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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340489/tuberculosis-infection-among-primary-health-care-workers
#1
Thamy Carvalho Lacerda, Fernanda Mattos de Souza, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Rodrigo Leite Locatelli, Geisa Fregona, Rita de Cássia Duarte Lima, Ethel Leonor Maciel
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and determine the risk factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among primary health care workers in the city of Vitória, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with data collected through a survey regarding socio-demographic, occupational, clinical, and exposure characteristics, as well as knowledge about tuberculosis, conducted between 2011 and 2012. All participants underwent a tuberculin skin test (TST), and TSTs were read at 72 h by a trained professional...
November 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321075/a-phase-i-open-label-trial-on-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-adjuvanted-tuberculosis-subunit-vaccine-h1-ic31%C3%A2-in-people-living-in-a-tb-endemic-area
#2
Jemal Hussein, Martha Zewdie, Lawrence Yamuah, Ahmed Bedru, Markos Abebe, Alemnew F Dagnew, Menberework Chanyalew, Asfawesen G Yohannes, Jemal Ahmed, Howard Engers, T Mark Doherty, Peter Bang, Ingrid Kromann, Søren T Hoff, Abraham Aseffa
BACKGROUND: H1/IC31® is a tuberculosis (TB) subunit vaccine candidate consisting of the fusion protein of Ag85B and ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the IC31® adjuvant. Previous trials have reported on the H1/IC31® vaccine in M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-naïve, BCG-vaccinated and previously Mtb-infected individuals. In this trial, conducted between December 2008 and April 2010, the safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31® was assessed in participants living in Ethiopia - a highly TB-endemic area...
January 10, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313483/low-prevalence-of-tuberculin-skin-test-boosting-among-community-residents-in-uganda
#3
Juliet N Sekandi, Sarah Zalwango, Allan K Nkwata, Leonardo Martinez, Robert Kakaire, Jane N Mutanga, Christopher C Whalen, Noah Kiwanuka
Boosted tuberculin skin test (TST) reactions can be misclassified as new latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the prevalence of TST boosting in a population-based sample in high TB burden settings. We determined the prevalence of TST boosting among urban residents in Uganda. We evaluated 99 participants with initial TST < 5 mm and repeated a skin test after 2 weeks. We found that only 2% had boosted TST reactions suggesting that most TST conversions could represent new TB infections in this high-burden setting...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304247/resistance-and-susceptibility-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease-in-tuberculosis-households-in-kampala-uganda
#4
Catherine M Stein, Sarah Zalwango, LaShaunda L Malone, Bonnie Thiel, Ezekiel Mupere, Mary Nsereko, Brenda Okware, Hussein Kisingo, Christina L Lancioni, Charles M Bark, Christopher C Whalen, Moses L Joloba, W Henry Boom, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major public health problem. Household contact studies identify children and adults along the spectrum from Mtb exposure to disease. In the Kawempe Community Health Study, conducted in Kampala, Uganda, 872 culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases and their 2,585 contacts were enrolled between 2002-2012 and followed for up to 2 years each. Risk factors identified by time-to-event analysis for secondary TB differed among children, women and men...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295754/diagnosis-and-therapeutic-approach-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#5
José Domínguez, Irene Latorre, Miguel Santin
Detection and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an essential measure for tuberculosis (TB) control in low-incidence countries. However, such strategy is limited by the low predictive ability of the diagnostic tests for the development of active TB among infected people and the long-term and toxic treatment regimens. The in vitro interferon-gamma release assays are more specific and sensitive than the tuberculin skin test (TST), and enable a better selection of cases requiring treatment. Nonetheless, their capacity to predict development of TB is still poor...
December 30, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281719/cd14-159c-t-polymorphism-in-the-development-of-delayed-skin-hypersensitivity-to-tuberculin
#6
Magdalena Druszczynska, Marcin Wlodarczyk, Grzegorz Kielnierowski, Michal Seweryn, Sebastian Wawrocki, Wieslawa Rudnicka
The skin tuberculin test (TST), an example of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, is based on measuring the extent of skin induration to mycobacterial tuberculin (PPD). Little is known about the genetic basis of TST reactivity, widely used for diagnosing TB infection. The study investigated the relationship of the single base change polymorphic variants in CD14 gene (CD14(-159C/T)) with the development of DTH to PPD in BCG-vaccinated Polish Caucasian individuals. We found persistent lack of TST reactivity in about 40% of healthy subjects despite receiving more than one dose of BCG...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277097/systemic-review-agreement-between-the-latent-tuberculosis-screening-tests-among-patients-with-rheumatic-diseases
#7
Junhee Pyo, Soo-Kyung Cho, Dam Kim, Yoon-Kyoung Sung
Background/Aims: To estimate the level of agreement and positivity rates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) tests prior to the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in relation to underlying rheumatic diseases and endemic tuberculosis levels. Methods: The Ovid-Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Libraries were searched for articles before October 2013 involving LTBI screening in rheumatic patients, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and psoriatic arthritis...
December 28, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226217/lipid-profile-in-tuberculosis-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#8
Gebremedhin Gebremicael, Yemane Amare, Feyissa Challa, Atsbeha Gebreegziabxier, Girmay Medhin, Mistire Wolde, Desta Kassa
Background: Understanding whether the preceding low lipid profile leads to active tuberculosis (TB) or active TB leads to low lipid profile is crucial. Methods: Lipid profile concentrations were determined from 159 study participants composed of 93 active TB patients [44 HIV coinfected (HIV+TB+) and 49 HIV negative (HIV-TB+)], 41 tuberculin skin test (TST) positive cases [17 HIV coinfected (HIV+TST+) and 24 HIV negative (HIV-TST+)], and 25 healthy controls (HIV-TST-)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223317/sequential-strategy-for-the-ltbi-screening-of-newly-arrived-immigrants-in-vulnerable-social-situations
#9
Núria Serre-Delcor, Begoña Treviño-Maruri, M Teresa Tórtola, Manuel Fernández-Quevedo, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Inés Oliveira-Souto, Mateu Espasa, Israel Molina, Carlos Ascaso
INTRODUCTION: Some studies indicate high prevalences of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the immigrant population, which is relevant because 5-10% of cases will develop active tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to describe the results of a sequential strategy in the newly-arrived immigrant population for the diagnosis of LTBI using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and IGRAs. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study was carried out with immigrants between 6 and 35years of age from shelters, referred to an international health unit between July 2013 and June 2016...
December 6, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218257/pulmonary-tuberculosis-versus-recurrent-chemotherapy-induced-pneumonitis-a-clinical-dilemma
#10
Gulrayz Ahmed, Muhammad W Saif
Chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity can affect pulmonary parenchyma, pleura, airways, pulmonary vascular system, mediastinum or the neuromuscular system that is responsible for respiration. Chemotherapy-induced pulmonary toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. When the patients with malignancies develop pulmonary toxicity such as pneumonitis and distinguishing it from alternative diseases such as infectious, thrombotic, cardiac, malignant or exacerbation of chronic lung conditions can be difficult. Moreover, such patients are often immunosuppressed, physically stressed from the underlying disease and the cancer treatment and hence, more susceptible to usual and unusual or opportunistic infections...
October 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216277/immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-differently-affect-igras-accuracy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-diagnosis-in-clinical-practice
#11
Irene Latorre, Sonia Mínguez, José-Manuel Carrascosa, Juan Naves, Raquel Villar-Hernández, Beatriz Muriel, Cristina Prat, Esther García-García, Irma Casas, Eugeni Domènech, Carlos Ferrándiz, Lourdes Mateo, Jose Domínguez
BACKGROUND: Clinical accuracy of IGRAs remains unclear on patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Here, we assess the impact of immunosuppressants and IMIDs on QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFN-G-IT) and T-SPOT.TB accuracy. METHODS: Patients with IMIDs who required latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening were enrolled and classified into: (i) 50 patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, (ii) 50 patients with psoriasis and (iii) 30 patients with Crohn's disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210348/mediating-effect-of-repeated-tuberculosis-exposure-on-the-risk-of-transmission-to-household-contacts-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients
#12
Peng Lu, Xiaoyan Ding, Qiao Liu, Wei Lu, Leonardo Martinez, Jiansheng Sun, Feng Lu, Chongqiao Zhong, Hui Jiang, Changdong Miao, Limei Zhu, Haitao Yang
Primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission is an important driver of the global epidemic of resistance to tuberculosis drugs. A few studies have compared tuberculosis infection in contacts of index cases with different drug-resistant profiles, suggesting that contacts of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis cases are at higher risk. Repeated tuberculosis exposure in contacts of MDR tuberculosis patients through recurrent tuberculosis may modify this relationship. We compared tuberculosis infection in household contacts of MDR and drug-susceptible (DS) tuberculosis patients from six cities in southeastern China and investigated whether repeated tuberculosis exposure was a mediating factor...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196694/latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-patients-with-erectile-dysfunction
#13
Ahmad F A Hasanain, Ali M A Mahran, Ahmed S Safwat, Amany M A Nafee, Ali A H Zayed, Sherif M Abdel-Aal, Sally M Bakkar, Ahmad Elbadry I Abonnoor
No previous studies have investigated the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) or its contribution to the development of high-grade ED through a process of chronic inflammation-induced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of LTBI among patients with erectile dysfunction and to explore the contribution of LTBI to high-grade ED. For all the study sample, clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory investigations were provided...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194073/update-on-trends-in-childhood-tuberculosis
#14
Samantha Fry, Shaun Barnabas, Mark F Cotton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although tuberculosis (TB) causes much morbidity and mortality in children, diagnosis and treatment remain challenging. Recently, children have gained increasing attention in research and clinical trials driving improved contact management, case identification and treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB. This review highlights some recent advances. RECENT FINDINGS: The tuberculin skin test is the most widely used test to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190430/evaluating-uk-national-guidance-for-screening-of-children-for-tb-a-prospective-multi-centre-study
#15
Beate Kampmann, James A Seddon, James Paton, Zohreh Nademi, Denis Keane, Bhanu Williams, Amanda Williams, Sue Liebeschutz, Anna Riddell, Jolanta Bernatoniene, Sanjay Patel, Nuria Martinez, Paddy McMaster, Robindra Basu-Roy, Steven B Welch
Rationale and Objective In order to identify infected contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended the addition of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) to the tuberculin skin test (TST) in its 2006 TB guidelines. Treatment for TB infection was no longer recommended for children screened TST-positive but IGRA-negative. We carried out a cohort study to evaluate the risk of TB disease in this group. Methods Children exposed to an infectious case of TB in their household were recruited from 11 paediatric TB clinics...
November 30, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187669/usefulness-of-the-combination-of-tuberculin-skin-test-and-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-diagnosing-children-with-tuberculosis
#16
Hiroyuki Shimizu, Masaaki Mori
Japan is still designated as a medium incidence country, worldwide. Although the definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis is made by detecting pathogen from tissue specimens, collecting those from children is physically difficult. Therefore, we must frequently depend on the results of tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). However, the value of IGRA in diagnosing tuberculosis in infants remains unclear. We implemented TST and IGRA concurrently and examined the significance of combining these two tests by analyzing cases where conflicting results were evident from other tests...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184648/estimating-the-prevalence-of-positive-tuberculin-skin-test-reactions-in-general-population-and-high-risk-groups-a-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Reza Tabrizi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mahdi Afshari, Siavosh Abedi, Maryam Akbari, Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Mahmood Moosazadeh
Results of tuberculin skin test (TST) surveys among different populations have been reported in many studies as a method for detecting primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Combining these results provides reliable estimates of primary latent tuberculosis (TB) infection for health policymakers. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection in general and high-risk populations in Iran. National and international databanks were searched using specific keywords. After restricting the search strategy, duplicates exclusion, reviewing titles, abstracts and full texts, and quality assessment, eligible papers were selected...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182688/interferon-gamma-release-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-latent-class-analysis
#18
Tan N Doan, Damon P Eisen, Morgan T Rose, Andrew Slack, Grace Stearnes, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is essential for TB elimination. However, the absence of a gold standard test for diagnosing LTBI makes assessment of the true prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of diagnostic tests challenging. Bayesian latent class models can be used to make inferences about disease prevalence and the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using data on the concordance between tests. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date aiming to evaluate the performance of tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) for LTBI diagnosis in various patient populations using Bayesian latent class modelling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179780/a-highly-transmissible-tuberculosis-outbreak-the-importance-of-bars
#19
P Godoy, M Alsedà, M Falguera, T Puig, P Bach, M Monrabà, A Manonelles
The transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in bars is difficult to study. The objective was to describe a large TB outbreak in a company's bar and other leisure settings. A descriptive study of a TB outbreak was carried out. Contacts were studied in the index case's workplace bar (five circles of contacts) and other recreational areas (social network of three bars in the index case's neighbourhood). Chest X-rays were recommended to contacts with positive tuberculin skin tests (TST) (⩾5 mm). The risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was determined using an adjusted odds ratio...
November 28, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173987/epidemiological-clinical-microbiological-and-therapeutic-differences-in-tuberculosis-disease-in-patients-with-and-without-hiv-infection
#20
Javier Martínez-Sanz, María Rosa Lago-Gómez, María Elena Rodríguez-Zurita, Esteban Martín-Echevarría, Miguel Torralba
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to analyze the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in our population and to compare the characteristics of patients with and without HIV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical-epidemiological retrospective cohort study that included patients diagnosed with TB with and without HIV infection between 2005-2016 in the province of Guadalajara (Spain). Epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and therapeutic variables were assessed, including microbiological resistances...
November 22, 2017: Medicina Clínica
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