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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532629/shared-decision-making-in-the-uk-moving-towards-wider-uptake
#1
Angela Coulter, Adrian Edwards, Vikki Entwistle, Graham Kramer, Alan Nye, Richard Thomson, Emma Walker
Shared decision making (SDM) is firmly on the policy agenda in the UK and a recent legal ruling has confirmed its importance. Policymakers, ethicists, professional regulators and societies, patient organisations and now the courts are committed to ensuring that SDM becomes the norm throughout the NHS, but an unfavourable economic climate makes this especially challenging. Considerable progress has been made over the last few years, with new learning from demonstration sites, various initiatives in capacity building and training, wider availability of patient decision aids, and important leadership initiatives...
May 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447019/a-cross-sectional-study-need-of-equal-respect-for-all-professionals-in-the-institutional-ethics-committees-composition
#2
Ramandeep Kaur, Ajay Francis Christopher, Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal
BACKGROUND: The composition of the Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) with an equal respect plays a major role in evaluating research proposals to ensure the safety of the subjects and ethical quality of research project. It is mandatory that all research projects with an involvement of human subjects should be approved by the IEC before commencement. AIM: To find out the equality of respect to members of IEC irrespective of nature of their profession. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methods include a cross-sectional study, the general information and member composition, multidisciplinary nature, independent performance, competence, decision capability, professionally biased of IECs in health research institutions of Punjab, India...
April 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434394/assessing-research-benefits-practical-ethicist
#3
P Ethicist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424653/disentangling-stigma-from-functional-neurological-disorders-conference-report-and-roadmap-for-the-future
#4
Karen S Rommelfanger, Stewart A Factor, Suzette LaRoche, Phyllis Rosen, Raymond Young, Mark H Rapaport
A multidisciplinary expert review of key issues and future directions from the conference "Controversial labels and clinical uncertainties: psychogenic disorders, conversion disorder, and functional symptoms." On October 9 and 10, 2015, a conference entitled "Controversial labels and clinical uncertainties: psychogenic disorders, conversion disorder, and functional symptoms" was held at the Center for Ethics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. This conference brought together a select group of 30 distinguished thought leaders and practitioners, including ethicists, researchers, clinicians, humanities scholars, and advocates to discuss the unique challenges and controversies related to the diagnosis, treatment, and stigma for patients with what is currently recognized as functional ("psychogenic") neurological disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421331/two-troubling-trends-in-the-conversation-over-whether-clinical-ethics-consultants-have-ethics-expertise
#5
Abram Brummett, Christopher J Ostertag
In a recent issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, several scholars wrote on the topic of ethics expertise in clinical ethics consultation. The articles in this issue exemplified what we consider to be two troubling trends in the quest to articulate a unique expertise for clinical ethicists. The first trend, exemplified in the work of Lisa Rasmussen, is an attempt to define a role for clinical ethicists that denies they have ethics expertise. Rasmussen cites the dependence of ethical expertise on irresolvable meta-ethical debates as the reason for this move...
April 18, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397033/a-grassroots-community-dialogue-on-the-ethics-of-the-care-of-people-with-autism-and-their-families-the-stony-brook-guidelines
#6
Stephen G Post, John Pomeroy, Carla Keirns, Virginia Isaacs Cover, Michael Leverett Dorn
The increased recognition and reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) combined with the associated societal and clinical impact call for a broad grassroots community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. In these Stony Brook Guidelines, which were developed during a full year of community dialogue (2010-2011) with affected individuals, families, and professionals in the field, we identify and discuss topics of paramount concern to the ASD constituency: treatment goals and happiness, distributive justice, managing the desperate hopes for a cure, sibling responsibilities, intimacy and sex, diagnostic ethics, and research ethics...
April 10, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385682/ethics-and-privacy-implications-of-using-the-internet-and-social-media-to-recruit-participants-for-health-research-a-privacy-by-design-framework-for-online-recruitment
#7
Jacqueline Lorene Bender, Alaina B Cyr, Luk Arbuckle, Lorraine E Ferris
BACKGROUND: The Internet and social media offer promising ways to improve the reach, efficiency, and effectiveness of recruitment efforts at a reasonable cost, but raise unique ethical dilemmas. We describe how we used social media to recruit cancer patients and family caregivers for a research study, the ethical issues we encountered, and the strategies we developed to address them. OBJECTIVE: Drawing on the principles of Privacy by Design (PbD), a globally recognized standard for privacy protection, we aimed to develop a PbD framework for online health research recruitment...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361722/synthetic-biology-between-self-regulation-and-public-discourse-ethical-issues-and-the-many-roles-of-the-ethicist
#8
Gardar Arnason
This article discusses the roles of ethicists in the governance of synthetic biology. I am particularly concerned with the idea of self-regulation of bioscience and its relationship to public discourse about ethical issues in bioscience. I will look at the role of philosophical ethicists at different levels and loci, from the "embedded ethicist" in the laboratory or research project, to ethicists' impact on policy and public discourse. In a democratic society, the development of governance frameworks for emerging technologies, such as synthetic biology, needs to be guided by a well-informed public discourse...
April 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257350/executive-summary-transforming-moral-distress-into-moral-resilience-in-nursing
#9
Cynda Hylton Rushton, Kathy Schoonover-Shoffner, Maureen Shawn Kennedy
To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland...
April 2017: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251863/what-makes-an-investigator-qualified
#10
P Ethicist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248319/safety-dosing-and-pharmaceutical-quality-for-studies-that-evaluate-medicinal-products-including-biological-products-in-neonates
#11
Robert M Ward, Daniel Benjamin, Jeffrey S Barrett, Karel Allegaert, Ronald Portman, Jonathan M Davis, Mark A Turner
The study of medications among pediatric patients has increased worldwide since 1997 in response to new legislation and regulations, but these studies have not yet adequately addressed the therapeutic needs of neonates. Additionally, extant guidance developed by regulatory agencies worldwide does not fully address the specificities of neonatal drug development, especially among extremely premature newborns who currently survive. Consequently, an international consortium from Canada, Europe, Japan, and the United States was organized by the Critical Path Institute to address the content of guidance...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238498/legal-social-ethical-and-medical-perspectives-on-the-care-of-the-statutory-rape-adolescent-in-the-emergency-department
#12
Shiu-Lin Tsai, Elvira Acosta, Toni Cardenas, Jeremy K Sigall, Kevin Van Geem
Rapes involving adolescents who present to the emergency department (ED) are fraught with ethical and legal complexities and are often emotionally turbulent for patients, their families, and medical providers. Management requires a thoughtful approach from multiple standpoints, including legal, psychosocial, ethical, and medical ones. However, there is no standardized sexual assault education for emergency medicine residents, and management practices vary widely.(1,2) We present a hypothetical statutory rape case based on real cases that occurred in New York City and bring together the perspectives of an attorney on the legal parameters, two social workers on the psychosocial issues, an ethicist on the moral considerations, and a pediatric emergency physician-who is also a sexual assault forensic examiner-on the medical treatments...
February 24, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194892/decision-making-at-the-borderline-of-viability-who-should-decide-and-on-what-basis
#13
Lynn Gillam, Dominic Wilkinson, Vicki Xafis, David Isaacs
Parents and medical staff usually agree on the management of preterm labour at borderline viability, when there is a relatively high risk of long-term neurodevelopmental problems in survivors. If delivery is imminent and parents and staff cannot agree on the best management, however, who should decide what will happen when the baby is delivered? Should the baby be resuscitated? Should intensive care be initiated? Three ethicists, one of whom is also a neonatologist, discuss this complex issue.
February 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185285/us-military-service-members-reasons-for-deciding-to-participate-in-health-research
#14
Wendy A Cook, Kristal C Melvin, Ardith Z Doorenbos
Researchers have reported challenges in recruiting US military service members as research participants. We explored their reasons for participating. Eighteen US military service members who had participated in at least one health-related research study within the previous 3 years completed semi-structured individual interviews in person or by telephone, focused on the service members' past decisions regarding research participation. Service members described participation decisions for 34 individual research experiences in 27 separate studies...
February 10, 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125491/executive-summary-transforming-moral-distress-into-moral-resilience-in-nursing
#15
Cynda Hylton Rushton, Kathy Schoonover-Shoffner, Maureen Shawn Kennedy
: To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland...
February 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122615/dynamic-consent-a-potential-solution-to-some-of-the-challenges-of-modern-biomedical-research
#16
Isabelle Budin-Ljøsne, Harriet J A Teare, Jane Kaye, Stephan Beck, Heidi Beate Bentzen, Luciana Caenazzo, Clive Collett, Flavio D'Abramo, Heike Felzmann, Teresa Finlay, Muhammad Kassim Javaid, Erica Jones, Višnja Katić, Amy Simpson, Deborah Mascalzoni
BACKGROUND: Innovations in technology have contributed to rapid changes in the way that modern biomedical research is carried out. Researchers are increasingly required to endorse adaptive and flexible approaches to accommodate these innovations and comply with ethical, legal and regulatory requirements. This paper explores how Dynamic Consent may provide solutions to address challenges encountered when researchers invite individuals to participate in research and follow them up over time in a continuously changing environment...
January 25, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098622/physician-assisted-suicide-and-euthanasia-in-the-icu-a-dialogue-on-core-ethical-issues
#17
Ewan C Goligher, E Wesley Ely, Daniel P Sulmasy, Jan Bakker, John Raphael, Angelo E Volandes, Bhavesh M Patel, Kate Payne, Annmarie Hosie, Larry Churchill, Douglas B White, James Downar
OBJECTIVE: Many patients are admitted to the ICU at or near the end of their lives. Consequently, the increasingly common debate regarding physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia holds implications for the practice of critical care medicine. The objective of this article is to explore core ethical issues related to physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia from the perspective of healthcare professionals and ethicists on both sides of the debate. SYNTHESIS: We identified four issues highlighting the key areas of ethical tension central to evaluating physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in medical practice: 1) the benefit or harm of death itself, 2) the relationship between physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia and withholding or withdrawing life support, 3) the morality of a physician deliberately causing death, and 4) the management of conscientious objection related to physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the critical care setting...
February 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078616/physician-power-to-declare-death-by-neurologic-criteria-threatened
#18
Ariane Lewis, Thaddeus Mason Pope
BACKGROUND: Three recent lawsuits that address declaration of brain death (BD) garnered significant media attention and threaten to limit physician power to declare BD. METHODS: We discuss these cases and their consequences including: the right to refuse an apnea test, accepted medical standards for declaration of BD, and the irreversibility of BD. RESULTS: These cases warrant discussion because they threaten to: limit physicians' power to determine death; incite families to seek injunctions to continue organ support after BD; and force hospitals to dispense valuable resources to dead patients in lieu of patients with reparable illnesses or injuries...
January 11, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074587/after-the-dnr-surrogates-who-persist-in-requesting-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#19
Ellen M Robinson, Wendy Cadge, Angelika A Zollfrank, M Cornelia Cremens, Andrew M Courtwright
Some health care organizations allow physicians to withhold cardiopulmonary resuscitation from a patient, despite patient or surrogate requests that it be provided, when they believe it will be more harmful than beneficial. Such cases usually involve patients with terminal diagnoses whose medical teams argue that aggressive treatments are medically inappropriate or likely to be harmful. Although there is state-to-state variability and a considerable judicial gray area about the conditions and mechanisms for refusals to perform CPR, medical teams typically follow a set of clearly defined procedures for these decisions...
January 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064252/philosophical-provocation-the-lifeblood-of-clinical-ethics
#20
Laurence B McCullough
The daily work of the clinical ethics teacher and clinical ethics consultant falls into the routine of classifying clinical cases by ethical type and proposing ethically justified alternatives for the professionally responsible management of a specific type of case. Settling too far into this routine creates the risk of philosophical inertia, which is not good either for the clinical ethicist or for the field of clinical ethics. The antidote to this philosophical inertia and resultant blinkered vision of clinical ethics is sustained, willing exposure to philosophical provocation...
February 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
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