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Nutrition in chronic kidney disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882009/functional-and-structural-abnormalities-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-in-severely-malnourished-children-a-hospital-based-study
#1
Misbah Anjum, Khemchand N Moorani, Ifra Sameen, Muhammad Ayaz Mustufa, Shazia Kulsoom
OBJECTIVES: The association of malnutrition and systemic diseases like chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well known. Various urinary tract abnormalities may be associated with malnutrition. So objective of current study was to determine the frequency of functional and structural urinary tract abnormalities in severely malnourished children admitted in Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) of a tertiary care facility, Karachi. METHODS: This descriptive cases series of 78 children was conducted in NRU from October 2014 - March 2015...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867189/the-role-of-phosphate-in-kidney-disease
#2
REVIEW
Marc G Vervloet, Siren Sezer, Ziad A Massy, Lina Johansson, Mario Cozzolino, Denis Fouque
The importance of phosphate homeostasis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized for decades, but novel insights - which are frequently relevant to everyday clinical practice - continue to emerge. Epidemiological data consistently indicate an association between hyperphosphataemia and poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, compelling evidence suggests direct toxicity of increased phosphate concentrations. Importantly, serum phosphate concentration has a circadian rhythm that must be considered when interpreting patient phosphate levels...
November 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858900/prevalence-of-chronic-disease-and-its-controlled-status-according-to-income-level
#3
Seohyun Kim, Byungmo Lee, Mingu Park, Sewon Oh, Ho Jun Chin, Hoseok Koo
The relationship between the prevalence of chronic diseases and income level has now become a main theme in poor national economic situations. We examined the prevalence of well-controlled chronic diseases according to income level. Data from the 2008 to 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted by using a stratified, multistage, probability-cluster sampling method, were used. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) inversely correlated with income level (P < 0.001). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) showed no relationship...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810171/examining-the-proportion-of-dietary-phosphorus-from-plants-animals-and-food-additives-excreted-in-urine
#4
REVIEW
David E St-Jules, Ram Jagannathan, Lisa Gutekunst, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Mary Ann Sevick
Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801876/ferritin-level-is-positively-associated-with-chronic-kidney-disease-in-korean-men-based-on-the-2010-2012-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#5
Hee-Taik Kang, John A Linton, Soon Kil Kwon, Byoung-Jin Park, Jong Hun Lee
(1) Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with higher risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum ferritin concentrations correlate with total iron levels and systemic inflammation. (2) Methods: This study was cross-sectionally designed, based on the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). According to ferritin values, 13,462 participants (6082 men and 7380 women) were categorized into the normal- and high-ferritin groups (cut-off points: 200 ng/mL in men, 150 ng/mL in women)...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798938/cognitive-impairment-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-the-canadian-frailty-observation-and-interventions-trial
#6
Rukhsana Foster, Simon Walker, Ranveer Brar, Brett Hiebert, Paul Komenda, Claudio Rigatto, Leroy Storsley, Bhanu Prasad, Clara Bohm, Navdeep Tangri
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects more than one third of older adults, and is a strong risk factor for vascular disease and cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment can have detrimental effects on the quality of life through decreased treatment adherence and poor nutrition and results in increased costs of care and early mortality. Though widely studied in hemodialysis populations, little is known about cognitive impairment in patients with pre-dialysis CKD. METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional, prospective cohort study including 385 patients with CKD stages G4-G5...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791225/gastro-intestinal-tolerance-and-renal-safety-of-protein-oral-nutritional-supplements-in-nursing-home-residents-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
P Ter Wee, M Kuhn, H van der Woude, D Van De Looverbosch, H Heyman, L Mikušová, D Fouque
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: High protein oral nutritional supplements (ONS) are regularly prescribed to undernourished patients; however usage of these in older adults is being discussed, as their renal function might have declined with age. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of 8 week long consumption of high protein ONS on the renal function of nursing home residents in need of supplementation. Furthermore, within the same setup, differences in gastro-intestinal tolerance between a standard and a more concentrated version of an ONS were investigated...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782097/association-between-low-dietary-protein-intake-and-geriatric-nutrition-risk-index-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-retrospective-single-center-cohort-study
#8
Aki Kiuchi, Yasushi Ohashi, Reibin Tai, Toshiyuki Aoki, Sonoo Mizuiri, Toyoko Ogura, Atsushi Aikawa, Ken Sakai
Reduced dietary protein intake in malnourished patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be associated with adverse clinical outcomes, which may mask any efficacy of a low-protein diet. The study included 126 patients with CKD who attended a dedicated dietary counseling clinic in 2005-2009 and were systematically followed until January 2015. Of these patients, 20 (15.9%) had moderate or severe nutrition-related risk of geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) < 92; these patients were more likely to be older, have a greater proteinuria, and have lower body mass index and serum albumin concentration...
October 23, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776918/chronic-kidney-disease-and-high-egfr-according-to-body-composition-phenotype-in-adults-with-normal-bmi
#9
Y Y Hyun, K B Lee, E J Rhee, C Y Park, Y Chang, S Ryu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Body composition contributes to the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and glomerular hyperfiltration. In adults with normal body mass index (BMI), the relationships of body composition with CKD and high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 10,734 adults from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), whose body mass index (BMI) was within the normal range (18...
December 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774887/lipoprotein-subfractions-uric-acid-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-end-stage-renal-disease-esrd-patients
#10
Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Beata Franczyk, Piotr Bartnicki, Magdalena Rysz-Górzyńska, Jacek Rysz
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a worldwide public health problem. CKD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cardiovascular risk in ESRD patients and to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid and lipoprotein subfractions. METHODS: The study group consisted of 66 patients on dialysis and control group of 25 healthy volunteers. Concentration of HDL and LDL subfractions were analysed with Lipoprint™...
October 21, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771702/role-of-the-renal-microcirculation-in-progression-of-chronic-kidney-injury-in-obesity
#11
Alejandro R Chade, John E Hall
Obesity is largely responsible for the growing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Current strategies to prevent and treat obesity and its consequences have been insufficient to reverse the ongoing trends. Lifestyle modification or pharmacological therapies often produce modest weight loss which is not sustained and recurrence of obesity is frequently observed, leading to progression of target organ damage in many obese subjects. Therefore, research efforts have focused not only on the factors that regulate energy balance, but also on understanding mechanisms of target organ injury in obesity...
2016: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771304/additional-contribution-of-the-malnutrition-inflammation-score-to-predict-mortality-and%C3%A2-patient-reported-outcomes-as-compared-with-its-components-in-a-cohort-of-african-descent-hemodialysis-patients
#12
Marcelo Barreto Lopes, Luciana Ferreira Silva, Gildete Barreto Lopes, Maria Auxiliadora Penalva, Cacia Mendes Matos, Bruce M Robinson, Antonio Alberto Lopes
OBJECTIVE: The malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) combines ten components to assess nutritional status. Higher MIS has been associated with higher mortality and poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. It is interesting to investigate associations of each component with mortality and patient-reported outcomes (PROs), that is, HRQOL and depression symptoms, and if MIS associations are generalizable for diverse populations. This study assessed associations of MIS and its components with mortality and PROs in an African descent MHD population...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770799/correction-of-metabolic-acidosis-improves-insulin-resistance-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Antonio Bellasi, Lucia Di Micco, Domenico Santoro, Stefania Marzocco, Emanuele De Simone, Mario Cozzolino, Luca Di Lullo, Pasquale Guastaferro, Biagio Di Iorio
BACKGROUND: Correction of metabolic acidosis (MA) with nutritional therapy or bicarbonate administration is widely used in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, it is unknown whether these interventions reduce insulin resistance (IR) in diabetic patients with CKD. We sought to evaluate the effect of MA correction on endogenous insulin action in diabetic type 2 (DM2) CKD patients. METHODS: A total of 145 CKD subjects (83 men e 62 women) with DM2 treated with oral antidiabetic drugs were included in the study and followed up to 1 year...
October 22, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769183/role-of-low-protein-diet-in-management-of-different-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease-practical-aspects
#14
Bharat V Shah, Zamurrud M Patel
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and more so in India. With limited availability and high cost of therapy, barely 10 % of patients with incident end stage renal disease (ESRD) cases get treatment in India. Therefore, all possible efforts should be made to retard progression of CKD. This article reviews the role of low protein diet (LPD) in management of CKD subjects and suggests how to apply it in clinical practice. DISCUSSION: The role of LPD in retarding progression of CKD is well established in animal experimental studies...
October 21, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765466/-wasting-in-chronic-kidney-disease-refeeding-techniques-and-artificial-nutrition-practices
#15
Céline Pasian, Raymond Azar, Denis Fouque
Protein energy wasting (PEW) is an independent factor associated with morbi-mortality in chronic kidney disease. Wasting is particularly common in chronic diseases of organs such as kidney disease with a major impact at the stage of dialysis. It covers 20 to 70% of patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease according to the degree of evolution of the disease and the diagnostic method used patients. Mechanisms of PEW are based mainly on anorexia and metabolic abnormalities caused by kidney disease. Nutritional treatment differs depending on the stage of the kidney disease acute or chronic treated whether or not by dialysis...
October 17, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759735/the-role-of-low-protein-diet-in-ameliorating-proteinuria-and-deferring-dialysis-initiation-what-is-old-and-what-is-new
#16
Mengjing Wang, Jason Chou, Yongen Chang, Wei L Lau, Uttam Reddy, Connie M Rhee, Jing Chen, Chuanming Hao, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
In the management of patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), a low-protein diet usually refers to a diet with protein intake of 0.6 to 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/day) and should include at least 50% high-biologic-value protein. It may be supplemented with essential acids or nitrogen- free ketoanalogues if <0.6 g/kg/d. Low-protein diet can reduce proteinuria especially in non-diabetic CKD patients. In hypoalbuminemic patients it may lead to an increase in serum albumin level...
October 19, 2016: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757935/impact-of-salt-intake-on-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#17
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753426/low-protein-diet-supplemented-with-ketoacids-ameliorates-proteinuria-in-3-4-nephrectomised-rats-by-directly-inhibiting-the-intrarenal-renin-angiotensin-system
#18
Jia-Ying Zhang, Ying Yin, Li Ni, Quan Long, Li You, Qian Zhang, Shan-Yan Lin, Jing Chen
Low-protein diet plus ketoacids (LPD+KA) has been reported to decrease proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, the mechanisms have not been clarified. As over-activation of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to play a key role in the progression of CKD, the current study was performed to investigate the direct effects of LPD+KA on intrarenal RAS, independently of renal haemodynamics. In this study, 3/4 subtotal renal ablated rats were fed 18 % normal-protein diet (Nx-NPD), 6 % low-protein diet (Nx-LPD) or 5 % low-protein diet plus 1 % ketoacids (Nx-LPD+KA) for 12 weeks...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745594/nutrition-interventions-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Cheryl A M Anderson, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Dena E Rifkin
Dietary modification is recommended in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with CKD often have multiple comorbidities, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, for which dietary modification is also recommended. As CKD progresses, nutrition plays an important role in mitigating risk for cardiovascular disease and decline in kidney function. The objectives of nutrition interventions in CKD include management of risk factors, ensuring optimal nutritional status throughout all stages of CKD, preventing buildup of toxic metabolic products, and avoiding complications of CKD...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737391/development-of-height-and-body-mass-index-after-pediatric-kidney-transplantation-experience-of-the-nephrology-pediatric-service-at-hcfmrp-usp-2005-2014
#20
Elaine Hillesheim, Valéria Laguna Salomão Ambrósio, Inalda Facincani
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease in children often determines poor nutritional status. Although renal transplantation (RTx) resolves endocrine and metabolic disorders, growth continues to be suboptimal and excessive weight gain may result in obesity. Objectives: Evaluating the development of height and body mass index in renal transplanted children and adolescents and identifying associated factors with final nutritional status. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 17 patients with regular follow-ups up to 24 months after RTx...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
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