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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724515/charlie-gard-case-an-ethicist-in-the-courtroom
#1
Daniel Sokol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721641/attributing-agency-to-automated-systems-reflections-on-human-robot-collaborations-and-responsibility-loci
#2
Sven Nyholm
Many ethicists writing about automated systems (e.g. self-driving cars and autonomous weapons systems) attribute agency to these systems. Not only that; they seemingly attribute an autonomous or independent form of agency to these machines. This leads some ethicists to worry about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps in cases where automated systems harm or kill human beings. In this paper, I consider what sorts of agency it makes sense to attribute to most current forms of automated systems, in particular automated cars and military robots...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707850/the-virtues-of-scientific-practice-macintyre-virtue-ethics-and-the-historiography-of-science
#3
Daniel J Hicks, Thomas A Stapleford
“Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691558/the-science-of-meetings-practical-ethicist
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667766/shared-decision-making-value-pluralism-and-the-zone-of-parental-discretion
#5
Joseph W Kaempf, Nicholas Kockler, Mark W Tomlinson
"Good ethics start with good facts" wrote John Lantos and William Meadow in a 2009 editorial addressing periviability controversies - debates that continue to generate lively discussion amongst neonatologists, obstetricians, ethicists, and families (1). How do we best promote shared decision making with pregnant women who, through no fault of their own, might deliver an extremely premature infant? Unfortunately, the recent "A Different View" in this journal by Dr. Patrick Marmion regarding periviability issues in general, and specifically our shared decision making model at Providence St...
July 1, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661281/informed-consent-is-the-essence-of-capacity-assessment
#6
Jeffrey P Spike
Informed consent is the single most important concept for understanding decision-making capacity. There is a steady pull in the clinical world to transform capacity into a technical concept that can be tested objectively, usually by calling for a psychiatric consult. This is a classic example of medicalization. In this article I argue that is a mistake, not just unnecessary but wrong, and explain how to normalize capacity assessment. Returning the locus of capacity assessment to the attending, the primary care doctor, and even to ethics consultation in today's environment will require a substantial effort to undo a strong but illusory impression of capacity assessment...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638969/introduction-childhood-and-disability
#7
EDITORIAL
Erica K Salter
From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care...
June 21, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589120/a-crispr-new-world-attitudes-in-the-public-toward-innovations-in-human-genetic-modification
#8
Steven M Weisberg, Daniel Badgio, Anjan Chatterjee
The potential to genetically modify human germlines has reached a critical tipping point with recent applications of CRISPR-Cas9. Even as researchers, clinicians, and ethicists weigh the scientific and ethical repercussions of these advances, we know virtually nothing about public attitudes on the topic. Understanding such attitudes will be critical to determining the degree of broad support there might be for any public policy or regulation developed for genetic modification research. To fill this gap, we gave an online survey to a large (2,493 subjects) and diverse sample of Americans...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567206/an-ethicist-s-thoughts-on-the-termination-of-pregnancy-bill-debate-in-malawi
#9
Joseph Mfutso-Bengo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553905/decreasing-smoking-but-increasing-stigma-anti-tobacco-campaigns-public-health-and-cancer-care
#10
Kristen E Riley, Michael R Ulrich, Heidi A Hamann, Jamie S Ostroff
Public health researchers, mental health clinicians, philosophers, and medical ethicists have questioned whether the public health benefits of large-scale anti-tobacco campaigns are justified in light of the potential for exacerbating stigma toward patients diagnosed with lung cancer. Although there is strong evidence for the public health benefits of anti-tobacco campaigns, there is a growing appreciation for the need to better attend to the unintended consequence of lung cancer stigma. We argue that there is an ethical burden for creators of public health campaigns to consider lung cancer stigma in the development and dissemination of hard-hitting anti-tobacco campaigns...
May 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548107/current-controversies-in-brain-death-determination
#11
REVIEW
Ariane Lewis, David Greer
Although the concept of brain death is accepted by the majority of physicians, lawyers, ethicists and society at large, controversies about determination of death by neurological criteria persist, and often reach the public eye. In this article, we examine four prominent controversial brain death cases from 2013-2016. We review current controversies, including protocol variability, recognition of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria for brain death as an accepted medical standard, and management of objections to discontinuation of organ support after determination of brain death...
May 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536727/comment-on-what-to-do-during-inflight-medical-emergencies-practice-pointers-from-a-medical-ethicist-and-an-aviation-medicine-specialist
#12
Zohar Lederman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532629/shared-decision-making-in-the-uk-moving-towards-wider-uptake
#13
Angela Coulter, Adrian Edwards, Vikki Entwistle, Graham Kramer, Alan Nye, Richard Thomson, Emma Walker
Shared decision making (SDM) is firmly on the policy agenda in the UK and a recent legal ruling has confirmed its importance. Policymakers, ethicists, professional regulators and societies, patient organisations and now the courts are committed to ensuring that SDM becomes the norm throughout the NHS, but an unfavourable economic climate makes this especially challenging. Considerable progress has been made over the last few years, with new learning from demonstration sites, various initiatives in capacity building and training, wider availability of patient decision aids, and important leadership initiatives...
May 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447019/a-cross-sectional-study-need-of-equal-respect-for-all-professionals-in-the-institutional-ethics-committees-composition
#14
Ramandeep Kaur, Ajay Francis Christopher, Vikas Gupta, Parveen Bansal
BACKGROUND: The composition of the Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) with an equal respect plays a major role in evaluating research proposals to ensure the safety of the subjects and ethical quality of research project. It is mandatory that all research projects with an involvement of human subjects should be approved by the IEC before commencement. AIM: To find out the equality of respect to members of IEC irrespective of nature of their profession. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methods include a cross-sectional study, the general information and member composition, multidisciplinary nature, independent performance, competence, decision capability, professionally biased of IECs in health research institutions of Punjab, India...
April 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434394/assessing-research-benefits-practical-ethicist
#15
P Ethicist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424653/disentangling-stigma-from-functional-neurological-disorders-conference-report-and-roadmap-for-the-future
#16
Karen S Rommelfanger, Stewart A Factor, Suzette LaRoche, Phyllis Rosen, Raymond Young, Mark H Rapaport
A multidisciplinary expert review of key issues and future directions from the conference "Controversial labels and clinical uncertainties: psychogenic disorders, conversion disorder, and functional symptoms." On October 9 and 10, 2015, a conference entitled "Controversial labels and clinical uncertainties: psychogenic disorders, conversion disorder, and functional symptoms" was held at the Center for Ethics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. This conference brought together a select group of 30 distinguished thought leaders and practitioners, including ethicists, researchers, clinicians, humanities scholars, and advocates to discuss the unique challenges and controversies related to the diagnosis, treatment, and stigma for patients with what is currently recognized as functional ("psychogenic") neurological disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421331/two-troubling-trends-in-the-conversation-over-whether-clinical-ethics-consultants-have-ethics-expertise
#17
Abram Brummett, Christopher J Ostertag
In a recent issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, several scholars wrote on the topic of ethics expertise in clinical ethics consultation. The articles in this issue exemplified what we consider to be two troubling trends in the quest to articulate a unique expertise for clinical ethicists. The first trend, exemplified in the work of Lisa Rasmussen, is an attempt to define a role for clinical ethicists that denies they have ethics expertise. Rasmussen cites the dependence of ethical expertise on irresolvable meta-ethical debates as the reason for this move...
April 18, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397033/a-grassroots-community-dialogue-on-the-ethics-of-the-care-of-people-with-autism-and-their-families-the-stony-brook-guidelines
#18
Stephen G Post, John Pomeroy, Carla Keirns, Virginia Isaacs Cover, Michael Leverett Dorn
The increased recognition and reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) combined with the associated societal and clinical impact call for a broad grassroots community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. In these Stony Brook Guidelines, which were developed during a full year of community dialogue (2010-2011) with affected individuals, families, and professionals in the field, we identify and discuss topics of paramount concern to the ASD constituency: treatment goals and happiness, distributive justice, managing the desperate hopes for a cure, sibling responsibilities, intimacy and sex, diagnostic ethics, and research ethics...
April 10, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385682/ethics-and-privacy-implications-of-using-the-internet-and-social-media-to-recruit-participants-for-health-research-a-privacy-by-design-framework-for-online-recruitment
#19
Jacqueline Lorene Bender, Alaina B Cyr, Luk Arbuckle, Lorraine E Ferris
BACKGROUND: The Internet and social media offer promising ways to improve the reach, efficiency, and effectiveness of recruitment efforts at a reasonable cost, but raise unique ethical dilemmas. We describe how we used social media to recruit cancer patients and family caregivers for a research study, the ethical issues we encountered, and the strategies we developed to address them. OBJECTIVE: Drawing on the principles of Privacy by Design (PbD), a globally recognized standard for privacy protection, we aimed to develop a PbD framework for online health research recruitment...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361722/synthetic-biology-between-self-regulation-and-public-discourse-ethical-issues-and-the-many-roles-of-the-ethicist
#20
Gardar Arnason
This article discusses the roles of ethicists in the governance of synthetic biology. I am particularly concerned with the idea of self-regulation of bioscience and its relationship to public discourse about ethical issues in bioscience. I will look at the role of philosophical ethicists at different levels and loci, from the "embedded ethicist" in the laboratory or research project, to ethicists' impact on policy and public discourse. In a democratic society, the development of governance frameworks for emerging technologies, such as synthetic biology, needs to be guided by a well-informed public discourse...
April 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
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