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Hounsfield Units (HU)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753174/skeletal-muscle-fat-deposition-is-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-development-in-patients-with-chronic-liver-disease
#1
Yoshihiko Tachi, Akihiro Kozuka, Takanori Hirai, Yuko Kojima, Yoji Ishizu, Takashi Honda, Teiji Kuzuya, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Hidemi Goto
OBJECTIVES: The effect of skeletal muscle fat deposition on the prognosis of patients with chronic liver disease remains unclear. Skeletal muscle fat deposition can be estimated by attenuation of skeletal muscle in Hounsfield units (HU) on computed tomography (CT). The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the association between skeletal muscle fat deposition assessed by skeletal muscle attenuation (SMA), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: We enrolled 288 patients with chronic liver disease (139 men, 149 women; mean age 67...
March 21, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746570/opportunistic-osteoporosis-screening-via-the-measurement-of-frontal-skull-hounsfield-units-derived-from-brain-computed-tomography-images
#2
Min Kyun Na, Yu Deok Won, Choong Hyun Kim, Jae Min Kim, Jin Hwan Cheong, Je Il Ryu, Myung-Hoon Han
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases, but detection and treatment rates are low. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the correlation between frontal skull Hounsfield unit (HU) values from brain computed tomography (CT) scans and T-scores of the lumbar spine and femoral neck from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. METHODS: Patients with < 1 year between brain CT and DXA scans were included in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733474/computed-tomographic-description-of-the-highly-variable-imaging-features-of-equine-oromaxillary-sinus-and-oronasal-fistulae
#3
Laura Hargreaves, Jonathon J Dixon
Oronasal and oromaxillary sinus fistulae are well-documented complications following removal or loss of a maxillary cheek tooth. Diagnosis is currently based on a combination of oral examination, videoendoscopy, radiography, and computed tomography (CT). The objective of this retrospective, case series study was to describe the CT characteristics of confirmed oronasal and oromaxillary sinus fistulae in a group of horses. Inclusion criteria were a head CT acquired at the authors' hospital during the period of 2012-2017, a CT diagnosis of oronasal or oromaxillary sinus fistulae, and a confirmed diagnosis based on a method other than CT...
May 7, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730098/subdural-fluid-collection-after-the-clipping-of-unruptured-intracranial-aneurysms-its-clinical-course-and-significance
#4
Jeong-Han Kang, Seung Kon Huh, Jinna Kim, Keun Young Park, Joonho Chung
OBJECT: We evaluated the clinical course and significance of postoperative subdural fluid collection (SFC), and identified the patients who were at risk of developing postoperative chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) after the clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). METHODS: Between January 2012 and June 2014, we retrospectively reviewed 298 patients with UIAs treated by microsurgical clipping. Among them, 257 patients were enrolled in the present study...
May 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729053/computed-tomography-is-a-feasible-method-for-quantifying-bone-density-in-macaca-mulatta
#5
Salvador A Solís-Chávez, Manuel A Castillo-Rivera, Marcela Arteaga-Silva, Alejandra Ibáñez-Contreras, Braulio Hernández-Godínez, Andrés Morón-Mendoza, Gamaliel Mendoza-Cuevas, Axayácatl Morales-Guadarrama, Emilio Sacristan-Rock
Osteopathologies are a result of advanced age and decreased bone density and represent a global health problem. It is therefore important to generate models for longitudinal studies of the pathophysiology in order to improve early diagnosis and develop preventive therapies. For this kind of research, the use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate bone health offers advantages over other techniques since it provides more complete information. The aim of this prospective, pilot study was to obtain measurements of the left femur from a population in captivity of 32 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in order to standardize the model for future research...
May 4, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728548/qualitative-assessment-of-reliability-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-in-evaluating-bone-density-at-posterior-mandibular-implant-site
#6
Kirti Dahiya, Narendra Kumar, Pankaj Bajaj, Avdesh Sharma, Rohan Sikka, Sagar Dahiya
Introduction: The success of dental implants depends primarily on the primary implant stability and the bone density so that predictable osseointegration can be achieved. To achieve the desired results, systematic preoperative planning for implant placement is required. The sole aim of the study was to assess the reliability of preoperative bone density of mandibular posterior region for implant placement using computerized tomography-derived bone densities in Hounsfield units (HU). Materials and methods: A total of 200 patients with 352 implant sites between 2014 and 2017 were assessed for the posterior mandibular area using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709742/preoperative-assessment-of-pathological-subtypes-of-meningioma-and-solitary-fibrous-tumor-hemangiopericytoma-using-dynamic-computed-tomography-a-clinical-research-study
#7
Nobuhiko Arai, Katsuhiro Mizutani, Satoshi Takahashi, Yukina Tokuda, Takenori Akiyama, Takashi Horiguchi, Hatano Mami, Kazunari Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs)/hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are highly vascularized tumors well known for malignant, invasive, and highly vascular features. To date, several studies have reported the preoperative imaging findings of SFT/HPCs. In this study, computed tomography (CT) tumor values acquired from dynamic CT were selected to determine the tumor pathology of highly vascular tumors, such as SFT/HPCs. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on patients with pathologically diagnosed meningiomas and SFT/HPCs who had undergone a dynamic contrast CT...
April 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707915/development-of-an-organ-specific-insert-phantom-generated-using-a-3d-printer-for-investigations-of-cardiac-computed-tomography-protocols
#8
Kamarul A Abdullah, Mark F McEntee, Warren Reed, Peter L Kench
INTRODUCTION: An ideal organ-specific insert phantom should be able to simulate the anatomical features with appropriate appearances in the resultant computed tomography (CT) images. This study investigated a 3D printing technology to develop a novel and cost-effective cardiac insert phantom derived from volumetric CT image datasets of anthropomorphic chest phantom. METHODS: Cardiac insert volumes were segmented from CT image datasets, derived from an anthropomorphic chest phantom of Lungman N-01 (Kyoto Kagaku, Japan)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700604/fragility-fractures-of-the-sacrum-occur-in-elderly-patients-with-severe-loss-of-sacral-bone-mass
#9
Daniel Wagner, Alexander Hofmann, Lukas Kamer, Takeshi Sawaguchi, R Geoff Richards, Hansrudi Noser, Dominik Gruszka, Pol M Rommens
INTRODUCTION: Patients suffering from osteoporosis-associated fragility fractures of the sacrum (FFS; also termed sacral insufficiency fractures) are increasingly observed. They have typical fracture patterns with fracture lines located in the sacral ala. When treating these patients operatively, iliosacral screw loosening is not uncommon. We aimed to study the sacral bone mass in patients presenting with a FFS using 3D statistical models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D models of averaged Hounsfield units (HU) were generated based on CT scans from 13 patients with a unilateral FFS (mean age 79...
April 26, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691563/-clinical-analysis-of-spectrum-ct-imaging-reducing-metal-artifacts-of-oral-and-maxillofacial-region
#10
Qi Sun, Min-Jun Dong, Xing Yang, Meng-da Jiang, Xiao-Feng Tao
PURPOSE: To assess the capability of monochromatic energy images of gemstone spectral imaging(GSI) by using spectral CT in reducing metal artifacts of oral and maxillofacial region. METHODS: Spectral CT imaging was applied to 46 patients with metallic implants with GSI sequence to measure CT numbers (expressed in Hounsfield units, HU) and SD (standard deviation) numbers of the soft tissues. 11 monochromatic-image groups were obtained, ranging from 40 keV(kiloelectronvolts) to 140 keV (every 10 keV as one group)...
December 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689765/characterization-of-ct-hounsfield-units-for-3d-acquisition-trajectories-on-a-dedicated-breast-ct-system
#11
Jainil P Shah, Steve D Mann, Randolph L McKinley, Martin P Tornai
Hounsfield Units (HU) are used clinically in differentiating tissue types in a reconstructed CT image, and therefore the HU accuracy of a system is important, especially when using multiple sources, novel detector and non-traditional trajectories. Dedicated clinical breast CT (BCT) systems therefore should be similarly evaluated. In this study, uniform cylindrical phantoms filled with various uniform density fluids were used to characterize differences in HU values between simple circular and complex 3D (saddle) orbits...
April 18, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687517/hounsfield-units-are-a-useful-predictor-of-pleural-effusion-cytological-type-in-dogs-but-not-in-cats
#12
Sarah J Woods, Mathieu Spriet, Noa Safra, Derek D Cissell, Dori L Borjesson
All categories of pleural effusion subjectively display as soft tissue opacity on computed tomography (CT). Quantitative measurement using Hounsfield units (HU) has the potential to bring additional information regarding the nature of the fluid in a noninvasive way. The purposes of this retrospective cross-sectional analytical study were to compare Hounsfield units of different pleural effusion categories in dogs and cats, assess association between specific cytologic parameters and Hounsfield units, and evaluate the effect of dependent vs...
April 23, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682573/antibody-mediated-osseous-regeneration-for-bone-tissue-engineering-in-canine-segmental-defects
#13
A Khojasteh, S Hosseinpour, M M Dehghan, F Mashhadiabbas, M Rezai Rad, S Ansari, S Farzad Mohajeri, H H Zadeh
Among many applications of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a unique approach for regenerative medicine has entailed antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR). In an effort to identify a clinically relevant model of craniofacial defect, the present study investigated the efficacy of mAb specific for bone morphogenetic protein- (BMP-) 2 to repair canine segmental mandibular continuity defect model. Accordingly, a 15 mm unilateral segmental defect was created in mandible and fixated with a titanium plate...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679299/impact-of-computer-aided-ct-and-pet-analysis-on-non-invasive-t-staging-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-and-atelectasis
#14
Paul Flechsig, Ramin Rastgoo, Clemens Kratochwil, Ole Martin, Tim Holland-Letz, Alexander Harms, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Uwe Haberkorn, Frederik L Giesel
PURPOSE: Tumor delineation within an atelectasis in lung cancer patients is not always accurate. When T staging is done by integrated 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/X-ray computer tomography (CT), tumors of neuroendocrine differentiation and slowly growing tumors can present with reduced FDG uptake, thus aggravating an exact T staging. In order to further exhaust information derived from [18 F]FDG-PET/CT, we evaluated the impact of CT density and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for the classification of different tumor subtypes within a surrounding atelectasis, as well as possible cutoff values for the differentiation between the primary tumor and atelectatic lung tissue...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673945/three-dimensional-texture-analysis-with-machine-learning-provides-incremental-predictive-information-for-successful-shock-wave-lithotripsy-in-patients-with-kidney-stones
#15
Manoj Mannil, Jochen von Spiczak, Thomas Hermanns, Cédric Poyet, Hatem Alkadhi, Christian Daniel Fankhauser
PURPOSE: To determine the predictive value of three-dimensional texture analysis (3D-TA) in computed tomography (CT) images for successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in patients with kidney stones. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with pre and postoperative CT scans, previously untreated kidney stones and a stone diameter of 5-20 mm were included. A total of 224 3D-TA features of each kidney stone, including the attenuation measured in Hounsfield Units (HU), and the clinical variables body mass index (BMI), initial stone size, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were analyzed using five commonly used machine learning models...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667294/image-quality-and-absorbed-dose-comparison-of-single-and-dual-source-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#16
Hideharu Miura, Shuichi Ozawa, Toshiya Okazue, Atsushi Kawakubo, Kiyoshi Yamada, Yasushi Nagata
PURPOSE: Dual-source cone-beam computed tomography (DCBCT) is currently available in the Vero4DRT image-guided radiotherapy system. We evaluated the image quality and absorbed dose for DCBCT and compared the values with those for single-source CBCT (SCBCT). METHODS: Image uniformity, Hounsfield unit (HU) linearity, image contrast, and spatial resolution were evaluated using a Catphan phantom. The rotation angle for acquiring SCBCT and DCBCT images is 215° and 115°, respectively...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659426/evaluation-of-virtual-monoenergetic-images-on-pulmonary-vasculature-using-the-dual-layer-detector-based-spectral-computed-tomography
#17
Abed Ghandour, Andrew Sher, Negin Rassouli, Amar Dhanantwari, Prabhakar Rajiah
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of retrospectively generated virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) from the detector-based spectral computed tomography (SDCT) to augment pulmonary artery enhancement in CT and if iodine map can predict the optimal monoenergetic level. METHODS: The study included 79 patients with contrast-enhanced chest CT scans on an SDCT scanner. Conventional 120-kVp images and VMI from 40 to 80 keV were generated. Attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured at 7 different locations in the pulmonary arterial system...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651875/is-severe-emphysema-as-defined-by-quantitative-ct-measurement-a-negative-risk-factor-of-radiation-pneumonitis
#18
Tatsuhiko Saito, Hidetsugu Nakayama, Takafumi Yamada, Sachica Shiraishi, Koichi Tokuuye
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether patients with emphysema, as evaluated by quantitative CT image measurement, are at risk of developing radiation pneumonitis (RP) after radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Between March 2011 and June 2015, 68 consecutive patients with stage INSCLC treated with a radiotherapy a dose of 75 Gy given in 30 fractions were enrolled. The median age was 79 years and there were 45 males and 23 females. The numbers of patients with T1 and T2 were 49 and 19, respectively...
April 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649655/bone-mineral-density-changes-over-time-in-diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-of-the-thoracic-spine
#19
Jonneke S Kuperus, Lima Samsour, Constantinus F Buckens, F Cumhur Oner, Pim A de Jong, Jorrit-Jan Verlaan
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is an increasingly prevalent ankylosing condition. Patients with DISH have an increased risk of spinal fractures, hypothetically the result of biomechanical changes in the spine. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of biomechanical stress shielding in patients with DISH. To do this, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured longitudinally in the vertebral bodies of subjects with and without DISH and in the newly formed bone of subjects with DISH...
April 9, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628636/bismuth-silicon-and-bismuth-polyurethane-composite-shields-for-breast-protection-in-chest-computed-tomography-examinations
#20
Parinaz Mehnati, Mehran Arash, Parisa Akhlaghi
The article aims at constructing protective composite shields for breasts in chest computed tomography and investigating the effects of applying these new bismuth composites on dose and image quality. Polyurethane and silicon with 5% of bismuth were fabricated as a protective shield. At first, their efficiency in attenuating the X-ray beam was investigated by calculating the total attenuation coefficients at diagnostic energy range. Then, a physical chest phantom was scanned without and with these shields at tube voltage of 120 kVp, and image parameters together with dose values were studied...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Physics
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