CFP-10 (LST-EC) or PPD (LST-PPD) were evaluated in a cohort of 495 individuals, suspected to have LTBI, in a low endemic country. While the TST and LST-PPD were both positive in the majority (75%) of individuals, only one third responded in the LST-EC and in the QFT...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797384/long-term-effect-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-in-tuberculin-skin-testing-a-new-reality-for-tb-prevention
#14
EDITORIAL
Roland Diel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776523/screening-of-health-care-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#15
Anand Bimari Janagond, Vithiya Ganesan, G S Vijay Kumar, Arunagiri Ramesh, Prem Anand, M Mariappan
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. While national-level data on the burden of TB in general population is available from reliable sources, nationally representative data on latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden in HCWs in the high burden countries is lacking. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to assess the risk of TB infection among HCWs who directly engage in medical duties...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771459/solid-organ-transplant-transmitted-tuberculosis-linked-to-a-community-outbreak-california-2015
#16
Alexander Kay, Pennan M Barry, Pallavi Annambhotla, Carol Greene, Martin Cilnis, Peter Chin-Hong, Nicholas Arger, Louise McNitt, Nikole Neidlinger, Neha Shah, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Matthew Kuehnert, Tambi Shaw
In the spring of 2015, a local health department (LHD) in county A notified the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) about three adults with close ties to one another and a congregate community site who had received diagnoses of tuberculosis (TB) disease within a 3-month period. Subsequent review revealed matching TB genotypes indicating that the cases were likely part of a chain of TB transmission. Only three TB cases in California in the preceding 2 years shared this same genotype. One of those three previous cases occurred in a lung-transplant recipient who had no identified epidemiologic links to the outbreak...
August 4, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764156/improved-serodiagnostic-sensitivity-of-strip-test-for-latent-tuberculosis
#17
Songsri Kasempimolporn, Wichit Thaveekarn, Kanyanat Promrungreang, Orawan Khow, Supatsorn Boonchang, Visith Sitprija
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) is difficult due to no clinical manifestations. Cases of LTBI are mostly sputum negative. The World Health Organization recommends the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) as the current diagnostic standard for LTBI. Our previously developed serologic strip test for LTBI detection had suboptimal sensitivity. Additional Mycobacteriumtuberculosis (MTB) latency-associated antigens may improve the detection rate of LTBI. AIM: The present study aimed to optimize sensitivity of existing strip test...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757299/the-incidence-of-subclinical-forms-of-urogenital-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#18
Roman Zachoval, Petr Nencka, Martina Vasakova, Emilie Kopecka, Vladimir Borovička, Jiri Wallenfels, Pavel Cermak
The aim of our study was to determine whether patients with pulmonary tuberculosis may have subclinical forms of urogenital tuberculosis. Between 2011 and 2012, a prospective study was conducted. Basic demographic parameters were recorded and the following investigations were performed: direct bacilloscopy of sputum, evaluation of affected lung fields and presence of cavities on chest X-ray, Mantoux tuberculin skin test II, and interferon gamma release assay. Culture and molecular methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine were performed...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756786/negative-latent-tuberculosis-at-time-of-incarceration-identifying-a-very-high-risk-group-for-infection
#19
L Arroyave, Y Keynan, L López, D Marin, M P Arbeláez, Z V Rueda
The main aim was to measure the incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and identify risk factors associated with infection. In addition, we determined the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify LTBI and active tuberculosis. We followed 129 prisoners for 2 years following a negative two-step tuberculin skin test (TST). The cumulative incidence of TST conversion over 2 years was 29·5% (38/129), among the new TST converters, nine developed active TB. Among persons with no evidence of LTBI, the NNS to identify a LTBI case was 3·4 and an active TB case was 14·3...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751410/evaluating-17%C3%A2-years-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-screening-in-north-west-england-a-retrospective-cohort-study%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-reactivation
#20
Dominik Zenner, Miranda G Loutet, Ross Harris, Stephen Wilson, L Peter Ormerod
Approximately 72% of tuberculosis (TB) cases in England occur among non-UK born individuals, mostly as a result of reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI). Programmatic LTBI screening is a key intervention of the TB strategy for England. This article reviews the results of a long-standing LTBI screening initiative in England.A retrospective cohort was created through probabilistic linkage between LTBI screening data and national TB case notifications. Screened persons were followed until they died, became a case, emigrated or until cohort-end...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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