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Structural competence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679732/inter-site-variability-of-the-osteocyte-lacunar-network-in-the-cortical-bone-underpins-fracture-susceptibility-of-the-superolateral-femoral-neck
#1
Tim Rolvien, Annika Vom Scheidt, Kilian Stockhausen, Petar Milovanovic, Danijela Djonic, Jan Hubert, Thelonius Hawellek, Alexander Wacker, Volker Jebens, Klaus Püschel, Elizabeth A Zimmermann, Marija Djuric, Michael Amling, Björn Busse
BACKGROUND: The osteocytic lacunar network is considered to be an integral player in the regulation of bone homeostasis, and reduction in osteocytes is associated with reduced bone strength. Here, we analyzed site-specific patterns in osteocyte characteristics and matrix composition in the cortical compartment of the femoral neck to reveal structural basis of its fragility. METHODS: Cross-sections of the human femoral neck - one of the most common fracture sites - were acquired from 12 female cadavers (age 34-86 years) and analyzed with backscattered scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (μ-CT)...
April 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677469/multidomain-control-over-tec-kinase-activation-state-tunes-the-t-cell-response
#2
Amy H Andreotti, Raji E Joseph, James M Conley, Janet Iwasa, Leslie J Berg
Signaling through the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) activates a series of tyrosine kinases. Directly associated with the TCR, the SRC family kinase LCK and the SYK family kinase ZAP-70 are essential for all downstream responses to TCR stimulation. In contrast, the TEC family kinase ITK is not an obligate component of the TCR cascade. Instead, ITK functions as a tuning dial, to translate variations in TCR signal strength into differential programs of gene expression. Recent insights into TEC kinase structure have provided a view into the molecular mechanisms that generate different states of kinase activation...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675909/computational-assessment-of-folding-energy-landscapes-in-heterodimeric-coiled-coils
#3
Ingemar André, Sinisa Bjelic
The coiled coil structural motif consists of alpha helices supercoiling around each other to form staggered knobs-into-holes packing. Such structures are deceptively simple, especially as they often can be described with parametric equations, but are known to exist in various conformations. Even the simplest systems, consisting of two monomers, can assemble into a wide range of states. They can form canonical as well as noncanonical coiled coils, be parallel or antiparallel, where helices associate with different degrees of shift, tilt, and rotation...
April 20, 2018: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675255/formation-of-quaternary-centres-by-copper-catalysed-asymmetric-conjugate-addition-to-%C3%AE-substituted-cyclopentenones-with-the-aid-of-a-quantitative-structure-selectivity-relationship
#4
Ruchuta Ardkhean, Mike Mortimore, Robert S Paton, Stephen P Fletcher
A new asymmetric conjugate addition method was developed for β-substituted cyclopentenones to form quaternary centres using alkylzirconocene nucleophiles giving up to 97% yield and 92% ee. Key to the reaction's success was the design of suitable phosphoramidite ligands which was aided by a linear quantitative structure-selectivity relationship (QSSR). QSSR models were created from the ligand screening data (a total of 36 ligands) which revealed important electronic and steric requirements and led to the synthesis of more enantioselective ligands...
March 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675185/guiding-a-divergent-reaction-by-photochemical-control-bichromatic-selective-access-to-levulinates-and-butenolides
#5
Revannath L Sutar, Saumik Sen, Or Eivgi, Gal Segalovich, Igor Schapiro, Ofer Reany, N Gabriel Lemcoff
Allylic and acrylic substrates may be efficiently transformed by a sequential bichromatic photochemical process into derivatives of levulinates or butenolides with high selectivity when phenanthrene is used as a regulator. Thus, UV-A photoinduced cross-metathesis (CM) couples the acrylic and allylic counterparts and subsequent UV-C irradiation initiates E - Z isomerization of the carbon-carbon double bond, followed by one of two competing processes; namely, cyclization by transesterification or a 1,5-H shift and tautomerization...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672929/functional-anatomy-of-the-hair-follicle-the-secondary-hair-germ
#6
REVIEW
Andrey A Panteleyev
The secondary hair germ (SHG) - a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF) - is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signaling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen sub-phase...
April 19, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671922/support-following-total-laryngectomy-exploring-the-concept-from-different-perspectives
#7
J M Bickford, J Coveney, J Baker, D Hersh
Adjustment after total laryngectomy is complex, and the resultant support needs are extensive. Current practice is often guided by health-related quality of life measures. While useful, many of these tools were developed without considering the perspectives of people who have experienced the surgery. To improve understanding of the support needs after total laryngectomy, multiple viewpoints were examined, for example individuals with a laryngectomy (IWL), significant others (SO) and health professionals (HP)...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669923/a-folding-nucleus-and-minimal-atp-binding-domain-of-hsp70-identified-by-single-molecule-force-spectroscopy
#8
Daniela Bauer, Sarah Meinhold, Roman P Jakob, Johannes Stigler, Ulrich Merkel, Timm Maier, Matthias Rief, Gabriel Žoldák
The folding pathways of large proteins are complex, with many of them requiring the aid of chaperones and others folding spontaneously. Along the folding pathways, partially folded intermediates are frequently populated; their role in the driving of the folding process is unclear. The structures of these intermediates are generally not amenable to high-resolution structural techniques because of their transient nature. Here we employed single-molecule force measurements to scrutinize the hierarchy of intermediate structures along the folding pathway of the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of Escherichia coli Hsp70 DnaK...
April 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668255/differential-recognition-of-nanoparticle-protein-corona-and-modified-low-density-lipoprotein-by-macrophage-receptor-with-collagenous-structure
#9
Sandra Lara, André Perez-Potti, Luciana M Herda, Laurent Adumeau, Kenneth A Dawson, Yan Yan
Key practical challenges such as to understand the immunological processes at the nanoscale, and to control the targeting and accumulation of nano-objects in vivo now further stimulate efforts to underpin phenomenological knowledge of the nanoscale with more mechanistic and molecular insight. Thus, the question as to what constitutes nanoscale biological identity continues to evolve. Certainly nanoparticles in contact with complex biological milieu develop a biological identity, differing from the original nanomaterial, now referred to as the 'biomolecular corona'...
April 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666918/procedure-specific-assessment-tool-for-flexible-pharyngo-laryngoscopy-gathering-validity-evidence-and-setting-pass-fail-standards
#10
Jacob Melchiors, K Petersen, T Todsen, A Bohr, Lars Konge, Christian von Buchwald
OBJECTIVE: The attainment of specific identifiable competencies is the primary measure of progress in the modern medical education system. The system, therefore, requires a method for accurately assessing competence to be feasible. Evidence of validity needs to be gathered before an assessment tool can be implemented in the training and assessment of physicians. This evidence of validity must according to the contemporary theory on validity be gathered from specific sources in a structured and rigorous manner...
April 17, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666248/study-of-protein-folding-under-native-conditions-by-rapidly-switching-the-hydrostatic-pressure-inside-an-nmr-sample-cell
#11
Cyril Charlier, T Reid Alderson, Joseph M Courtney, Jinfa Ying, Philip Anfinrud, Adriaan Bax
In general, small proteins rapidly fold on the timescale of milliseconds or less. For proteins with a substantial volume difference between the folded and unfolded states, their thermodynamic equilibrium can be altered by varying the hydrostatic pressure. Using a pressure-sensitized mutant of ubiquitin, we demonstrate that rapidly switching the pressure within an NMR sample cell enables study of the unfolded protein under native conditions and, vice versa, study of the native protein under denaturing conditions...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666150/epigenetics-and-epitranscriptomics-in-temporal-patterning-of-cortical-neural-progenitor-competence
#12
REVIEW
Ki-Jun Yoon, Caroline Vissers, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
During embryonic brain development, neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) sequentially give rise to different subtypes of neurons and glia via a highly orchestrated process. To accomplish the ordered generation of distinct progenies, NPCs go through multistep transitions of their developmental competence. The molecular mechanisms driving precise temporal coordination of these transitions remains enigmatic. Epigenetic regulation, including changes in chromatin structures, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, has been extensively investigated in the context of cortical neurogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665086/severely-impaired-bone-material-quality-in-chihuahua-zebrafish-resembles-classical-dominant-human-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#13
Imke A K Fiedler, Felix N Schmidt, Eva M Wölfel, Christine Plumeyer, Petar Milovanovic, Roberta Gioia, Francesca Tonelli, Hrishikesh A Bale, Katharina Jähn, Roberta Besio, Antonella Forlino, Björn Busse
Excessive skeletal deformations and brittle fractures in the vast majority of patients suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) are a result of substantially reduced bone quality. Since the mechanical competence of bone is dependent on the tissue characteristics at small length scales, it is of crucial importance to assess how osteogenesis imperfecta manifests at the micro- and nanoscale of bone. In this context, the Chihuahua (Chi/ +) zebrafish, carrying a heterozygous glycine substitution in the α1 chain of collagen type I, has recently been proposed as suitable animal model of classical dominant OI, showing skeletal deformities, altered mineralization patterns and a smaller body size...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664618/homo-conjugation-of-low-molecular-weight-organic-acids-competes-with-their-complexation-with-cu-ii
#14
Jing Zhao, Gang Chu, Bo Pan, Yuwei Zhou, Min Wu, Yang Liu, Wenyan Duan, Di Lang, Qing Zhao, Baoshan Xing
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) controls the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals in aquatic environments. The observation of decreased conditional binding constants with increasing DOM concentration is not well documented, which may result in significant uncertainties in heavy metal behavior modeling and risk assessment. We used eight low molecular weight organic acids (LMOC) with representative structures to simulate DOM molecules. The interactions between LMOC molecules resulted in the decreased Cu(II)-LMOC binding with increasing LMOC concentrations, but higher pH values than theoretical calculation after mixing LMOC solutions of different pHs...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662066/memory-effect-and-magnetocrystalline-anisotropy-impact-on-the-surface-magnetic-domains-of-magnetite-001
#15
Laura Martín-García, Gong Chen, Yaiza Montaña, Arantzazu Mascaraque, Beatriz M Pabón, Andreas K Schmid, Juan de la Figuera
The structure of magnetic domains, i.e. regions of uniform magnetization separated by domain walls, depends on the balance of competing interactions present in ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) materials. When these interactions change then domain configurations also change as a result. Magnetite provides a good test bench to study these effects, as its magnetocrystalline anisotropy varies significantly with temperature. Using spin-polarized electron microscopy to map the micromagnetic domain structure in the (001) surface of a macroscopic magnetite crystal (~1 cm size) shows complex domain patterns with characteristic length-scales in the micrometer range and highly temperature dependent domain geometries...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661505/training-cardiothoracic-surgeons-of-the-future-the-uk-experience
#16
Louise Kenny, Karen Booth, Kathrin Freystaetter, Greta Wood, Gary Reynolds, Sridhar Rathinam, Narain Moorjani
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess targeted simulation courses, including live animal operating, as complementary training tools with regard to 2 key surgical skills in early cardiothoracic surgeon training. METHODS: Twenty UK surgical trainees (equivalent to cardiothoracic surgery resident physicians in the United States) in their first year of residency training were evaluated. Assessment of skills in pulmonary wedge resection and cardiopulmonary bypass were undertaken before and after 2 boot camp-style courses, including live animal operating (boot camp 1 and boot camp 2)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660573/midwifery-in-iceland-from-vocational-training-to-university-education
#17
Olof A Olafsdottir, Hildur Kristjansdottir, Berglind Halfdansdottir, Helga Gottfredsdottir
Midwifery education is a foundation for health professionals' competence in providing quality healthcare for the benefit of women, their families and society. This paper describes midwifery and the development of midwifery education in Iceland. It examines policy and extensive reforms, from hospital-based vocational training in midwifery to an academic university education, and the impact on the scope of midwifery practice in Iceland. The university-based programme, with its emphasis on autonomy of the midwife, seems to have affected the context of home birth and strengthened midwives' role in primary healthcare...
April 3, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660485/in-silico-design-of-ligand-triggered-rna-switches
#18
Sven Findeiß, Stefan Hammer, Michael T Wolfinger, Felix Kühnl, Christoph Flamm, Ivo L Hofacker
This contribution sketches a work flow to design an RNA switch that is able to adapt two structural conformations in a ligand-dependent way. A well characterized RNA aptamer, i.,e., knowing its Kd and adaptive structural features, is an essential ingredient of the described design process. We exemplify the principles using the well-known theophylline aptamer throughout this work. The aptamer in its ligand-binding competent structure represents one structural conformation of the switch while an alternative fold that disrupts the binding-competent structure forms the other conformation...
April 13, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660297/structured-integration-of-family-planning-curriculum-comparative-assessment-of-knowledge-and-skills-among-new-medical-graduates-in-ethiopia
#19
Berhanu G Gebremeskel, Alula M Teklu, Lia T Gebremedhin, Solomon W Beza, Tegbar Yigzaw, Munir K Eshetu, Mengistu H Damtew, Yolanda R Smith
OBJECTIVE: To assess if structured integration of a comprehensive family planning (FP) training into a medical school curriculum improves FP knowledge and skill scores of medical interns. STUDY DESIGN: We compared mean contraception knowledge scores of interns in a medical school with the integrated FP curriculum [intervention school] (n=56) to interns at four conventional medical curriculum schools without structured reinforcement of FP content [control schools] (n=161) in Ethiopia...
April 13, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659722/a-joint-spatial-factor-analysis-model-to-accommodate-data-from-misaligned-areal-units-with-application-to-louisiana-social-vulnerability
#20
Rachel C Nethery, Dale P Sandler, Shanshan Zhao, Lawrence S Engel, Richard K Kwok
With the threat of climate change looming, the public health community has an interest in identifying communities at the highest risk of devastation based not only on geographic features but also on social characteristics. Indices of community social vulnerability can be created by applying a spatial factor analysis to a set of relevant social variables measured for each community; however, current spatial factor analysis methodology is ill-equipped to handle spatially misaligned data. We introduce a joint spatial factor analysis model that can accommodate spatial data from two distinct partitions of a geographic space and identify a common set of latent factors underlying them...
April 5, 2018: Biostatistics
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