keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ethicist

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111936/empowerment-failure-how-shortcomings-in-physician-communication-unwittingly-undermine-patient-autonomy
#1
Peter A Ubel, Karen A Scherr, Angela Fagerlin
Many health care decisions depend not only upon medical facts, but also on value judgments-patient goals and preferences. Until recent decades, patients relied on doctors to tell them what to do. Then ethicists and others convinced clinicians to adopt a paradigm shift in medical practice, to recognize patient autonomy, by orienting decision making toward the unique goals of individual patients. Unfortunately, current medical practice often falls short of empowering patients. In this article, we reflect on whether the current state of medical decision making effectively promotes patients' health care goals...
November 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070707/adverse-consequences-of-article-12-of-the-un-convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities-for-persons-with-mental-disabilities-and-an-alternative-way-forward
#2
Matthé Scholten, Jakov Gather
It is widely accepted among medical ethicists that competence is a necessary condition for informed consent. In this view, if a patient is incompetent to make a particular treatment decision, the decision must be based on an advance directive or made by a substitute decision-maker on behalf of the patient. We call this the competence model. According to a recent report of the United Nations (UN) High Commissioner for Human Rights, article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) presents a wholesale rejection of the competence model...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058535/transplanting-the-body-preliminary-ethical-considerations
#3
Lantz Fleming Miller
A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor's entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment: Not assessing a case of such potential ethical import, by showing neglect instead of facing the issue, can only compound the ethical predicament, perhaps eroding public trust in ethical medicine. This article discusses the historical background of full-body transplantation, documents the seriousness of its current pursuit, and builds an argument for why prima facie this type of transplant is bioethically distinct...
October 23, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056630/cancer-and-fertility
#4
Ana S Iltis
This symposium includes 12 personal narratives from individuals who have faced a cancer diagnosis-either their own or their child's-where the disease itself, or their treatment, threatened future fertility. Three additional stories are available in the online supplement. Three commentaries on these narratives are written by an expert in oncofertility, a healthcare ethicist, and a pediatrician completing a fellowship in hematology/oncology. The observations and insights these authors share underscore the importance of addressing fertility loss and preservation early in the cancer journey...
2017: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017958/higher-priced-older-pharmaceuticals-how-should-we-respond
#5
Richard S Irwin, Scott Manaker, Mark L Metersky, Robert P Baughman, Tunde Otulana, Steven E Weinberger, Andrew J Sussman, Norine A McGrath
We and the patients have been aware of the high cost of medications in the United States for decades; however, we are now witnessing a relatively new phenomenon: exponential price increases for some older pharmaceuticals that have been available for years. To assist practitioners in how to respond to the issue of higher priced pharmaceuticals, an interprofessional session was developed and held at CHEST 2016 in Los Angeles. The session proceedings and a few updates are presented here to summarize what pulmonologists; a sarcoidosis expert; a retired executive of a medical society, of a pharmaceutical company, and of a pharmacy; and an ethicist advise that we do about the problem...
October 7, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975705/potential-yield-of-imminent-death-kidney-donation
#6
Ryan A Denu, Eneida A Mendonca, Norman Fost
About 99,000 people are waiting for a kidney in the US, and many will die waiting. The concept of "imminent death" donation, a type of living donation, has been gaining attention among physicians, patients, and ethicists. We estimated the number of potential imminent death kidney donors at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics by estimating the number of annual deaths in individuals with normal kidney function. Based on a previous survey suggesting that 1/3 of patients might be willing to donate at imminent death, we estimate that between 76 and 396 people in the state of Wisconsin would be medically eligible and willing to donate each year at the time of imminent death...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975473/why-are-there-so-few-ethics-consults-in-children-s-hospitals
#7
Brian Carter, Manuel Brockman, Jeremy Garrett, Angie Knackstedt, John Lantos
In most children's hospitals, there are very few ethics consultations, even though there are many ethically complex cases. We hypothesize that the reason for this may be that hospitals develop different mechanisms to address ethical issues and that many of these mechanisms are closer in spirit to the goals of the pioneers of clinical ethics than is the mechanism of a formal ethics consultation. To show how this is true, we first review the history of collaboration between philosophers and physicians about clinical dilemmas...
October 3, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932930/understanding-and-resolving-conflicting-traditions-a-macintyrean-approach-to-shared-deliberation-in-medical-ethics
#8
Jessica Adkins
The position of clinical ethicist exists to help resolve conflicts in the hospital. Sometimes these conflicts arise because of fundamental cultural differences between the patient and the medical team, and such cases present special challenges. Should the ideology of modern medicine reject the wishes of those who hold ideologies from differing cultures? How can the medical ethicist help resolve such conflicts? To answer these questions, I rely on the works of Alasdair MacIntyre. Using MacIntyre's philosophy, we can better understand why traditions exist, how conflicts arise, and how opposing traditions can collaborate in shared decision making...
September 20, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912618/moral-theological-analysis-of-direct-versus-indirect-abortion
#9
John M Haas
Cases of a vital conflict, where the lives of both the mother and child are at risk during pregnancy, have been the subject of recent vigorous debate. The basic principles put forth in the Ethical and Religious Directives are reviewed, as is the principle of double effect. An illustrative case of severe cardiomyopathy in a pregnant woman is described and it is noted that the principle of double effect would not apply. Counter arguments are noted, focusing on Martin Rhonheimer who posits that in the case of vital conflicts, such as performing a craniotomy on a baby stuck in the birth canal, taking the baby's life does not constitute a direct abortion because moral norms do not apply in the extreme conflict situation where both mother and child will die...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899906/does-the-doctrine-of-double-effect-apply-to-the-prescription-of-barbiturates-syme-vs-the-medical-board-of-australia
#10
Xavier Symons
The doctrine of double effect (DDE) is a principle of crucial importance in law and medicine. In medicine, the principle is generally accepted to apply in cases where the treatment necessary to relieve pain and physical suffering runs the risk of hastening the patient's death. More controversially, it has also been used as a justification for withdrawal of treatment from living individuals and physician-assisted suicide. In this paper, I will critique the findings of the controversial Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) hearing Syme vs the Medical Board of Australia In that hearing, Dr Rodney Syme, a urologist and euthanasia advocate, was defending his practice of prescribing barbiturates to terminally ill patients...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879860/ethical-issues-regarding-crispr-mediated-genome-editing
#11
Zabta Khan Shinwari, Faouzia Tanveer, Ali Talha Khalil
CRISPR-Cas9 has emerged as a simple, precise and most rapid genome editing technology. With a number of promising applications ranging from agriculture and environment to clinical therapeutics, it is greatly transforming the field of molecular biology. However, there are certain ethical, moral and safety concerns related to the attractive applications of this technique. The most contentious issues concerning human germline modifications are the challenges to human safety and morality such as risk of unforeseen, undesirable effects in clinical applications particularly to correct or prevent genetic diseases, matter of informed consent and the risk of exploitation for eugenics...
September 7, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859007/developing-professional-practice-and-ethics-engagement-a-leadership-model
#12
Karen M Reilly, Martha Jurchak
Nurse leaders are responsible for a practice environment that fosters safe, quality patient outcomes through excellence in nursing practice. This article describes a reflective practice intervention in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit of an urban academic medical center led by the unit nursing director and the hospital's nurse ethicist. The twice monthly case-based discussions, called "Nursing Practice and Ethics Rounds," were attended by staff and unit managers (nurse director, assistant nurse director, and clinical educator) and were facilitated by the nurse ethicist...
October 2017: Nursing Administration Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837011/a-survey-of-hospital-ethics-structures-in-ontario
#13
Jonathan Breslin
In response to the growing recognition of the prevalence of ethical issues in clinical care, hospitals in Canada began forming ethics committees in the 1980s. Studies showed significant growth in the prevalence of ethics committees over the ensuing decade. Although the limited studies available suggest that ethics committees have become very prevalent in Canadian hospitals, hospital ethics services have evolved in recent years to include a wider range of structures. In some cases, these structures may work in conjunction with an ethics committee, but in other cases they may replace ethics committees...
2017: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799199/refining-moral-agency-insights-from-moral-psychology-and-moral-philosophy
#14
Aimee Milliken
Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory...
August 11, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777661/minimal-risk-in-pediatric-research-a-philosophical-review-and-reconsideration
#15
John Rossi, Robert M Nelson
Despite more than thirty years of debate, disagreement persists among research ethicists about the most appropriate way to interpret the U.S. regulations on pediatric research, specifically the categories of "minimal risk" and a "minor increase over minimal risk." Focusing primarily on the definition of "minimal risk," we argue in this article that the continued debate about the pediatric risk categories is at least partly because their conceptual status is seldom considered directly. Once this is done, it becomes clear that the most popular strategy for interpreting "minimal risk"-defining it as a specific set of risks-is indefensible and, from a pragmatic perspective, unlikely to resolve disagreement...
2017: Accountability in Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759586/apology-in-cases-of-medical-error-disclosure-thoughts-based-on-a-preliminary-study
#16
Sonia Dahan, Dominique Ducard, Laurence Caeymaex
BACKGROUND: Disclosing medical errors is considered necessary by patients, ethicists, and health care professionals. Literature insists on the framing of this disclosure and describes the apology as appropriate and necessary. However, this policy seems difficult to put into practice. Few works have explored the function and meaning of the apology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role ascribed to apology in communication between healthcare professionals and patients when disclosing a medical error, and to discuss these findings using a linguistic and philosophical perspective...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751469/ethics-consultation-in-paediatric-and-adult-emergency-departments-an-assessment-of-clinical-ethical-learning-and-resource-needs
#17
Keith A Colaco, Alanna Courtright, Sandra Andreychuk, Andrea Frolic, Ji Cheng, April Jacqueline Kam
OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand ethics and education needs of emergency nurses and physicians in paediatric and adult emergency departments (EDs) in order to build ethics capacity and provide a foundation for the development of an ethics education programme. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional survey of all staff nurses and physicians in three tertiary care EDs. The survey tool, called Clinical Ethics Needs Assessment Survey, was pilot tested on a similar target audience for question content and clarity...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724515/charlie-gard-case-an-ethicist-in-the-courtroom
#18
Daniel Sokol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721641/attributing-agency-to-automated-systems-reflections-on-human-robot-collaborations-and-responsibility-loci
#19
Sven Nyholm
Many ethicists writing about automated systems (e.g. self-driving cars and autonomous weapons systems) attribute agency to these systems. Not only that; they seemingly attribute an autonomous or independent form of agency to these machines. This leads some ethicists to worry about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps in cases where automated systems harm or kill human beings. In this paper, I consider what sorts of agency it makes sense to attribute to most current forms of automated systems, in particular automated cars and military robots...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707850/the-virtues-of-scientific-practice-macintyre-virtue-ethics-and-the-historiography-of-science
#20
Daniel J Hicks, Thomas A Stapleford
“Practice” has become a ubiquitous term in the history of science, and yet historians have not always reflected on its philosophical import and in particular on its potential connections with ethics. This essay draws on the work of the virtue ethicist Alasdair MacIntyre to develop a theory of “communal practices” and explore how such an approach can inform the history of science, including allegations about the corruption of science by wealth or power, consideration of scientific ethics or “moral economies,” the role of values in science, the ethical distinctiveness (or not) of scientific vocations, and the relationship between history of science and the practice of science itself...
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
keyword
keyword
99670
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"