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Hounsfield Units (HU)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527587/relationship-between-carotid-computed-tomography-dual-energy-and-brain-leukoaraiosis
#1
Luca Saba, Roberto Sanfilippo, Antonella Balestrieri, Fulvio Zaccagna, Giovanni Maria Argiolas, Jasjit S Suri, Roberto Montisci
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess if there is a correlation between the carotid computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield unit (HU)-based plaque attenuation values measured using dual-energy CT (DECT) scanner and brain leukoaraiosis (LA). METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients (34 males, 16 females; mean age, 69 years; age range, 46-84 years) who underwent carotid CT and brain magnetic resonance imaging were included in the study. CT examinations were performed with a DECT scanner, and LA lesion volume quantification was performed using a semiautomated segmentation technique...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521185/association-of-aortic-perivascular-adipose-tissue-density-with-aortic-calcification-in-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#2
Kelly J Shields, Samar R El Khoudary, Joseph M Ahearn, Susan Manzi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the vascular wall, is associated with CVD risk factors, and may contribute to premature CVD in SLE. We previously found greater volumes of aortic PVAT associated with aortic calcification (AC) in female SLE patients. There is recent evidence that not only volume but adipose density may also be indicative of inflammation...
April 29, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514529/the-effect-of-repeated-freeze-thaw-cycles-on-human-muscle-tissue-visualized-by-post-mortem-computed-tomography-pmct
#3
Anthony C Klop, Marloes E M Vester, Kerri L Colman, Jan M Ruijter, Rick R van Rijn, Roelof-Jan Oostra
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine whether effects of repetitive freeze-thaw cycles, with various thawing temperatures, on human muscle tissue can be quantified using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) technology. An additional objective was to determine the preferred thawing temperature for muscle tissue in this study. MATERIALS & METHODS: Human cadaver upper extremities were divided into two different thawing temperature groups and underwent a series of four freeze-thaw cycles in total...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509766/brown-adipose-tissue-detected-by-pet-ct-imaging-is-associated-with-less-central-obesity
#4
Aileen L Green, Ulas Bagci, Sarfaraz Hussein, Patrick V Kelly, Razi Muzaffar, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Medhat M Osman
PURPOSE: This retrospective review was performed to determine whether patients with brown adipose tissue (BAT) detected by fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging have less central obesity than BMI-matched control patients without detectable BAT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven adult oncology patients with F-FDG BAT uptake were retrospectively identified from PET/CT studies from 2011 to 2013. The control cohort consisted of 74 adult oncology patients without detectable F-FDG BAT uptake matched for BMI/sex/season...
May 15, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488727/differences-in-sodium-fluoride-18-uptake-in-the-normal-skeleton-depending-on-the-location-and-characteristics-of-the-bone
#5
Shintaro Nawata, Tomohiro Kaneta, Matsuyoshi Ogawa, Yoshinobu Ishiwata, Naomi Kobayashi, Ayako Shishikura-Hino, Keisuke Yoshida, Yutaka Inaba, Tomoyuki Saito, Tomio Inoue
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the normal distribution of sodium fluoride-18 (NaF-18) and to clarify the differences in uptake according to location and the type of the bone using positron emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed NaF-18 PET/CT images from 30 patients with hip joint disorders. PET/CT scans were performed 40 min after injection of approximately 185 MBq of NaF-18. To evaluate the relationship between the distribution of NaF-18 uptake and bone density, we compared the maximum standardised uptake values (SUVmax) on PET and the Hounsfield Units (HUs) on CT of the lumbar vertebra, ilium, and proximal and distal femurs...
May 10, 2017: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487329/aspects-alberta-stroke-program-early-ct-score-measurement-using-hounsfield-unit-values-when-selecting-patients-for-stroke-thrombectomy
#6
Maxim Mokin, Christopher T Primiani, Adnan H Siddiqui, Aquilla S Turk
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ASPECTS (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) is a quantitate score that measures the extent of early ischemic changes. Our aim was to investigate how measurement of ASPECTS using Hounsfield unit (HU) values on initial noncontrast head computerized tomography (CT) correlates with the extent of final infarct on follow-up imaging. METHODS: Cases of acute stroke from the middle cerebral artery M1 occlusion in which complete recanalization (TICI [Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction] 3) was achieved were included for analysis...
May 9, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482833/computed-tomography-a-beneficial-diagnostic-tool-for-the-evaluation-of-the-canine-prostate
#7
N S M Kuhnt, L K Harder, I Nolte, P Wefstaedt
BACKGROUND: Prostatic diseases in intact male dogs are common. However, studies about the computed tomographic (CT) examination of the prostate in dogs are rare. The aim of the present study was to evaluate age related-changes in the canine prostate with the help of the CT and to evaluate whether measuring Hounsfield Units (HUs) in different morphological conditions of the prostate is of diagnostic value. Fifty pre- and post-contrast CT scans of the prostate of dogs were evaluated and divided into three groups according to the tissue structure: Group1 dogs with homogenous prostate tissue (16/50); group 2 with prostate cysts (26/50) and group 3 with inhomogeneous prostate tissue (8/50)...
May 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476093/association-of-condylar-bone-quality-with-tmj-osteoarthritis
#8
J Shi, S Lee, H C Pan, A Mohammad, A Lin, W Guo, E Chen, A Ahn, J Li, K Ting, J H Kwak
The etiology and treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (TMJOA) remain complex and unclear. Based on clinical observations, we hypothesized that low condylar bone quality is significantly correlated with TMJOA and explored this association in a cross-sectional study with human patients. A total of 254 postmenopausal female participants were included in this study. Radiographic findings from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and clinical symptoms were used to classify each TMJ data sample as healthy control ( n = 124) or TMJOA ( n = 130)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474990/radiodensity-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-associated-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-may-be-a-negative-predictor-of-outcome
#9
Ha Son Nguyen, Luyuan Li, Mohit Patel, Shekar Kurpad, Wade Mueller
OBJECTIVE The presence, extent, and distribution of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) have been associated with negative outcomes in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Several qualitative scores (Fisher grade, LeRoux score, and Graeb score) have been established for evaluating SAH and IVH. However, no study has assessed the radiodensity within the ventricular system in aneurysmal SAH patients with IVH. Prior studies have suggested that hemorrhage with a higher radiodensity, as measured by CT Hounsfield units, can cause more irritation to brain parenchyma...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474123/ct-pulmonary-angiogram-quality-comparison-between-early-and-later-pregnancy
#10
Yoel Siegel, Russ Kuker, James Banks, Gary Danton
PURPOSE: Pregnancy increases the risk for thromboembolic disease. CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is widely used for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolus (PE); however, a significant number of scans are suboptimal or non-diagnostic in pregnant patients. This phenomenon is attributed to physiology during the gravid state. The aim of this study is to examine whether all stages of pregnancy are similarly at risk for suboptimal scans. METHODS: Pregnant patients who had CTPA scans between February 2008 and November 2014 were included...
May 4, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472175/characterization-of-3d-printing-techniques-toward-patient-specific-quality-assurance-spine-shaped-phantom-for-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#11
Min-Joo Kim, Seu-Ran Lee, Min-Young Lee, Jason W Sohn, Hyong Geon Yun, Joon Yong Choi, Sang Won Jeon, Tae Suk Suh
Development and comparison of spine-shaped phantoms generated by two different 3D-printing technologies, digital light processing (DLP) and Polyjet has been purposed to utilize in patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of stereotactic body radiation treatment. The developed 3D-printed spine QA phantom consisted of an acrylic body phantom and a 3D-printed spine shaped object. DLP and Polyjet 3D printers using a high-density acrylic polymer were employed to produce spine-shaped phantoms based on CT images. Image fusion was performed to evaluate the reproducibility of our phantom, and the Hounsfield units (HUs) were measured based on each CT image...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471868/paradoxical-effect-of-cardiac-output-on-arterial-enhancement-at-computed-tomography-does-cardiac-output-reduction-simply-result-in-an-increase-in-aortic-peak-enhancement
#12
Masafumi Kidoh, Takeshi Nakaura, Yoshinori Funama, Toshiaki Shimonobo, Takashi Shirasaka, Masahiro Hatemura, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Seitaro Oda, Hideaki Yuki, Tomohiro Namimoto, Toru Higaki, Kazuo Awai, Yasuyuki Yamashita
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cardiac output (CO) on aortic peak enhancement using protocols with different contrast material (CM) injection durations. METHODS: We used a flow phantom that simulated the human circulatory system. Contrast material was injected at a rate of 4.0 mL/s for a period of 2.5, 5, 10, 15, or 20 seconds for a CO of 2.8, 4.2, and 5.6 L/min. Single-level serial computed tomography scans of the simulated aorta were acquired after the start of CM delivery, and aortic peak enhancement was recorded under the different injection protocols...
May 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470401/low-dose-attenuation-correction-in-diagnosis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Amjad M Ahmed, Mohamed E Ebid, Amr M Ajlan, Mouaz H Al-Mallah
BACKGROUND: Non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is a valuable modality in the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it is not clear if low-dose CT attenuation correction (CTAC) scans have the same accuracy to diagnose NAFLD. Our aim is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CTAC in the diagnosis of NAFLD using non-enhanced CT as a gold standard. METHODS: A total of 864 patients who underwent a clinically indicated hybrid nuclear imaging scanning between May 2011 and April 2014 were included in the study...
May 3, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463166/early-assessment-of-treatment-responses-during-radiation-therapy-for-lung-cancer-using-quantitative-analysis-of-daily-computed-tomography
#14
Jijo Paul, Cungeng Yang, Hui Wu, An Tai, Entesar Dalah, Cheng Zheng, Candice Johnstone, Feng-Ming Kong, Elizabeth Gore, X Allen Li
PURPOSE: To investigate early tumor and normal tissue responses during the course of radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer using quantitative analysis of daily computed tomography (CT) scans. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Daily diagnostic-quality CT scans acquired using CT-on-rails during CT-guided RT for 20 lung cancer patients were quantitatively analyzed. On each daily CT set, the contours of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and lungs were generated and the radiation dose delivered was reconstructed...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457950/practical-determination-of-aortic-valve-calcium-volume-score-on-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-prior-to-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-and-impact-on-paravalvular-regurgitation-elucidating-optimal-threshold-cutoffs
#15
Nicolas Bettinger, Omar K Khalique, Joseph M Krepp, Nadira B Hamid, David J Bae, Todd C Pulerwitz, Ming Liao, Rebecca T Hahn, Torsten P Vahl, Tamim M Nazif, Isaac George, Martin B Leon, Andrew J Einstein, Susheel K Kodali
BACKGROUND: The threshold for the optimal computed tomography (CT) number in Hounsfield Units (HU) to quantify aortic valvular calcium on contrast-enhanced scans has not been standardized. Our aim was to find the most accurate threshold to predict paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: 104 patients who underwent TAVR with the CoreValve prosthesis were studied retrospectively. Luminal attenuation (LA) in HU was measured at the level of the aortic annulus...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452568/can-ct-scan-protocols-used-for-radiotherapy-treatment-planning-be-adjusted-to-optimize-image-quality-and-patient-dose-a-systematic-review
#16
Anne T Davis, Antony L Palmer, Andrew Nisbet
This article reviews publications related to the use of CT scans for radiotherapy treatment planning, specifically the impact of scan protocol changes on CT number and treatment planning dosimetry and on CT image quality. A search on PubMed and EMBASE and a subsequent review of references yielded 53 relevant articles. CT scan parameters significantly affect image quality. Some will also affect Hounsfield unit (HU) values, though this is not comprehensively reported on. Changes in tube kilovoltage and, on some scanners, field of view and reconstruction algorithms have been found to produce notable HU changes...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448615/emphysema-is-associated-with-thoracic-vertebral-bone-attenuation-on-chest-ct-scan-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#17
Alycia Petraglia, Joseph K Leader, Matthew Gingo, Meghan Fitzpatrick, John Ries, Cathy Kessinger, Lorrie Lucht, Danielle Camp, Alison Morris, Jessica Bon
BACKGROUND: Age-related chronic diseases are prevalent in HIV-infected persons in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. Bone mineral density (BMD) loss and emphysema have separately been shown to occur at a younger age and with lesser risk exposure in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. In non-HIV infected smokers, emphysema has been shown to independently predict low BMD. We hypothesized that emphysema would independently associate with thoracic vertebral bone attenuation, a surrogate for bone mineral density, in HIV-infected individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448422/iterative-reconstruction-designed-for-brain-ct-a-correlative-study-with-filtered-back-projection-for-the-diagnosis-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#18
Yuji Iyama, Takeshi Nakaura, Seitaro Oda, Masafumi Kidoh, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Morikatsu Yoshida, Hideaki Yuki, Kenichiro Hirata, Yoshinori Funama, Kazunori Harada, Kazuo Awai, Toshinori Hirai, Yasuyuki Yamashita
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of iterative model reconstruction designed for brain computed tomography (CT) (IMR-Neuro) for the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This retrospective study included 20 patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction who have undergone brain CT and 20 nonstroke patients (control). We reconstructed axial images with filtered back projection (FBP) and IMR-Neuro (slice thickness, 1 and 5 mm)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448414/computed-tomography-features-of-benign-and-malignant-calcified-thyroid-nodules-a-single-center-study
#19
Donghyun Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Young Jin Heo, Jin Wook Baek, Yoo Jin Lee, Young Mi Park, Hye Jin Baek, Soo Jin Jung
OBJECTIVE: No previous studies have investigated thyroid calcification on computed tomography (CT) quantitatively by using Hounsfield unit (HU) values. This study aimed to analyze quantitative HU values of thyroid calcification on preoperative neck CT and to assess the characteristics of benign and malignant calcified thyroid nodules (CTNs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred twenty patients who underwent neck CT before thyroid surgery from January 2015 to June 2016 were included...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448412/optimizing-contrast-media-injection-protocols-in-computed-tomography-angiography-at-different-tube-voltages-evaluation-in-a-circulation-phantom
#20
Damiano Caruso, Marwen Eid, U Joseph Schoepf, Domenico De Santis, Akos Varga-Szemes, Stefanie Mangold, Christian Canstein, Virginia W Lesslie, Stephen R Fuller, B Devon Ball, Andrea Laghi, Carlo N De Cecco
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the minimum iodine delivery rate (IDR) and contrast media (CM) volume required for diagnostic contrast enhancement of 350 HU (Hounsfield units) in the ascending aorta at different kV settings. METHODS: Dynamic computed tomography acquisitions from 70 to 150 kV were performed in a circulation phantom. First, injections with IDR ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 g I/s were tested for each kV. In the second part, the IDR was held constant, whereas the CM volume was reduced from 50 to 10 mL...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
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