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Protein energy wasting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785246/modulating-metabolism-to-improve-cancer-induced-muscle-wasting
#1
REVIEW
Fabio Penna, Riccardo Ballarò, Marc Beltrá, Serena De Lucia, Paola Costelli
Muscle wasting is one of the main features of cancer cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome frequently occurring in oncologic patients. The onset of cachexia is associated with reduced tolerance and response to antineoplastic treatments, eventually leading to clinical conditions that are not compatible with survival. Among the mechanisms underlying cachexia, protein and energy dysmetabolism play a major role. In this regard, several potential treatments have been proposed, mainly on the basis of promising results obtained in preclinical models...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783628/is-3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate-cmpf-a-clinically-relevant-uremic-toxin-in-haemodialysis-patients
#2
Mathilde Luce, Anais Bouchara, Myriam Pastural, Samuel Granjon, Jean Christophe Szelag, Maurice Laville, Walid Arkouche, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage, Laetitia Koppe
3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate (CMPF) is a metabolite of furan fatty acid and a marker of fish oil intake. CMPF is described as a protein-bound uremic toxin and interacts with free oxygen radicals, which can induce cell damages. However, the clinical consequences of CMPF accumulation in haemodialysis patients remain poorly documented. The aims of this study are to investigate potential association between CMPF levels and (i) biochemical and nutritional parameters; (ii) cardiovascular events and (iii) mortality...
May 18, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760743/crosstalk-between-the-warburg-effect-redox-regulation-and-autophagy-induction-in-tumourigenesis
#3
REVIEW
Mokgadi Violet Gwangwa, Anna Margaretha Joubert, Michelle Helen Visagie
Tumourigenic tissue uses modified metabolic signalling pathways in order to support hyperproliferation and survival. Cancer-associated aerobic glycolysis resulting in lactic acid production was described nearly 100 years ago. Furthermore, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate quantities increase metabolic, survival and proliferation signalling, resulting in increased tumourigenesis. In order to maintain redox balance, the cell possesses innate antioxidant defence systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743031/safety-and-effectiveness-of-low-protein-diet-supplemented-with-ketoacids-in-diabetic-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Vincenzo Bellizzi, Patrizia Calella, Julia Nava Hernández, Verónica Figueroa González, Silvia Moran Lira, Serena Torraca, Rocio Urbina Arronte, Pietro Cirillo, Roberto Minutolo, Rafael A Montúfar Cárdenas
BACKGROUND: The impact of the low-protein diet on nutrition in CKD diabetics is uncertain. METHODS: The metabolic and nutritional effects of a low-protein (0.5-0.6 g/kg/d), normal-high energy (30-35 kcal/kg/d) diet supplemented with ketoacids (LPD-KA) were prospectively evaluated in CKD patients with (DM) and without (non-DM) diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: 197 patients on CKD stages 3-5 were enrolled. DM (n = 81) and non-DM (n = 116) were comparable for gender (Male 58 vs 55%), age (66 ± 9 vs 63 ± 18 years), renal function (eGFR 23 ± 13 vs 24 ± 13 mL/min)...
May 9, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734150/association-between-increases-in-normalized-protein-catabolic-rate-and-increases-in-creatinine-generation-rate-in-dialysis-patients
#5
Norio Hanafusa, Daigo Kamei, Misao Tsukada, Naoko Miwa, Mizuki Komatsu, Shunji Shiohira, Masayuki Okazaki, Ryota Watanabe, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Ken Tsuchiya, Kosaku Nitta
The older dialysis population is growing, and malnutrition and wasting syndrome are great concerns in this population. The management of these syndromes includes appropriate nutritional intake and physical activity. However, whether management in the form of an increase in protein intake has a beneficial effect on muscle mass has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated an association between changes of normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), as a proxy for protein intake and percent creatinine generation rate (%CGR), as a proxy for muscle mass in patients receiving hemodialysis...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731235/assessment-of-nutritional-status-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease-using-hand-grip-strength-tool
#6
Ashraf Mohamed Abd El Basset Bakr, Bothina Mohamed Hasaneen, Dina AbdelRasoul Helal Bassiouni
OBJECTIVE: Muscle status assessment is crucial for diagnosis of protein energy wasting PEW/cachexia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. Hand grip strength (HGS) has been used in muscle power assessment in adult CKD. However, no data is available about its usefulness in children with CKD. Hence, we aimed to study the reliability of HGS in reflecting the muscle power and thus, nutritional status in children with CKD. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this Observational cross sectional study we enrolled 73 CKD children; 45 had end stage kidney disease (ESKD) on hemodialysis (HD) and 28 had CKD but not on dialysis yet...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713380/meta-proteomic-analysis-of-protein-expression-distinctive-to-electricity-generating-biofilm-communities-in-air-cathode-microbial-fuel-cells
#7
Jeremy F Chignell, Susan K De Long, Kenneth F Reardon
Background: Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) harness electrons from microbial respiration to generate power or chemical products from a variety of organic feedstocks, including lignocellulosic biomass, fermentation byproducts, and wastewater sludge. In some BESs, such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs), bacteria living in a biofilm use the anode as an electron acceptor for electrons harvested from organic materials such as lignocellulosic biomass or waste byproducts, generating energy that may be used by humans...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707907/secondary-hyperparathyroidism-and-protein-energy-wasting-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#8
REVIEW
Hirotaka Komaba, Masafumi Fukagawa
Protein-energy wasting (PEW), a syndrome involving adverse changes in nutrition and body composition, is a serious problem associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The pathogenesis of PEW is multifactorial, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. However, recent translational work has provided compelling evidence for a causal role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the pathogenesis of adipose tissue browning and increased energy expenditure, a critical component of PEW in ESRD...
April 30, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702682/restrictive-lung-disorder-is-common-in-patients-with-kidney-failure-and-associates-with-protein-energy-wasting-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Hideyuki Mukai, Pei Ming, Bengt Lindholm, Olof Heimbürger, Peter Barany, Björn Anderstam, Peter Stenvinkel, Abdul Rashid Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), protein-energy wasting (PEW), and inflammation are common interrelated features of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Less is known about lung dysfunction in CKD and its possible role in this context. We evaluated lung function and its association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), CVD, PEW, and inflammation in individuals with normal to severely reduced GFR. METHODS: In 404 individuals with GFR category G1 (n = 31; GFR >90mL/min/1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702558/a-low-protein-diet-for-diabetic-kidney-disease-its-effect-and-molecular-mechanism-an-approach-from-animal-studies
#10
REVIEW
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Itaru Monno, Daisuke Koya
A low-protein diet (LPD) can be expected to retard renal function decline in advanced stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and is recommended in a clinical setting. Regarding the molecular mechanisms of an LPD against DKD, previous animal studies have shown that an LPD exerts reno-protection through mainly the improvement of glomerular hyperfiltration/hypertension due to the reduction of intraglomerular pressure. On the other hand, we have demonstrated that an LPD, particularly a very-LPD (VLPD), improved tubulo-interstitial damage, inflammation and fibrosis, through the restoration of autophagy via the reduction of a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity in type 2 diabetes and obesity animal models...
April 27, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691162/bioimpedance-spectroscopy-as-a-practical-tool-for-the-early-detection-and-prevention-of-protein-energy-wasting-in-hemodialysis-patients
#11
Marta Arias-Guillén, Eduardo Perez, Patricia Herrera, Bárbara Romano, Raquel Ojeda, Manel Vera, José Ríos, Néstor Fontseré, Francisco Maduell
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether body composition monitor (BCM) could be a practical instrument for nephrologists to assess nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis (HD) and whether it is more effective in identifying patients at highest risk of developing protein-energy wasting (PEW) alone or in combination with other tools currently used for that purpose. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study in 91 HD patients (60 ± 14 years, 70.3% male, 24 ± 4...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688512/greater-fluid-overload-and-lower-interdialytic-weight-gain-are-independently-associated-with-mortality-in-a-large-international-hemodialysis-population
#12
Manfred Hecking, Ulrich Moissl, Bernd Genser, Hugh Rayner, Indranil Dasgupta, Stefano Stuard, Andrea Stopper, Charles Chazot, Franklin W Maddux, Bernard Canaud, Friedrich K Port, Carmine Zoccali, Peter Wabel
Background: Fluid overload and interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) are discrete components of the dynamic fluid balance in haemodialysis patients. We aimed to disentangle their relationship, and the prognostic importance of two clinically distinct, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)-derived measures, pre-dialysis and post-dialysis fluid overload (FOpre and FOpost) versus IDWG. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 38 614 incident patients with one or more BIS measurement within 90 days of haemodialysis initiation (1 October 2010 through 28 February 2015)...
April 20, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686978/novel-aspects-of-renal-magnesium-homeostasis
#13
REVIEW
Paula Giménez-Mascarell, Carlotta Else Schirrmacher, Luis Alfonso Martínez-Cruz, Dominik Müller
Magnesium (Mg2+ ) is indispensable for several vital functions, such as neurotransmission, cardiac conductance, blood glucose, blood pressure regulation, and proper function of more than 300 enzymes. Thus, Mg2+ homeostasis is subject to tight regulation. Besides the fast and immediate regulation of plasma Mg2+ , a major part of Mg2+ homeostasis is realized by a concerted action of epithelial molecular structures that tightly control intestinal uptake and renal absorption. This mechanism is provided by a combination of para- and transcellular pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686466/nutrition-status-and-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis
#14
REVIEW
Mitsushige Sugimoto, Hideo Yasuda, Akira Andoh
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) often develop gastrointestinal abnormalities over their long treatment period. In general, prognosis in such patients is poor due to the development of protein-energy wasting (PEW). Therefore, it is important to clarify the etiology of PEW and to establish better strategies to deal with this condition. Chronic Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection in the gastric mucosa has a close association with not only the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, but is also associated with abnormal plasma and gastric mucosal ghrelin levels that are seen in malnutrition...
April 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672184/oral-supplementation-with-beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-arginine-and-glutamine-improves-lean-body-mass-in-healthy-older-adults
#15
Amy C Ellis, Gary R Hunter, Amy M Goss, Barbara A Gower
Oral intake of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine may ameliorate muscle loss by stimulating protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation while simultaneously decreasing inflammation. Previous studies provide evidence for improvement in body composition with dietary supplementation of these ingredients among patients with muscle-wasting diseases. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of this amino acid mixture on lean body mass, muscle volume, and physical function among healthy older adults...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665664/-resting-metabolic-rate-estimated-by-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-and-its-determinants-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#16
J J Da, H Y Peng, X Lin, Y Shen, J Q Zhao, S He, Y Zha
Objective: To explore the level of resting energy expenditure (REE) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and the association of resting metabolic rate (RMR) with clinical related factors, and provide new ideas for improving protein energy wasting (PEW) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Methods: Seven hundred and sixty-five subjects receiving MHD between July 2015 and September 2016 in 11 hemodialysis centers in Guizhou province were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure RMR and body composition, such as lean body mass, fat mass and body cell mass (BCM)...
March 27, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656361/characterization-of-the-mitochondrial-aerobic-metabolism-in-the-pre-and-perisynaptic-districts-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Silvia Ravera, Tiziana Bonifacino, Martina Bartolucci, Marco Milanese, Elena Gallia, Francesca Provenzano, Katia Cortese, Isabella Panfoli, Giambattista Bonanno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle wasting, weakness, and spasticity due to a progressive degeneration of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. The etiopathological causes are still largely obscure, although astrocytes definitely play a role in neuronal damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to concur to neurodegeneration in ALS, including mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously shown profound modifications of glutamate release and presynaptic plasticity in the spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644218/nutrition-in-the-bin-a-nutritional-and-environmental-assessment-of-food-wasted-in-the-uk
#18
Karen A Cooper, Tom E Quested, Helene Lanctuit, Diane Zimmermann, Namy Espinoza-Orias, Anne Roulin
The UK currently has the most detailed, directly measured data for food wasted in the home. This includes information on the exact types of food wasted. These data allow calculation of the nutrients within that waste, as well as its environmental impact. The results progress the conversation beyond how much food is wasted or its energy content; it permits the implications for nutrition and sustainability to be assessed in detail. Data for UK household food waste were expressed as an average waste per capita for each type of food...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627840/lung-dysfunction-and-mortality-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Hideyuki Mukai, Pei Ming, Bengt Lindholm, Olof Heimbürger, Peter Barany, Peter Stenvinkel, Abdul Rashid Qureshi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lung dysfunction associates with increased mortality but the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less clear. We evaluated lung function and its association with mortality among individuals with normal to severely reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). METHODS: 404 individuals representing GFR category G1 (n=31; GFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2), G2 (n=46), G3 (n=33), G4 (n=49) and G5 (n=245; GFR< 15 mL/min/1.73 m2) underwent spirometry yielding lung function indices forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF)...
March 29, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603281/association-of-energy-and-protein-delivery-on-skeletal-muscle-mass-changes-in-critically-ill-adults-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Kate J Lambell, Susannah J King, Adrienne K Forsyth, Audrey C Tierney
Critically ill patients experience significant and rapid loss of skeletal muscle mass, which has been associated with negative clinical outcomes. The aetiology of muscle wasting is multifactorial and nutrition delivery may play a role. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine the association of energy and/or protein provision on changes in skeletal muscle mass in critically ill patients. Key databases were searched up until March 2016 to identify studies that measured skeletal muscle mass and/or total body protein (TBP) at 2 or more time points during acute critical illness (up to 2 weeks after an intensive care unit [ICU] stay)...
March 30, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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