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Protein energy wasting

Kristen L Nowak, Michel Chonchol
Chronic, low-grade inflammation is a common comorbid condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and particularly in chronic dialysis patients. In this review, we consider the question of whether inflammation affects outcomes in dialysis patients. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as C-reactive protein, are elevated in chronic dialysis patients. Multiple factors likely contribute to chronic inflammatory activation in kidney disease patients including the uremic milieu, lifestyle and epigenetic influences, infectious and thrombotic events, the dialysis process, and dysbiosis...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Ramendra Pal, Subhas C Kundu, Vamsi K Yadavalli
Flexible and thin-film devices are of great interest in epidermal and implantable bioelectronics. The integration of energy storage and delivery devices such as supercapacitors (SCs) with properties of flexibility, miniaturization, biocompatibility, and degradability are sought for such systems. Reducing e-waste, and using sustainable materials and processes are additional desirable qualities. Herein, a silk protein-based biocompatible and degradable thin film micro-supercapacitor (µSC) is reported. A protein carrier with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS and reduced graphene oxide dopant, is used as a photopatternable biocomposite ink...
February 26, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joel D Kopple, Denis Fouque
Dietary treatment offers many benefits to patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are approaching the need for renal replacement therapy. A large number of these benefits are independent of whether diets slow the rate of progression of CKD. These diets are low in protein and many minerals, and provide adequate energy for the CKD patient. The diets can reduce accumulation of potentially toxic metabolic products derived from protein and amino acid degradation, maintain a healthier balance of body water, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and other minerals, and prevent or improve protein-energy wasting...
February 19, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Karin Windahl, Gerd Faxén Irving, Tora Almquist, Maarit Korkeila Lidén, Moniek van de Luijtgaarden, Nicholas C Chesnaye, Pauline Voskamp, Peter Stenvinkel, Marian Klinger, Maciej Szymczak, Claudia Torino, Maurizio Postorini, Christiane Drechsler, Fergus J Caskey, Christoph Wanner, Friedo W Dekker, Kitty J Jager, Marie Evans
OBJECTIVES: Prevalence and risk factors for protein-energy wasting (PEW) are poorly studied in the nondialysis, older population with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of PEW in advanced stage CKD patients aged greater than 65 years. Furthermore, we aimed to describe risk factors for PEW in the overall study population and among obese individuals. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. METHODS: The EQUAL study, a European Quality Study on treatment in advanced chronic kidney disease, is a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in six European countries...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Chihiro Kawagoe, Yuji Sato, Tatsunori Toida, Hideto Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Yamashita, Akihiro Fukuda, Shuji Iwatsubo, Shouichi Fujimoto
N-terminal-pro-B-type-natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was a predictive marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related death in chronic dialysis patients. NT-proBNP was also correlated with markers of inflammation, malnutrition and protein-energy wasting. We hypothesized whether NT-proBNP was also associated with non-CVD death in chronic dialysis patients. A prospective observational study for incidence of death in chronic dialysis patients was conducted. Prevalent chronic dialysis patients (n = 1310) were enrolled and followed for 24 months...
November 2018: Renal Failure
Zhen Wang, Eduardo A Oliveira, Robert H Mak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Juliana Saraiva Anjos, Ludmila F M F Cardozo, Marta Esgalhado, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel, Denis Fouque, Denise Mafra
Oxidative stress and inflammation are common findings in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and they are directly linked to clinical outcomes such as protein energy wasting and cardiovascular disease. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of antioxidant genes, regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes of phase II and antioxidant responses. Furthermore, Nrf2 can also regulate anti-inflammatory cellular responses, by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa B activity (transcription factor that promotes inflammation)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Orr Schlesinger, Rambabu Dandela, Ashok Bhagat, Michael M Meijler, Lin Xia, Lital Alfonta
Regulation of Biosystems in a clean, simple and efficient way is important for the design of smart bio-interfaces and bioelecronic devices. Light as a non-invasive mean to control the activity of a protein enables spatial and temporal control far superior to other chemical and physical methods. The ability to regulate the activity of a catalytic enzyme in a biofuel-cell reduces the waste of resources and energy and turns the fuel-cell into a smart and more efficient device for power generation. Here we present a microbial-fuel-cell based on a surface displayed, photo-switchable alcohol dehydrogenase...
February 7, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Juan A Tamayo Y Orozco
Systemic implications of hyperuricemia need to be reconsidered in the context of the energy and protein wasting being an early indicator of organ deterioration in patients affected by the cardiometabolic syndrome and other frequent pathology states like pre-eclampsia, hyperparathyroidism, and chronic renal failure. This chapter points out physiological alterations that are to be made related to hyperuricemia, new diagnostic strategies, and early therapeutic interventions in the context of the old enemy: asymptomatic hyperuricemia...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
Devanesan Jacinth Nithya, Ramanathapuram Vaidyanathan Bhavani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary diversity plays a critical role in infants as they need energy and nutrient dense foods for both physical and mental development. This study examines whether three dietary diversity indices validate against Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) and studies the relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of preschool children, in two districts of India: Wardha district in Maharashtra state and Koraput district in Odisha state...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Pablo Molina, Belén Vizcaíno, Mariola D Molina, Sandra Beltrán, Mercedes González-Moya, Antonio Mora, Cristina Castro-Alonso, Julia Kanter, Ana I Ávila, José L Górriz, Nuria Estañ, Luis M Pallardó, Denis Fouque, Juan J Carrero
Background: Compared with conventional haemodialysis (HD), online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) achieves a more efficient removal of uraemic toxins and reduces inflammation, which could favourably affect nutritional status. We evaluate the effect of OL-HDF on body composition and nutritional status in prevalent high-flux HD (HF-HD) patients. Methods: In all, 33 adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 5 undergoing maintenance HF-HD were assigned to post-dilution OL-HDF (n = 17) or to remain on HF-HD (n = 16, control group) for 12 months...
January 22, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Anna Katkov, Inna Sinuani, Ada Azar, Gregory Shapiro, Shai Efrati, Ilia Beberashvili
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Increased age is strongly associated with anorexia and protein-energy wasting (PEW) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) population. We hypothesized that the association of obestatin, a recently discovered anorexigenic gut hormone, with appetite and nutritional status differs by age groups. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on 261MHD patients. Obestatin, acyl-ghrelin, markers of inflammation (CRP, IL-6, TNF-α) and nutrition (self-reported appetite, dietary intake, biochemical nutritional parameters, and body composition) were measured...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Lauriane Chambard, Nicolas Girard, Edouard Ollier, Jean-Charles Rousseau, François Duboeuf, Marie-Christine Carlier, Marie Brevet, Pawel Szulc, Jean-Baptiste Pialat, Julien Wegrzyn, Philippe Clezardin, Cyrille B Confavreux
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma regularly induces bone metastases that are responsible for impaired quality of life as well as significant morbidity, including bone pain and fractures. We aimed at identifying whether bone and metabolic biomarkers were associated with the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients with synchronous bone metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: POUMOS is a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma and synchronous bone metastases...
January 11, 2018: Bone
Jinyong Yan, Bingnan Han, Xiaohua Gui, Guilong Wang, Li Xu, Yunjun Yan, Catherine Madzak, Dujie Pan, Yaofeng Wang, Genhan Zha, Liangcheng Jiao
Lipases are scarcely exploited as feed enzymes in hydrolysis of lipids for increasing energy supply and improving nutrient use efficiency. In this work, we performed homologous overexpression, in vitro characterization and in vivo assessment of a lipase from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for feed purpose. Simultaneously, a large amount of yeast cell biomass was produced, for use as single cell protein, a potential protein-rich feed resource. Three kinds of low cost agro-industrial wastes were tested as substrates for simultaneous production of lipase and single cell protein (SCP) as feed additives: sugarcane molasses, waste cooking oil and crude glycerol from biodiesel production...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Limei Zhu, Na Gao, Ruifang Wang, Li Zhang
Ammonia is both a highly toxic environmental pollutant and the major nitrogenous waste produced by ammoniotelic teleosts. Although the acute toxic effects of ammonia have been widely studied in fish, the biochemical mechanisms of its toxicity have not been understood comprehensively. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis between ammonia-challenged (1.2 and 2.6 mmol L-1 NH4Cl for 96 h) and control groups of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) to identify changes of the metabolite and protein profiles in response to ammonia stress...
January 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Christopher M Dalton, Karen E Tracy, Nelson G Hairston, Alexander S Flecker
Predators can alter nutrient cycles simply by inducing stress in prey. This stress accelerates prey's protein catabolism, nitrogen waste production, and nitrogen cycling. Yet predators also reduce the feeding rates of their prey, inducing food deprivation that is expected to slow protein catabolism and nitrogen cycling. The physiology of prey under predation risk thus balances the influences of predation risk and food deprivation, and this balance is central to understanding the role of predators in nutrient cycles...
January 7, 2018: Ecology
Almudena Pérez Torres, María Elena González García, Ana María López Sobaler, Rafael Jesús Sánchez Villanueva, Rafael Selgas Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Diet is one of the pillars of the treatment for patients with chronic kidney disease without dialysis (NDD-CKD). Despite this, very few studies have evaluated the diet in Spanish population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diet of a group of patients with advanced CKD, comparing it with the recommendations, and its relation with nutritional status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 74 patients (39 men), with a mean age of 70...
October 27, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Kobra Simzari, Davoud Vahabzadeh, Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou, Susan Khoshbin, Yener Bektas
BACKGROUND: Hospital malnutrition is a worldwide dilemma and challenge. High levels of plate waste contribute to malnutrition-related complications in hospital. We investigated the association between the levels of plate waste, food intake and patient satisfaction with nutritional risk and malnutrition prevalence in three hospital settings. METHODS: The sample population of 120 patients, aged 18-65 year, admitted consecutively over a 12 month period to 3 different educational university hospitals was included...
November 16, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Brandon M Kistler, Debbie Benner, Jerrilynn D Burrowes, Katrina L Campbell, Denis Fouque, Giacomo Garibotto, Joel D Kopple, Csaba P Kovesdy, Connie M Rhee, Alison Steiber, Peter Stenvinkel, Pieter Ter Wee, Daniel Teta, Angela Y M Wang, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Poor nutritional status and protein-energy wasting are common among maintenance dialysis patients and associated with unfavorable outcomes. Providing foods, meal trays, snack boxes, and/or oral nutritional supplements during hemodialysis can improve nutritional status and might also reduce inflammation, enhance health-related quality of life, boost patient satisfaction, and improve survival. Potential challenges include postprandial hypotension and other hemodynamic instabilities, aspiration risk, gastrointestinal symptoms, hygiene issues, staff burden, reduced solute removal, and increased costs...
January 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Xingqun Yan, Xin Yang, Xishao Xie, Shilong Xiang, Xiaohui Zhang, Zhangfei Shou, Jianghua Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The presence of protein-energy wasting (PEW) among dialysis patients is a crucial risk factor for outcomes. The complicated pathogenesis of PEW makes it difficult to assess and treat. This single-center retrospective study focuses on the association between nutritional markers and the outcomes of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) patients, aiming to establish a practical comprehensive nutritional scoring system for CAPD patients. METHODS: 924 patients who initiated peritoneal dialysis in our center from January 1st,2005 to December 31st,2015 were enrolled...
December 14, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
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