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Help-seeking pathways

Sheena Asthana, Graham Moon, Alex Gibson, Trevor Bailey, Paul Hewson, Chris Dibben
There is a general understanding that socioeconomically disadvantaged people are also disadvantaged with respect to their access to NHS care. Insofar as considerable NHS funding has been targeted at deprived areas, it is important to better understand whether and why socioeconomic variations in access and utilisation exist. Exploring this question with reference to cardiovascular care, our aims were to synthesise and evaluate evidence relating to access to and/or use of English NHS services around (i) different points on the care pathway (i...
October 16, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Catherine Diamond, Nicholas Freudenberg
Community schools link students, families, and communities to educate children and strengthen neighborhoods. They have become a popular model for education in many US cities in part because they build on community assets and address multiple determinants of educational disadvantage. Since community schools seek to have an impact on populations, not just the children enrolled, they provide an opportunity to improve community health. Community schools influence the health and education of neighborhood residents though three pathways: building trust, establishing norms, and linking people to networks and services...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Michael Kidorf, Carl Latkin, Robert K Brooner
The present study evaluated the presence of drug-free family and friends in the personal social networks of individuals seeking treatment for opioid use disorder, and the willingness of patients to bring these individuals to the treatment program to support recovery efforts. Patients at a community medication-assisted treatment program (n=355) completed a clinical survey to identify drug-free social network members. Results showed that almost all patients (98%) reported having at least one drug-free family or friend in their personal network (M=3...
November 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Isabel F Augur, Andrew R Wyckoff, Gary Aston-Jones, Peter W Kalivas, Jamie Peters
UNLABELLED: The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been shown to negatively regulate cocaine-seeking behavior, but the precise conditions by which vmPFC activity can be exploited to reduce cocaine relapse are currently unknown. We used viral-mediated gene transfer of designer receptors (DREADDs) to activate vmPFC neurons and examine the consequences on cocaine seeking in a rat self-administration model of relapse. Activation of vmPFC neurons with the Gq-DREADD reduced reinstatement of cocaine seeking elicited by cocaine-associated cues, but not by cocaine itself...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gabriele Masi, Annarita Milone, Paola Brovedani, Simone Pisano, Pietro Muratori
Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) are stable and impairing disorders, heterogeneous in presentation, developmental pathways, and treatment needs. Disentangling subtypes according to psychopathological dimensions is helpful for timely diagnoses, precise prognoses and tailored interventions. Psychopathic traits are relevant in subtyping DBDs with severe antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Three psychopathy dimensions have been found: 1) an affective dimension, the callous-unemotional (CU) trait, with lack of empathy and remorse, and with short-lived emotions; 2) an interpersonal dimension, the narcissistic domain, with manipulative abilities, superficial charm, egocentricity and grandiosity; 3) a behavioral dimension, the impulsivity or impulsive-irresponsibility, with irresponsibility, proneness to boredom, and novelty seeking...
September 25, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo
Ejaculatory function cannot be evaluated outside the dyadic process and without taking into account the men's and women's cognition of the condition and how their subjective perception impacts on the evaluation of the relationship and sexual quality. Although the distress of the sufferer and his partner has been a motivating factor in leading men with ejaculatory dysfunction to seek medical help, few objective or prospective evaluations of the effects on the couple have been reported. Specialized literature has been dealing with ejaculatory disorders in a heterogeneous manner...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Deborah L Snell, Rachelle Martin, Lois J Surgenor, Richard J Siegert, E Jean C Hay-Smith
PURPOSE: Qualitative research examining experiences of recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is limited. Findings from quantitative studies regarding predictors of persisting symptoms are inconsistent with limited attention directed to capturing broad perspectives and priorities of the wider stakeholders. More flexible research approaches may help advance the field. We used a mixed method design to generate patient perspectives of MTBI recovery, integrating these with quantitative investigation to isolate factors that might contribute to divergent MTBI outcomes...
September 14, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Kenji Ishida, Emmitt R Jolly
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that affects over 240 million people worldwide and is considered the most important neglected tropical disease following malaria. Free-swimming freshwater cercariae, one of the six morphologically distinct schistosome life stages, infect humans by directly penetrating through the skin. Cercariae identify and seek the host by sensing chemicals released from human skin. When they reach the host, they burrow into the skin with the help of proteases and other contents released from their acetabular glands and transform into schistosomula, the subsequent larval worm stage upon skin infection...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gustaf Waxegård, Hans Thulesius
BACKGROUND: To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. METHODS: Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Isak S Pretorius
Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes...
August 18, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Racquel E Kohler, Satish Gopal, Anna R Miller, Clara N Lee, Bryce B Reeve, Bryan J Weiner, Stephanie B Wheeler
OBJECTIVE: Many women in Africa are diagnosed with advanced breast cancer. We explored Malawian breast cancer patients' perspectives about their diagnosis and ability to access care to identify help-seeking behaviors and to describe factors influencing delay. METHODS: We purposively sampled 20 Malawian breast cancer patients to conduct in-depth interviews. Transcripts were double coded to identify major themes of breast cancer help-seeking behaviors and what delayed or facilitated access to care...
August 9, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
Kathina Ali, Louise Farrer, Daniel B Fassnacht, Amelia Gulliver, Stephanie Bauer, Kathleen M Griffiths
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on perceived barriers and facilitators of help-seeking for eating disorders. METHOD: Three databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane) were searched using keywords and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Retrieved abstracts (N = 3493) were double screened and relevant papers (n = 13) were double coded. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included if they reported perceived barriers and facilitators towards seeking help for eating disorders...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Margaret C Elliott, Elizabeth A Shuey, Tama Leventhal
Although adolescents begin to seek autonomy and strive to be out of the home on their own, the housing context remains the primary setting of their daily lives. Using survey and ethnographic data from (e.g., Winston et al., 1999), this study explored quantitatively and qualitatively how two salient aspects of the housing context, physical housing problems and household size, were associated with low-income adolescents' emotional and academic functioning, and how these associations were modified by mother-adolescent relationships (specifically, trust and communication) and gender...
September 2016: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Henrik Eriksson, Jureerat Kijsomporn, Gunnel Östlund
BACKGROUND: Many Thai people experiencing alcohol addiction do not seek help, and those who do often have inadequate access to treatment. There are few research studies focusing on alcohol addiction treatment in Thailand. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to identify barriers to the treatment of alcohol addiction and to collect experts' suggestions for improving treatment in Thailand. The Delphi technique was used to achieve consensual agreement among an expert panel within the field of alcohol addiction and treatment...
2016: Global Health Action
(no author information available yet)
Lewis C. Cantley, Director of the Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center at Weill Cornell Medicine, is a world leader in cancer and metabolic disease research. His seminal discoveries have shed light on the regulation of ion pumps and other transport proteins, insulin-mediated regulation of glucose metabolism and the role of signal transduction networks in cell transformation. At Tufts University in the 1980s, Lewis and his collaborators unveiled and characterized the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway; a discovery that revolutionized the field of lipid signaling...
September 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Francesca Taylor, Celia Taylor, Jyoti Baharani, Johann Nicholas, Gill Combes
BACKGROUND: As a result of difficulties related to their illness, diagnosis and treatment, patients with end-stage renal disease experience significant emotional and psychological problems, which untreated can have considerable negative impact on their health and wellbeing. Despite evidence that patients desire improved support, management of their psychosocial problems, particularly at the lower-level, remains sub-optimal. There is limited understanding of the specific support that patients need and want, from whom, and when, and also a lack of data on what helps and hinders renal staff in identifying and responding to their patients' support needs, and how barriers to doing so might be overcome...
2016: BMC Nephrology
Ali A Qureshi, Kristen P Broderick, Jessica Belz, Susan Funk, Nancy Reaven, Keith E Brandt, Marissa M Tenenbaum, Julie A Margenthaler, Rebecca L Aft, Terence M Myckatyn
BACKGROUND: Meaningful data to help guide resource allocation for staged tissue expander/implant-based breast reconstruction are currently lacking. The authors seek to differentiate uneventful from successful reconstruction and identify common outcome pathways and factors that portend a deviation from an uneventful, two-stage, two-operation course. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of expander/implant reconstructions with or without acellular dermal matrix (2003 to 2009) was performed...
August 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Ugo Ikwuka, Niall Galbraith, Ken Manktelow, Josephine Chen-Wilson, Femi Oyebode, Rosemary Chizobam Muomah, Anulika Igboaka
In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional and faith healers provide competing services alongside biomedical professionals. This may be associated with delays in reaching specialised mental health services, and hence with longer duration of untreated illness. As first line care constitutes a crucial stage in accessing of psychiatric care, investigating pathways to mental healthcare can highlight help-seeking choices. This study explored the pathways to care for mental illness preferred by a non-clinical sample of the population in south-eastern Nigeria...
October 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Xian Hui, Hui Liu, Fang-Lin Tian, Fei-Fei Li, Heng Li, Wen-Yun Gao
1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) is the first committed enzyme in the MEP terpenoid biosynthetic pathway and also a validated antimicrobial target. Green tea which is rich in polyphenolic components such as the catechins, possesses a plenty of pharmacological activities, in particular an antibacterial effect. To uncover the antibacterial mechanism of green tea and to seek new DXR inhibitors from natural sources, the DXR inhibitory activity of green tea and its main antimicrobial catechins were investigated in this study...
September 2016: Fitoterapia
Naomi Tschirhart, Francois Nosten, Angel M Foster
BACKGROUND: In Tak province, Thailand migrants and refugees from Myanmar navigate a pluralistic healthcare system to seek Tuberculosis (TB) care from a variety of government and non-governmental providers. This multi-methods qualitative study examined access to TB, TB/HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment with an emphasis on barriers to care and enabling factors. METHODS: In the summer and fall of 2014, we conducted 12 key informant interviews with public health officials and TB treatment providers...
2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
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