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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912618/moral-theological-analysis-of-direct-versus-indirect-abortion
#1
John M Haas
Cases of a vital conflict, where the lives of both the mother and child are at risk during pregnancy, have been the subject of recent vigorous debate. The basic principles put forth in the Ethical and Religious Directives are reviewed, as is the principle of double effect. An illustrative case of severe cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman is described and it is noted that the principle of double effect would not apply. Counter arguments are noted, focusing on Martin Rhonheimer who posits that in the case of vital conflicts, such as performing a craniotomy on a baby stuck in the birth canal, taking the baby's life does not constitute a direct abortion because moral norms do not apply in the extreme conflict situation where both mother and child will die...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899906/does-the-doctrine-of-double-effect-apply-to-the-prescription-of-barbiturates-syme-vs-the-medical-board-of-australia
#2
Xavier Symons
The doctrine of double effect (DDE) is a principle of crucial importance in law and medicine. In medicine, the principle is generally accepted to apply in cases where the treatment necessary to relieve pain and physical suffering runs the risk of hastening the patient's death. More controversially, it has also been used as a justification for withdrawal of treatment from living individuals and physician-assisted suicide. In this paper, I will critique the findings of the controversial Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) hearing Syme vs the Medical Board of Australia In that hearing, Dr Rodney Syme, a urologist and euthanasia advocate, was defending his practice of prescribing barbiturates to terminally ill patients...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879860/ethical-issues-regarding-crispr-mediated-genome-editing
#3
Zabta Khan Shinwari, Faouzia Tanveer, Ali Talha Khalil
CRISPR-Cas9 has emerged as a simple, precise and most rapid genome editing technology. With a number of promising applications ranging from agriculture and environment to clinical therapeutics, it is greatly transforming the field of molecular biology. However, there are certain ethical, moral and safety concerns related to the attractive applications of this technique. The most contentious issues concerning human germline modifications are the challenges to human safety and morality such as risk of unforeseen, undesirable effects in clinical applications particularly to correct or prevent genetic diseases, matter of informed consent and the risk of exploitation for eugenics...
September 7, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859007/developing-professional-practice-and-ethics-engagement-a-leadership-model
#4
Karen M Reilly, Martha Jurchak
Nurse leaders are responsible for a practice environment that fosters safe, quality patient outcomes through excellence in nursing practice. This article describes a reflective practice intervention in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit of an urban academic medical center led by the unit nursing director and the hospital's nurse ethicist. The twice monthly case-based discussions, called "Nursing Practice and Ethics Rounds," were attended by staff and unit managers (nurse director, assistant nurse director, and clinical educator) and were facilitated by the nurse ethicist...
October 2017: Nursing Administration Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837011/a-survey-of-hospital-ethics-structures-in-ontario
#5
Jonathan Breslin
In response to the growing recognition of the prevalence of ethical issues in clinical care, hospitals in Canada began forming ethics committees in the 1980s. Studies showed significant growth in the prevalence of ethics committees over the ensuing decade. Although the limited studies available suggest that ethics committees have become very prevalent in Canadian hospitals, hospital ethics services have evolved in recent years to include a wider range of structures. In some cases, these structures may work in conjunction with an ethics committee, but in other cases they may replace ethics committees...
2017: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799199/refining-moral-agency-insights-from-moral-psychology-and-moral-philosophy
#6
Aimee Milliken
Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777661/minimal-risk-in-pediatric-research-a-philosophical-review-and-reconsideration
#7
John Rossi, Robert M Nelson
Despite more than thirty years of debate, disagreement persists among research ethicists about the most appropriate way to interpret the U.S. regulations on pediatric research, specifically the categories of "minimal risk" and a "minor increase over minimal risk." Focusing primarily on the definition of "minimal risk," we argue in this article that the continued debate about the pediatric risk categories is at least partly because their conceptual status is seldom considered directly. Once this is done, it becomes clear that the most popular strategy for interpreting "minimal risk"-defining it as a specific set of risks-is indefensible and, from a pragmatic perspective, unlikely to resolve disagreement...
August 4, 2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759586/apology-in-cases-of-medical-error-disclosure-thoughts-based-on-a-preliminary-study
#8
Sonia Dahan, Dominique Ducard, Laurence Caeymaex
BACKGROUND: Disclosing medical errors is considered necessary by patients, ethicists, and health care professionals. Literature insists on the framing of this disclosure and describes the apology as appropriate and necessary. However, this policy seems difficult to put into practice. Few works have explored the function and meaning of the apology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role ascribed to apology in communication between healthcare professionals and patients when disclosing a medical error, and to discuss these findings using a linguistic and philosophical perspective...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751469/ethics-consultation-in-paediatric-and-adult-emergency-departments-an-assessment-of-clinical-ethical-learning-and-resource-needs
#9
Keith A Colaco, Alanna Courtright, Sandra Andreychuk, Andrea Frolic, Ji Cheng, April Jacqueline Kam
OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand ethics and education needs of emergency nurses and physicians in paediatric and adult emergency departments (EDs) in order to build ethics capacity and provide a foundation for the development of an ethics education programme. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional survey of all staff nurses and physicians in three tertiary care EDs. The survey tool, called Clinical Ethics Needs Assessment Survey, was pilot tested on a similar target audience for question content and clarity...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724515/charlie-gard-case-an-ethicist-in-the-courtroom
#10
Daniel Sokol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721641/attributing-agency-to-automated-systems-reflections-on-human-robot-collaborations-and-responsibility-loci
#11
Sven Nyholm
Many ethicists writing about automated systems (e.g. self-driving cars and autonomous weapons systems) attribute agency to these systems. Not only that; they seemingly attribute an autonomous or independent form of agency to these machines. This leads some ethicists to worry about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps in cases where automated systems harm or kill human beings. In this paper, I consider what sorts of agency it makes sense to attribute to most current forms of automated systems, in particular automated cars and military robots...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707850/the-virtues-of-scientific-practice-macintyre-virtue-ethics-and-the-historiography-of-science
#12
Daniel J Hicks, Thomas A Stapleford
“Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691558/the-science-of-meetings-practical-ethicist
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667766/shared-decision-making-value-pluralism-and-the-zone-of-parental-discretion
#14
Joseph W Kaempf, Nicholas Kockler, Mark W Tomlinson
"Good ethics start with good facts" wrote John Lantos and William Meadow in a 2009 editorial addressing periviability controversies - debates that continue to generate lively discussion amongst neonatologists, obstetricians, ethicists, and families (1). How do we best promote shared decision making with pregnant women who, through no fault of their own, might deliver an extremely premature infant? Unfortunately, the recent "A Different View" in this journal by Dr. Patrick Marmion regarding periviability issues in general, and specifically our shared decision making model at Providence St...
July 1, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661281/informed-consent-is-the-essence-of-capacity-assessment
#15
Jeffrey P Spike
Informed consent is the single most important concept for understanding decision-making capacity. There is a steady pull in the clinical world to transform capacity into a technical concept that can be tested objectively, usually by calling for a psychiatric consult. This is a classic example of medicalization. In this article I argue that is a mistake, not just unnecessary but wrong, and explain how to normalize capacity assessment. Returning the locus of capacity assessment to the attending, the primary care doctor, and even to ethics consultation in today's environment will require a substantial effort to undo a strong but illusory impression of capacity assessment...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638969/introduction-childhood-and-disability
#16
EDITORIAL
Erica K Salter
From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care...
June 21, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589120/a-crispr-new-world-attitudes-in-the-public-toward-innovations-in-human-genetic-modification
#17
Steven M Weisberg, Daniel Badgio, Anjan Chatterjee
The potential to genetically modify human germlines has reached a critical tipping point with recent applications of CRISPR-Cas9. Even as researchers, clinicians, and ethicists weigh the scientific and ethical repercussions of these advances, we know virtually nothing about public attitudes on the topic. Understanding such attitudes will be critical to determining the degree of broad support there might be for any public policy or regulation developed for genetic modification research. To fill this gap, we gave an online survey to a large (2,493 subjects) and diverse sample of Americans...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567206/an-ethicist-s-thoughts-on-the-termination-of-pregnancy-bill-debate-in-malawi
#18
Joseph Mfutso-Bengo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553905/decreasing-smoking-but-increasing-stigma-anti-tobacco-campaigns-public-health-and-cancer-care
#19
Kristen E Riley, Michael R Ulrich, Heidi A Hamann, Jamie S Ostroff
Public health researchers, mental health clinicians, philosophers, and medical ethicists have questioned whether the public health benefits of large-scale anti-tobacco campaigns are justified in light of the potential for exacerbating stigma toward patients diagnosed with lung cancer. Although there is strong evidence for the public health benefits of anti-tobacco campaigns, there is a growing appreciation for the need to better attend to the unintended consequence of lung cancer stigma. We argue that there is an ethical burden for creators of public health campaigns to consider lung cancer stigma in the development and dissemination of hard-hitting anti-tobacco campaigns...
May 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548107/current-controversies-in-brain-death-determination
#20
REVIEW
Ariane Lewis, David Greer
Although the concept of brain death is accepted by the majority of physicians, lawyers, ethicists and society at large, controversies about determination of death by neurological criteria persist, and often reach the public eye. In this article, we examine four prominent controversial brain death cases from 2013-2016. We review current controversies, including protocol variability, recognition of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria for brain death as an accepted medical standard, and management of objections to discontinuation of organ support after determination of brain death...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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