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Structural competence

Susanne Froehlich, Florian Goebel, Adrian Meder, Janine Wirkner, Udo Obertacke, Richard Kasch
PREFACE: The surgical medical clerkship is of special importance, as the student is given the opportunity to get in touch with medical colleagues and patients for the first time, and the interest in a certain field of specialisation can be consolidated. The present study will clarify how students perceived their medical clerkship in the field of surgery. METHODS: A nationwide online survey carried out in 2012 was able to recruit 9079 participants, and contained questions about the completed curricular internships...
June 20, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Alessio Ausili, Pablo Martinez Valera, Alejandro Torrecillas, Victoria Gómez-Murcia, Ana M deGodos, Senena Corbalan-Garcia, Jose Antonio Teruel, Juan C Gomez-Fernandez
Edelfosine is an anticancer drug with an asymmetric structure because, being a derivative of glycerol, it possesses two hydrophobic substituents of very different lengths. We showed that edelfosine destabilizes liquid ordered membranes formed by either POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), SM (sphingomyelin) and cholesterol (1:1:1 molar ratio) or SM and cholesterol (2:1 molar ratio). This was observed by differential scanning calorimetry where a phase transition arises from either of these membrane systems after the addition of edelfosine...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Preetleen Kathuria, Purshotam Sharma, Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) is associated with chronic renal diseases and carcinogenesis. The deleterious effects of OTA have been linked to its covalent binding at C8 position of guanine (G) to form DNA adduct (OT-G), which causes various mutations. To contribute towards understanding the complex mutagenic profile of OTA, the present work uses a robust computational approach to characterize post-replication DNA structures containing OT-G mismatched with canonical nucleobases. Our MD simulations provide insight into the effects of the opposing base, adduct ionization state and flanking base on duplex structural features for the competing (major groove (B-type), wedge (W) and stacked (S)) conformers...
June 20, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Valéria Marli Leonello, Milene Pires de Moraes Vieira, Thalita Cristine Ramirez Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To create competencies for the educational actions of nurses in the care and management work processes at the Family Health Strategy. METHOD: This is an exploratory, descriptive research, with a qualitative approach, on nurses of the Family Health Strategy (FHS) from a municipality in the Greater São Paulo. It was performed through semi-structured interviews and workshops. RESULTS: There is a set of specific competencies for the educational actions of the nurse in care work, geared towards meeting the health needs of users/community; and for educational actions in management work, focused on work organization of the health team, indicating the importance of this work to FHS...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Talita Candida Castro, Luciana Schleder Gonçalves
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the course offer with elements of gamification contributes to the formation of competences in Informatics in Nursing; and evaluate it based on teaching and learning criteria and content structure. METHOD: Exploratory, applied and technological innovation research, with a qualitative and quantitative approach, developed at a university in the southern region of the country between February and November 2016. Participants were professors (5) and nursing students (10)...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Ming Chu, Mingya Zhou, Caihong Jiang, Xi Chen, Likai Guo, Mingbo Zhang, Zhengyun Chu, Yuedan Wang
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) have recently emerged as key virulence determinants, particularly in highly aggressive Staphylococcus aureus isolates. These peptides contribute to the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, participating in multiple inflammatory responses. Here, we report a new role for S. aureus PSMs in high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) induced inflammation by modulating toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway. Direct ligation of TLR4 with S. aureus PSMα1-α3 and PSMβ1-β2 was identified by surface plasmon resonance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marek Wypych, Jacek Matuszewski, Wojciech Ł Dragan
Procrastination - an irrational delay of intended actions despite expecting to be worse off - is a complex and non-homogenous phenomenon. Previous studies have found a number of correlates of procrastination, some of which seem to be particularly important. Impulsivity is closely connected to procrastination on behavioral, genetic, and neuronal levels. Difficulties in emotion regulation have also been shown to be strongly related to procrastination. Procrastination can also be considered as a motivation-based problem...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Seung Eun Jung, Seoyoun Kim, Alex Bishop, Janice Hermann
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the mechanisms of how food insecurity and poor physical and mental health status are interrelated with nutritional status among older adults is needed due to their unique health and social needs. OBJECTIVE: To examine the complex relationships between self-care capacity, depressive symptoms, food insecurity, and nutritional status among low-income older adults. DESIGN: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2017 to May 2017...
June 16, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Diane van Staden
BACKGROUND: Decentralised clinical training (DCT) in optometry is an emerging concept in South Africa. In 2016, the University of KwaZulu Natal (UKZN) implemented this adaptive model of clinical training for undergraduate health professions. The initiative, which emanated through an agreement between UKZN's College of Health Sciences and the KwaZulu Natal Department of Health, centres on the placement of undergraduate optometry students within public health facilities for clinical training purposes...
June 20, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Chen Li, Ling Wang, Yuhai Zhang, Chanjuan Li, Yongyong Xu, Lei Shang, Jielai Xia
BACKGROUND: Biostatistics is a key but challenging subject in medical curricula that is usually delivered via a didactic approach in China. However, whether it is the best teaching approach to improve the learner's competency, especially for medical postgraduates is yet to be proved. Therefore, a block curriculum design was initially developed to provide selective education to the postgraduates towards the professional career of their interest. A questionnaire was designed to assess the students' perceptions toward biostatistics as these affective factors might impact the learning process...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Joan L Luby, Deanna M Barch, Diana Whalen, Rebecca Tillman, Kenneth E Freedland
OBJECTIVE: Clinical depression in children as young as age 3 has been validated, and prevalence rates are similar to the school-age disorder. Homotypic continuity between early and later childhood depression has been observed, with alterations in brain function and structure similar to those reported in depressed adults. These findings highlight the importance of identifying and treating depression as early as developmentally possible, given the relative treatment resistance and small effect sizes for treatments later in life...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Nirnay Samanta, Debasish Das Mahanta, Animesh Patra, Rajib Kumar Mitra
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) can either preferentially bind to biomolecules or exert excluded volume effect depending upon their chain length and concentration. We have studied the effect of ethylene glycol (EG) and PEGs of different chain lengths (Mn 400 and 4000) on the enzyme efficiency of hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) on Micrococcus lysodeikticus (M. Lys.) cell. The activity shows a bell-like profile as the turnover number increases from ~1.3 × 10-5  s-1  M-1 in water to ~1.7 × 10-5  s-1  M-1 in presence of 2% PEG-400 beyond which it decreases to ~0...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jan Fritsche
Food Safety is of fundamental importance for the food processing industry, food retailers and distributors, as well as for the competent authorities because of its potentially direct impact on consumers' health. Next to the prevention of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards increasing efforts are currently made to combat risks associated with food fraud or food authenticity. Food Safety Management Systems nowadays comprise food safety, food defense, and food fraud prevention measures trying to cope with the increasing complexity and globalization of the food supply chains...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Giuseppe Taino, Nicoletta Cornaggia, Barbara Fioramonti, Marcello Imbriani
OBJECTIVES: The Legislative Decree n. 151 of 14 September 2015 lays down new provisions concerning the DPR 1124/65. The major developments occur with Article 53 of Presidential Decree 1124/65, which transfer the obligation to send the medical certificate, attached to the report of accident and occupational disease, from the employer to the physician - "every physician lends immediate assistance to an injured worker or to a worker that suffers from an occupational disease" - using telematic systems, either directly or through the health facilities...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Tianjiao Huang, Maria Toro, Richard Lee, Dawn S Hui, James L Edwards
Metabolomics, the study of small molecules involved in cellular processes, offers the potential to reveal insights into the pathophysiology of disease states. Analysis of metabolites by electrospray mass spectrometry is complicated by their structural diversity. Amine, hydroxyl, and carboxylate groups all affect signal responses differently based on their polarity and proton affinity. This heterogeneity of signal response, sensitivity, and resistance to competing ionization complicates metabolite quantitation...
June 19, 2018: Analyst
Awatef Ouertani, Ines Chaabouni, Amor Mosbah, Justine Long, Mohamed Barakat, Pascal Mansuelle, Olfa Mghirbi, Afef Najjari, Hadda-Imene Ouzari, Ahmed S Masmoudi, Marc Maresca, Philippe Ortet, Didier Gigmes, Kamel Mabrouk, Ameur Cherif
Milk and dairy products harbor a wide variety of bacterial species that compete for both limited resources and space. Under these competitive conditions, bacteria develop specialized mechanisms to protect themselves during niche colonization and nutrient acquisition processes. The bacterial antagonism mechanisms include the production of antimicrobial agents or molecules that facilitate competitor dispersal. In the present work, a bacterial strain designated RC6 was isolated from Ricotta and identified as Bacillus cereus ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jeffrey M DeVries, Katharina Rathmann, Markus Gebhardt
Prosocial behavior and peer problems are an important correlate of academic development; however, these effects vary by achievement measures and social behaviors. In this paper, we examined data from the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS), and we use structural equation modeling (SEM) to model the effects of prosocial behavior and peer problems on grades and competencies for both math ( n = 3,310) and reading ( n = 3,308) in grades 5 and 7. Our models account for the moderating effect of both gender and socioeconomic status (SES) as determined by parental education...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Myriam Gagné, Jocelyne Moisan, Sophie Lauzier, Christine Hamel, Patricia Côté, Jean Bourbeau, Louis-Philippe Boulet
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic patient education (TPE) improves quality of life and reduces health care utilization among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, benefits from TPE might depend on the performance of the educators and training is needed to ensure the effective delivery of TPE interventions. Based on the framework by Moore et al. (J Contin Educ Health Prof 29:1-15, 2009), we will compare the impact of two continuing education (CE) activities on TPE in regard to the following educational outcomes: (1) learning, (2) self-report of competence, (3) performance of the educators, and (4) outcomes of COPD patients who will meet the newly trained educators for TPE...
June 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
H Bruun, S G Lystbaek, E Stenager, L Huniche, R Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article is to give more insight into what ethical challenges clinicians in mental healthcare experience and discuss with a Clinical Ethics Committee in psychiatry in the Region of Southern Denmark. Ethical considerations are an important part of the daily decision-making processes and thereby for the quality of care in mental healthcare. However, such ethical challenges have been given little systematic attention - both in research and in practices. METHODS: A qualitative content analysis of 55 written case-reports from the Clinical Ethics Committee...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Fabio da Paixao Soares, Elisabetta Groaz, Piet Herdewijn
Halogen substitution at various positions of canonical nucleosides has generated a number of bioactive structural variants. Herein, the synthesis of two unique series of sugar modified nucleosides bearing a gem -dichloro group is presented. The synthetic plan entails the controlled addition of phosphorus pentachloride to suitably protected 2′- or 3′-ketodeoxynucleoside intermediates as the key step, facilitating the rapid construction of such functionalized molecules. Under the same reaction conditions, the highest chemoselectivity was observed for the formation of 2′,2′-dichloro-2′,3′-dideoxynucleosides, while a competing 2′,3′-elimination process occurred in the case of the 3′,3′-dichloro counterparts...
June 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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