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ruminative thinking

Elisa C K Steinfurth, Manuela G Alius, Julia Wendt, Alfons O Hamm
The current experiments tested neural and physiological correlates of worry and rumination in comparison to thinking about neutral events. According to the avoidance model-stating that worry is a strategy to reduce intense emotions-physiological and neurobiological activity during worried thinking should not differ from activation during neutral thinking. According to the contrast avoidance model-stating that worry is a strategy to reduce abrupt shifts of emotions-activity should be increased. To test these competing models, we induced worry and neutral thinking in healthy participants using personal topics...
October 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
Mark Cropley, Fred R H Zijlstra, Dawn Querstret, Sarah Beck
Work-related rumination, that is, perseverative thinking about work during leisure time, has been associated with a range of negative health and wellbeing issues. The present paper examined the association between work-related rumination and cognitive processes centerd around the theoretical construct of executive functioning. Executive functioning is an umbrella term for high level cognitive processes such as planning, working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility; and it underlies how people manage and regulate their goal directed behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Regina Miranda, Alyssa Wheeler, Lillian Polanco-Roman, Brett Marroquín
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Repetitive thinking about the future has been suggested as one way in which individuals may become hopeless about the future. We report on a new scale assessing future-oriented repetitive thinking, termed the Future-Oriented Repetitive Thought (FoRT) Scale. METHODS: In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted with data from 1071 individuals who completed the scale. Study 2 describes a confirmatory factor analysis with a revised version of the scale on a sample of 612 individuals, a subsample of whom (N=99) also completed measures of repetitive thought (rumination, worry), hopelessness-related cognitions, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder in order to examine evidence for the measure's convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Katrina Malin, Geoffrey Owen Littlejohn
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain and high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, and altered cognition. Psychological stress can modulate these features. In this study, we examined the thinking style of rumination in women with FM to assess the effect of rumination on stress levels and other psychological variables in FM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-eight women with FM completed questionnaires to assess levels of rumination, stress, anxiety, depression, optimism, control, and coping...
December 2015: Eur J Rheumatol
Sophia Schneider, Stefanie Brassen
Brooding rumination is considered a central aspect of depression in midlife. As older people tend to review their past, rumination tendency might be particularly crucial in late life since it might hinder older adults to adequately evaluate previous events. We scanned 22 non-depressed older adults with varying degrees of brooding tendency with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while they performed the construction and elaboration of autobiographical memories. Behavioral findings demonstrate that brooders reported lower mood states, needed more time for memory construction and rated their memories as less detailed and less positive...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lillian Polanco-Roman, Judelysse Gomez, Regina Miranda, Elizabeth Jeglic
There is a growing body of literature suggesting that reactions to stressful life events, such as intrusive thoughts, physiological hyperarousal, and cognitive/behavioral avoidance (i.e., stress-related symptoms) may increase risk for thinking about and attempting suicide. Cognitive vulnerability models have identified rumination (i.e., perseverating on a negative mood) as a maladaptive response that may increase risk for suicidal behavior, as it has also been linked to depression. The present study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress-related symptoms on suicidal ideation through rumination and depressive symptoms...
October 2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Lori S Hoggard, LaBarron K Hill
BACKGROUND: African Americans experience more problematic and disordered sleep than White Americans. Racial discrimination has been implicated in this disparity. However, the mechanisms by which discrimination disrupts sleep are unclear. It has been theorized that Perseverative Cognition (PC), characterized by recurrent patterns of reflective (i.e., rumination) and anticipatory (i.e., worry) negative thinking about personally relevant stressors, may reflect the functional mechanism linking discrimination to sleep...
October 3, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Faustine Devynck, Monika Kornacka, Fabienne Sgard, Céline Douilliez
BACKGROUND: Recent studies proposed that a tendency to have repetitive negative thinking (RNT) could be a predictor of alcohol use. Nevertheless, results differ depending on the studied population (nonclinical samples or patients with alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence) and on the type of repetitive thinking (rumination or worry). These heterogeneous results might be explained by the impact of anxiety and depression level on RNT and alcohol consumption. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to explore different type of repetitive thinking (i...
September 28, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson, James M Henson
BACKGROUND: Understanding the potential psychosocial mechanisms that explain (i.e., mediate) the associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related problems can improve interventions targeting college students. OBJECTIVES: The current research examined four distinct facets of rumination (e.g., problem-focused thoughts, counterfactual thinking, repetitive thoughts, and anticipatory thoughts) and drinking to cope motives as potential explanatory mechanisms by which depressive symptoms are associated with increased alcohol-related problems...
September 26, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Annette Brose, Ernst H W Koster, Rudi De Raedt
Rumination is a maladaptive form of emotion regulation and seems to be the cognitive mechanism linking stress to depressive symptoms. However, it remains to be investigated whether individuals' variation in rumination in relation to the occurrence of stressful events (e.g., phasic co-variation between stressful events and rumination) prospectively predict the experience of depressive symptoms in lengthy follow-up moments. In this eighteen months prospective design, a large unselected sample of undergraduates was tested before, during, and after a period with prominent naturally occurring stressful events...
September 8, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Maarten C Eisma, Paul A Boelen, Henk A W Schut, Margaret S Stroebe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Repetitive thought is a trans-diagnostic risk factor for development of psychopathology. Research on repetitive thought in bereaved individuals has focused primarily on clarifying the role of rumination, repetitive thinking about past negative events and/or negative emotions. While detrimental effects of rumination have been demonstrated following bereavement, surprisingly few studies have aimed to clarify the role of worry, repetitive thinking about potential future negative events, in adjustment to loss...
August 30, 2016: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Eiran Vadim Harel, Robert Langley Tennyson, Maurizio Fava, Moshe Bar
It has been proposed that mood correlates with the breadth of associative thinking. Here we set this hypothesis to the test in healthy and depressed individuals. Generating contextual associations engages a network of cortical regions including the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), retrosplenial complex, and medial prefrontal cortex. The link between mood, associative processing, and its underlying cortical infrastructure provides a promising avenue for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the cognitive impairments in major depressive disorder (MDD)...
August 23, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Eva Naumann, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Ulrich Voderholzer, Johanna Schäfer, Jennifer Svaldi
INTRODUCTION: Body dissatisfaction is an important risk and maintaining factor for eating disorders. The aim of the present study was to experimentally test the effects of two emotion regulation strategies - acceptance and rumination - on media-induced body dissatisfaction in eating disorders. METHOD: After watching pictures of thin models, women with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 39) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 39) were encouraged to either use emotional acceptance or rumination to cope with their feelings...
November 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Pierre Philippot, Stefan Agrigoroaei
OBJECTIVES: Previous findings and the depressive-executive dysfunction hypothesis suggest that the established association between executive functioning and depression is accounted for by repetitive thinking. Investigating the association between executive functioning, repetitive thinking, and depressive mood, the present study empirically tested this mediational model in a sample of older adults, while focusing on both concrete and abstract repetitive thinking. This latter distinction is important given the potential protective role of concrete repetitive thinking, in contrast to the depletive effect of abstract repetitive thinking...
August 2, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
Katherine R Buchholz, Steven E Bruce, Ellen M Koucky, Tiffany M Artime, Jessica A Wojtalik, Wilson J Brown, Yvette I Sheline
Rumination, defined as repetitive, negative, self-focused thinking, is hypothesized to be a transdiagnostic factor that is associated with depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Theory has suggested that in individuals with PTSD, rumination serves as a cognitive avoidance factor that contributes to the maintenance of symptoms by inhibiting the cognitive and emotional processing of the traumatic event, subsequently interfering with treatment engagement and outcome. Little is known about the neural correlates of rumination in women with PTSD...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Elias S Cohen
This essay is an exploration of an extended period of the last 2000 days of anticipated mortality from the perspective of an aging gerontologist. The last 2000 days come at the end of what has come to be referred to as the Third Age (Silva, L. R. (2008). [From old age to third age: The historical course of the identities linked to the process of ageing]. História, ciências, saúde-Manguinhos, 15: , 155-168. doi:10.1590/S0104-59702008000100009). Life in the last 2000 days is a period in which the appreciation of finitude comes into new prominence, affecting a variety of elements that command attention-from individuals and from scholars...
June 30, 2016: Gerontologist
A Visinet, C Soumet-Leman, A Baptista, C Bungener, R Jouvent
BACKGROUND: Metacognition describes the process of thinking about one's own thought processes. This concept was introduced by Flavell in 1979 and has since been widely developed in the cognitive approach to mood and anxiety disorders. As it happens, many recent studies have underlined the links between metacognition and anxio-depressive symptoms, pointing out the interest of assessing its various dimensions. The short form of the Metacognitions Questionnaire is a brief multidimensional measure of a range of metacognitive processes and metacognitive beliefs about worry and cognition relevant to the vulnerability to and the maintenance of emotional disorders...
June 24, 2016: L'Encéphale
Renee J Thompson, Katharina Kircanski, Ian H Gotlib
BACKGROUND: Affect evaluation - how people evaluate their emotion experiences - has important implications for mental health. METHODS: We examined how 70 adults diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder and/or Generalized Anxiety Disorder or no psychiatric disorders (control group) believe they should feel in the moment (should affect). We repeatedly assessed participants' current affect and should affect over one week using experience sampling. To examine the psychometric properties of should affect, participants rated their level of rumination at each survey and completed trait measures of brooding and ideal affect at the lab...
October 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Marcel Badra, Lars Schulze, Eni S Becker, Janna Nonja Vrijsen, Babette Renneberg, Ulrike Zetsche
Cognitive models propose that both, negative interpretations of ambiguous social situations and ruminative thoughts about social events contribute to the maintenance of social anxiety disorder. It has further been postulated that ruminative thoughts fuel biased negative interpretations, however, evidence is rare. The present study used a multi-method approach to assess ruminative processing following a social interaction (post-event processing by self-report questionnaire and social rumination by experience sampling method) and negative interpretation bias (via two separate tasks) in a student sample (n = 51) screened for high (HSA) and low social anxiety (LSA)...
June 9, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Torben Schubert, Philipp Süssenbach, Sarina J Schäfer, Frank Euteneuer
Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond objective measures of social status. Both objective and subjective measures of social status are strongly related with depression. Cognitive mechanisms such as depressive cognitions, rumination, and a negative cognitive style are seen as both concomitant and antecedent to depression. This experiment examined the causal role of SSS in developing depressive thinking. Participants were randomly assigned to a low and a high status group and followed a manipulation procedure targeting their SSS...
July 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
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