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Invasive aspergillosis

Nikolaus Rieber, Roel P Gazendam, Alexandra F Freeman, Amy P Hsu, Amanda L Collar, Janyce A Sugui, Rebecca A Drummond, Chokechai Rongkavilit, Kevin Hoffman, Carolyn Henderson, Lily Clark, Markus Mezger, Muthulekha Swamydas, Maik Engeholm, Rebecca Schüle, Bettina Neumayer, Frank Ebel, Constantinos M Mikelis, Stefania Pittaluga, Vinod K Prasad, Anurag Singh, Joshua D Milner, Kelli W Williams, Jean K Lim, Kyung J Kwon-Chung, Steven M Holland, Dominik Hartl, Taco W Kuijpers, Michail S Lionakis
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis that only affects patients with immunosuppression, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, transplantation, or congenital immunodeficiency. We studied the clinical, genetic, histological, and immunological features of 2 unrelated patients without known immunodeficiency who developed extrapulmonary invasive aspergillosis at the ages of 8 and 18. One patient died at age 12 with progressive intra-abdominal aspergillosis. The other patient had presented with intra-abdominal candidiasis at age 9, and developed central nervous system aspergillosis at age 18 and intra-abdominal aspergillosis at age 25...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Matt Shirley, Lesley J Scott
Isavuconazole is a second-generation triazole with activity against a broad spectrum of clinically important fungi. Its water-soluble prodrug, isavuconazonium sulfate (Cresemba(®)), available in interchangeable intravenous and oral formulations, is approved in the USA and EU for the treatment of adults with invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. In international phase III clinical trials, isavuconazole was efficacious and generally well tolerated in the treatment of these life-threatening diseases. In the phase III SECURE trial, isavuconazole was non-inferior to voriconazole for the primary treatment of invasive mould disease (primarily aspergillosis) and was associated with fewer drug-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) than voriconazole...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
Maya Hites, Eduardo Wilfrido Goicoechea Turcott, Fabio Silvio Taccone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Katerina Kaziani, Elli Mitrakou, George Dimopoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Yuetian Yu, Cheng Zhu, Xiaozhe Qian, Yuan Gao
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients, and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) induced by IPA is rare and seldom reported. Management of these critically ill patients is challenging and often requires a multidisciplinary approach. The authors reported an adult suffering from aplastic anemia who developed TEF caused by IPA. The diagnosis was confirmed following bronchoscopy and histopathological examination. Antifungal and bronchoscopic intervention provided a cure without any recurrence as yet...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Susanne Eigl, Martin Hoenigl, Birgit Spiess, Sven Heldt, Juergen Prattes, Peter Neumeister, Albert Wolfler, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Florian Prueller, Robert Krause, Mark Reinwald, Holger Flick, Dieter Buchheidt, Tobias Boch
In recent years galactomannan antigen testing (GM) and also Aspergillus PCR have become increasingly important for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Whether or not these tests need to be performed with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; i.e., primary site of infection), or testing of blood samples is sufficient, remains, however, a matter of debate. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of GM ELISA, and Aspergillus PCR by using BALF samples and blood samples obtained at the same day from a total of 53 immunocompromised patients (16 with probable/proven IA and 37 with no evidence of IA according to the revised EORTC/MSG criteria; 38 patients with hematological malignancies were prospectively enrolled at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, 15 patients with mixed underlying diseases at the Mannheim University Hospital)...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
L F A Guimarães, M Halpern, A S de Lemos, E F de Gouvêa, R T Gonçalves, M A A da Rosa Santos, M Nucci, G Santoro-Lopes
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important complication after solid organ transplantation (SOT). A marked geographic variation in the epidemiology of IFD after kidney transplantation (KT) has been suggested by the results of previous studies. Nevertheless, data from Latin American centers are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe the epidemiology of IFD at a Brazilian KT center. METHODS: This study was a retrospective single-center cohort study that included patients who underwent KT between 1998 and 2009 and were followed up until July 2015...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Tobias Svensson, Kristina Lamberg Lundström, Martin Höglund, Honar Cherif
BACKGROUND: Patients treated for hematological malignancies have an increased risk of serious infections. Diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are essential. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-established investigation for identifying the cause of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic yield of BAL in patients treated for hematological malignancies and how often it contributed to a modification of the anti-infectious therapy...
October 14, 2016: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Avneesh Prasad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
M M Naik, M M Prabhu, Rajagopal Kv, D M Nayak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Chaitanya Gb, Shankar Prasad, Lavanya K
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Yee-Huang Ku, Yin-Ching Chuang, Wen-Liang Yu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Aadithya B Urs, Hanspal Singh, Sujata Mohanty, Pankaj Sharma
Osteomyelitis is defined as inflammation of the medullary cavities, haversian system and adjacent cortex of bone. Osteomyelitis involving maxilla is quite rare when compared to that of mandible. Fungal osteomyelitis is very rarely seen and documented in the maxillofacial area. It is devastating to patients if it is invasive in nature. A prospective study was undertaken from December 2011 to December 2013. Biopsied hard tissue bits were decalcified and sections were stained with H&E, periodic acid Schiff and Grocott methenamine silver...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Li Du, Yun Xia, Yunyan He, Qingquan Pu, Ruoyi Hua, Wenyao Wu
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients, rapid and sensitive detection of Aspergillus from clinical samples has been a major challenge in the early diagnosis of IA. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA-ELISA) was developed to fulfil the need for the efficient diagnosis of these infections. The primers targeting 18S rRNA were selected for the amplification of Aspergillus RNA by the isothermal digoxigenin (DIG)-labeling NASBA process...
December 2016: AMB Express
Daisuke Hagiwara, Akira Watanabe, Katsuhiko Kamei, Gustavo H Goldman
Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening mycosis caused by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus. The predominant causal species is Aspergillus fumigatus, and azole drugs are the treatment of choice. Azole drugs approved for clinical use include itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the recently added isavuconazole. However, epidemiological research has indicated that the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates has increased significantly over the last decade. What is worse is that azole-resistant strains are likely to have emerged not only in response to long-term drug treatment but also because of exposure to azole fungicides in the environment...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Mario Henrique Paziani, Márcia Regina Von Zeska Kress, Diego M Riaño-Pachón, Daisuke Hagiwara, Laure N A Ries, Neil Andrew Brown, Gustavo H Goldman
Invasive aspergillosis is predominantly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and adaptations to stresses experienced within the human host are a prerequisite for the survival and virulence strategies of the pathogen. The central signal transduction pathway operating during hyperosmotic stress is the High Osmolarity Glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. A. fumigatus MpkC and SakA, orthologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hog1p, constitute the primary regulator of the hyperosmotic stress response...
October 5, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Nancy F Crum-Cianflone
Background.  Invasive aspergillosis may occur in the setting of severe influenza infections due to viral-induced respiratory epithelium disruption and impaired immune effects, but data are limited. Methods.  A retrospective study was conducted among severe influenza cases requiring medical intensive care unit (ICU) admission at an academic center during the 2015-2016 season. Data collected included respiratory cultures, medical conditions and immunosuppressants, laboratory and radiographic data, and outcomes...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Shahid Husain, Fernanda P Silveira, Nkechi Azie, Billy Franks, David Horn
Epidemiological characteristics of 333 proven and probable invasive mould infections (IMIs) among solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) identified between 2004 and 2008 from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy Alliance (PATH) registry are presented. Liver transplant recipients (LTRs) had the lowest median time to IMIs (109 days; interquartile range [IQR] 24-611 days), the highest rate of disseminated disease (n/N = 18/33; 55%), and highest mortality (n/N = 21/33; 64%). Lung transplant recipients had highest median time to IMIs (486 days; IQR 117-1358 days) and lowest mortality (n/N = 31/184; 17%)...
October 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Rocio Garcia-Rubio, Horacio Gil, Maria Candida Monteiro, Teresa Pelaez, Emilia Mellado
Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic mold fungus ubiquitously found in the environment and is the most common species causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. For A. fumigatus genotyping, the short tandem repeat method (STRAf) is widely accepted as the first choice. However, difficulties associated with PCR product size and required technology have encouraged the development of novel typing techniques. In this study, a new genotyping method based on hypervariable tandem repeats within exons of surface protein coding genes (TRESP) was designed...
2016: PloS One
Rasmus Hare Jensen
Antifungal drug resistance is a multifaceted clinical challenge, and when present, a primary cause of treatment failure in patients with severe fungal infections. Changing epidemiology, increasing resistance rates and a narrow antifungal armamentarium may further underline the required attention on resistance particularly within the most prevalent invasive fungal infections caused by Candida yeasts and Aspergillus moulds. In Denmark, the resistance epidemiology remains to be fully elucidated. This thesis sought to address this demand as well as provide insight into the landscape of underlying molecular resistance mechanisms...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
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