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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240466/liberal-transfusion-strategies-still-the-trend-in-burn-surgery
#1
N L Allorto, M D T Smith, D L Clarke
OBJECTIVE: Blood is a limited resource in middle-income countries such as South Africa. Transfusion is associated with complications and expense. We aimed to understand our transfusion practices in burn surgery as well as ascertain the opinion of a broader group of surgeons and anaesthetists regarding transfusion triggers in order to understand the rationale and bias that drives current transfusion practice in our setting. METHOD: Firstly, we investigated the current blood practices at our regional burn service through an audit of perioperative notes for all patients receiving packed cell transfusions in a 24-month period...
September 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237128/primary-immunodeficiency-diseases-in-northern-iran
#2
I Mohammadzadeh, B Moazzami, J Ghaffari, A Aghamohammadi, N Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, characterised by recurrent severe infections, autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. Despite impressive progress in identification of novel PID, there is an unfortunate lack of awareness among physicians in identification of patients with PID, especially in non-capital cities of countries worldwide. RESULT: This study was performed in a single-centre paediatric hospital in Northern Iran during a 21-year period (1994-2015)...
February 22, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216079/2016-caps-ethics-session-ein-debate-1-regionalization-of-pediatric-surgical-care-2-ethical-introduction-of-surgical-innovation-3-addressing-stress-in-a-surgical-practice-resiliency-well-being-and-burnout
#3
REVIEW
Charles E Bagwell, Priscilla Chiu, Annie Fecteau, Kenneth W Gow, Claudia M Mueller, David Price, Andrew F Zigman
The following is the conference proceeding of the Second Ein Debate from the 48th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association of Paediatric Surgeons held in Vancouver, BC, from September 22 to 24, 2016. The three main topics for debate, as prepared by the members of the CAPS Ethics Committee, are: 1. Regionalization of care: pros and cons, 2. Innovation in clinical care: ethical considerations, and 3. Surgeon well-being: caring for the caregiver. The authors of this paper, as participants in the debate, were assigned their positions at random...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213955/the-skin-barrier-function-gene-spink5-is-associated-with-challenge-proven-ige-mediated-food-allergy-in-infants
#4
Sarah E Ashley, Hern-Tze Tina Tan, Peter Vuillermin, Shyamali C Dharmage, Mimi L K Tang, Jennifer Koplin, Lyle C Gurrin, Adrian Lowe, Caroline Lodge, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, John Molloy, Pamela Martin, Melanie C Matheson, Richard Saffery, Katrina J Allen, Justine A Ellis, David Martino
BACKGROUND: A defective skin barrier is hypothesised to be an important route of sensitisation to dietary antigens, and may lead to food allergy in some children. Missense mutations in the Serine peptidase inhibitor kazal type 5 (SPINK5) skin barrier gene have previously been associated with allergic conditions. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether genetic variants in and around SPINK5 are associated with IgE mediated food allergy. METHOD: We genotyped 71 'tag' single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within a region spanning ~263 kilobases (kb) including SPINK5 (~61kb) in n=722 (n=367 food allergic, n=199 food sensitised, tolerant and n=156 non-food allergic controls) 12-month infants (discovery sample) phenotyped for food allergy with the gold standard oral food challenge (OFC)...
February 18, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211099/sedation-with-orally-administered-midazolam-in-elderly-dental-patients-with-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#5
Lena Rignell, Mona Mikati, Madeleine Wertsén, Catharina Hägglin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate acceptance of treatment after oral sedation with midazolam in dental patients with major neurocognitive disorder. BACKGROUND: Midazolam is commonly used as premedication in paediatric dentistry, oral surgery and people suffering from dental fear. Little is known about its use in other patient groups. METHODS: Dental and sedation records of 61 patients (64% women) sedated with midazolam were examined retrospectively...
February 17, 2017: Gerodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208989/central-telangiectatic-osteosarcoma-of-the-mandible-in-a-paediatric-patient-a-rarity
#6
Divya Tomar, Manu Dhillon, Muhamad Nishad Thayath, Iram Zaidi, Shikha Singh
Osteosarcoma (OS) involving the head and neck region is rare and is a diagnostic challenge due to its aggressive nature and varied presentations. Although OS constitute 40% to 60% of all bone tumours, only 10% of these occur in the head and neck region, most commonly in the maxilla and mandible. OS of the jaw bone has a different pattern and behaviour when compared to OS at other anatomic location. It occurs in a more elderly population, less aggressive and usually spreads locally rather than distant metastases...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190515/early-experience-with-a-split-bolus-single-pass-ct-protocol-in-paediatric-trauma
#7
V J Leung, M Grima, N Khan, H R Jones
AIM: To determine the adequacy of the split-bolus computed tomography (CT) technique in terms of vascular enhancement and solid-organ injury assessment in paediatric trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of all split-bolus trauma CT examinations performed in patients <16 years during the period from 1 January 2015 to 31 January 2016. Twelve examinations were performed in this time on patients with an age range of 2-15 years (mean 10...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181680/early-term-deliveries-and-the-risk-of-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-in-the-offspring
#8
Asnat Walfisch, Tamar Wainstock, Ofer Beharier, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery may affect the development of the upper airways resulting in a higher risk of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). We investigated whether children born at early term (37-38 6/7 weeks' gestation) are at an increased risk for childhood OSA as compared with those born later. METHODS: In this population-based cohort analysis all singleton deliveries occurring between 1991-2013 at a single regional tertiary medical centre were included. Gestational age upon delivery was sub-divided into: early preterm (<33 6/7 weeks' gestation), late preterm (34-36 6/7), early term, full term (39-40 6/7), late term (41-41 6/7), and post term (>42 0/7)...
March 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174603/mlpa-analysis-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-autism
#9
Sara Peixoto, Joana B Melo, José Ferrão, Luís M Pires, Nuno Lavoura, Marta Pinto, Guiomar Oliveira, Isabel M Carreira
BACKGROUND: Autism is a global neurodevelopmental disorder which generally manifests during the first 2 years and continues throughout life, with a range of symptomatic variations. Epidemiological studies show an important role of genetic factors in autism and several susceptible regions and genes have been identified. The aim of our study was to validate a cost-effective set of commercial Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and methylation specific multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) test in autistic children refered by the neurodevelopmental center and autism unit of a Paediatric Hospital...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174222/systematic-review-of-pathways-for-the-delivery-of-allergy-services
#10
Lavanya Diwakar, Carole Cummins, Richard Lilford, Tracy Roberts
OBJECTIVES: The incidence and prevalence of allergies worldwide has been increasing and allergy services globally are unable to keep up with this increase in demand. This systematic review aims to understand the delivery of allergy services worldwide, challenges faced and future directions for service delivery. METHODS: A systematic scoping review of Ovid, EMBASE, HMIC, CINAHL, Cochrane, DARE, NHS EED and INAHTA databases was carried out using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
February 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166783/active-surveillance-study-of-adverse-events-following-immunisation-of-children-in-the-czech-republic
#11
Jana Danova, Aneta Kocourkova, Alexander M Celko
BACKGROUND: Despite the undisputed public health benefits of routine vaccination, adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) remain a concern. As most adverse events are mild, they may be under-reported; this may underlie the wide range of AEFI rates reported in the literature. We investigated the rates of AEFI related to routine vaccination of children 0-10 years old in the Czech Republic. METHODS: The study reviewed patients' records in a sample of 49 paediatric GP practices covering all 12 administrative regions of the Czech Republic between 2011 and 2013...
February 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161461/infectious-disease-exposures-and-outbreaks-at-a-south-african-neonatal-unit-with-review-of-neonatal-outbreak-epidemiology-in-africa
#12
A Dramowski, M Aucamp, A Bekker, S Mehtar
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum, and postnatally. African neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing, and shared equipment. METHODS: Neonatal outbreaks attended by the paediatric infectious diseases and infection prevention (IP) teams at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town (May 1, 2008 to April 30, 2016) are described, and the pathogens, outbreak size, mortality, source, and outbreak control measures are reported...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160326/conjunctival-provocation-test-in-diagnosis-of-peanut-allergy-in-children
#13
Helene Lindvik, Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Petter Mowinckel, Jesintha Navaratnam, Magnus P Borres, Kai-Håkon Carlsen
BACKGROUND: Peanut allergy frequently cause severe allergic reactions. Diagnosis include detection of IgE to peanuts in serum or by skin prick tests. While children may have allergic sensitisation without having clinical peanut allergy, oral peanut challenge is often required for accurate diagnosis. The conjunctival provocation test is used for diagnosis and evaluation of treatment effect in inhalant allergies, but it has not been evaluated as a tool for diagnosing peanut allergy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the conjunctival provocation tests may be feasible, accurate and safe in diagnosing clinically relevant peanut allergy in patients with suspected peanut allergy...
February 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159338/emergence-of-quinolone-resistant-strains-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-paediatric-patients-since-the-approval-of-oral-fluoroquinolones-in-japan
#14
Noriko Takeuchi, Misako Ohkusu, Tadashi Hoshino, Sachiko Naito, Akiko Takaya, Tomoko Yamamoto, Naruhiko Ishiwada
Tosufloxacin (TFLX) is a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent. TFLX granules for children were initially released in Japan in 2010 to treat otitis media and pneumonia caused by drug-resistant bacteria, e.g. penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae. The evolution of bacterial resistance since TFLX approval is not known. To clarify the influence of quinolones administered to children since their approval, we examined the resistance mechanism of TFLX-resistant S...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157063/safe-excipient-exposure-in-neonates-and-small-children-protocol-for-the-seen-project
#15
Kristine Svinning Valeur, Steen Axel Hertel, Kaare Engell Lundstrøm, Helle Holst
INTRODUCTION: The pharmacokinetics of excipients in neonates differs from that of older children. In a recent pan--European survey, two thirds of neonates received at least one potentially harmful excipient, such as ethanol and benzoates. The content of sweeteners varied by route of administration (more common by enteral than parenteral route), and regional differences were revealed. The survey did not identify if the content of excipients was more pronounced in medications prescribed for specific medical diseases, e...
February 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149228/exhaust-system-related-burns-affecting-children-a-uk-perspective-and-literature-review
#16
P V Vermaak, C E Deall, C McArdle, T Burge
Burns caused by exhaust systems in children may be associated with considerable morbidity. Current epidemiological data varies, but no data are available for the UK population. We aim to identify the pattern of exhaust-related burns affecting children who presented to a regional centre for paediatric burn care in the UK. Patients who sustained burns related to exhaust mechanisms between May 2005 and August 2012 were identified via the departmental database. Data collected included patient demographics, burn injury information, management and outcomes...
June 30, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143594/prevalence-of-paediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-sweden-a-nationwide-population-based-register-study
#17
J F Ludvigsson, K Büsch, O Olén, J Askling, K E Smedby, A Ekbom, E Lindberg, M Neovius
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the impact of different case definition algorithms on the prevalence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) and to compare the occurrence of certain diseases compared to matched controls. METHODS: Paediatric patients (<18 years) were identified via ICD codes for UC and CD in Swedish registers between 1993 and 2010 (n = 1432). Prevalence was defined as ≥2 IBD-related visits...
January 31, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135759/regional-paediatric-palliative-care-model-improves-the-quality-of-life-of-children-on-long-term-ventilation-at-home
#18
F Rusalen, C Agosto, L Brugnaro, F Benini
In the last 20 years, the prevalence of children on domiciliary long-term ventilation (LTV) has increased in many countries and in Italy it is now 4.3/100,000 (1). The complex management of these patients' conditions requires highly specialised expertise that is provided by integrated multi-disciplinary teams and calls for solutions from a number of institutional agencies (2). The global care offered to these patients by paediatric palliative care (PPC) also embraces their social needs (3-4). This article is protected by copyright...
January 30, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127386/the-surgical-pathology-laboratory-in-mwanza-tanzania-a-survey-on-the-reproducibility-of-diagnoses-after-the-first-years-of-autonomous-activity
#19
R Tumino, P F Rambau, F Callea, L Leoncini, R Monaco, J Kahima, V Stracca Pansa, L Viberti, D Amadori, P Giovenali, K A Mteta
BACKGROUND: In 2000, an Italian non-governmental organisation (NGO) began a 9-year project to establish a surgical pathology laboratory at the Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania, a country with a low Human Development Index (HDI), and as of 2009, the laboratory was operating autonomously. The present survey aims to evaluate the reproducibility of histological and cytological diagnoses assigned in the laboratory's early years of autonomous activity. We selected a random sample of 196 histological and cytological diagnoses issued in 2010-2011 at the BMC surgical pathology laboratory...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116323/a-prospective-study-of-time-to-healing-and-hypertrophic-scarring-in-paediatric-burns-every-day-counts
#20
Elizabeth Chipp, Lisa Charles, Clare Thomas, Kate Whiting, Naiem Moiemen, Yvonne Wilson
BACKGROUND: It is commonly accepted that burns taking longer than 3 weeks to heal have a much higher rate of hypertrophic scarring than those which heal more quickly. However, some of our patients develop hypertrophic scars despite healing within this 3-week period. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 383 paediatric burns treated non-operatively at a regional burns centre over a 2-year period from May 2011 to April 2013. Scar assessment was performed by a senior burns therapist using the Vancouver Scar Scale...
2017: Burns and trauma
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