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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524846/concerted-regulation-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-basement-membrane-and-barrier-function-by-angiocrine-factors
#1
Ignacio Benedicto, Guillermo L Lehmann, Michael Ginsberg, Daniel J Nolan, Rohan Bareja, Olivier Elemento, Zelda Salfati, Nazia M Alam, Glen T Prusky, Pierre Llanos, Sina Y Rabbany, Arvydas Maminishkis, Sheldon S Miller, Shahin Rafii, Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan
The outer blood-retina barrier is established through the coordinated terminal maturation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), fenestrated choroid endothelial cells (ECs) and Bruch's membrane, a highly organized basement membrane that lies between both cell types. Here we study the contribution of choroid ECs to this process by comparing their gene expression profile before (P5) and after (P30) the critical postnatal period when mice acquire mature visual function. Transcriptome analyses show that expression of extracellular matrix-related genes changes dramatically over this period...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524134/-oct-morphometric-and-angiographic-parallels-between-different-variants-of-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#2
I E Panova, T B Shaimov, V A Shaimova
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a frequent cause of vision deterioration. Often it is associated with type 1 neovascularization under the pigment retinal epithelium (RPE). Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-angiography) enables non-invasive and contrast-free detection of neovessels in any retinal layer, which makes the method appropriate for diagnostics in CSCR. AIM: to investigate OCT-morphometric and angiographic parallels between different CSCR courses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 37 patients with CSCR...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515841/demands-of-simulated-commuting-using-an-electrically-assisted-bicycle
#3
D Taylor LA Salle, Robert Shute, Matthew Heesch, Dustin Slivka
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends adults participate in weekly aerobic activity for a minimum of 30 minutes moderate intensity exercise 5 days per week or 20 minutes of vigorous activity 3 days per week. The electrically assisted bicycle may help individuals achieve the ACSM's aerobic recommendations and introduce inactive individuals to physical activity. To compare the physiological requirements of riding a bicycle with electric pedal assist versus non-assist among healthy active young adults...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514808/physiological-dynamic-apnea-responses-in-relation-to-apnea-capacity-in-triathletes
#4
Alexandre Guimard, Houssem Zorgati, Sylvain Brulaire, Virgile Amiot, Fabrice Prieur, Katia Collomp
The aim was to assess the cardiac, arterial oxygen saturation, lactate, hormonal and Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute apnea in relation to apnea capacity in 18 middle-aged triathletes. Subjects were monitored while swimming two 50-m freestyle exercise trials with fins at maximal speed: with normal frequency breathing (NB) and with complete apnea (Ap); the latter was used to assess apnea capacity. The subjects with significant alteration in swimming performance inducing a time increase greater than 2...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514807/can-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulate-psychophysiological-response-in-sedentary-men-during-vigorous-aerobic-exercise
#5
Alexandre Hideki Okano, Daniel Gomes Silva Machado, Leônidas Oliveira Neto, Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Pedro Moraes Dutra Agrícola, Ademir Arruda, André Igor Fonteles, Li Min Li, Eduardo B Fontes, Hassan Mohamed Elsangedy, Alexandre Moreira
This study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could change physiological and psychological responses during vigorous exercise with a constant load. 13 sedentary males (23.0±4.2 years; 25.6±4.2 kg/m²) took part in this randomized, crossed-over, sham-controlled, and double-blinded study. Participants underwent 2 sessions with anodal or sham tDCS (2 mA, 20 min) applied before exercise over the left temporal cortex targeting the left insular cortex. The exercise was performed at vigorous intensity (%HRmax 81...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510630/local-and-systemic-inflammatory-biomarkers-of-diabetic-retinopathy-an-integrative-approach
#6
Stela Vujosevic, Rafael Simó
Purpose: To review the usefulness of local and systemic inflammatory biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy (DR) to implement a more personalized treatment. Methods: An integrated research (from ophthalmologist and diabetologist point of view) of most significant literature on serum, vitreous, and aqueous humor (AH) biochemical biomarkers related to inflammation at early and advanced stages of DR (including diabetic macular edema [DME] and proliferative DR) was performed...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510626/outcome-measures-for-clinical-trials-of-leber-congenital-amaurosis-caused-by-the-intronic-mutation-in-the-cep290-gene
#7
Samuel G Jacobson, Artur V Cideciyan, Alexander Sumaroka, Alejandro J Roman, Jason Charng, Monica Lu, Windy Choi, Rebecca Sheplock, Malgorzata Swider, Mychajlo S Kosyk, Sharon B Schwartz, Edwin M Stone, Gerald A Fishman
Purpose: To determine efficacy outcome measures for clinical trials of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) associated with a common intronic mutation in the CEP290 gene. Methods: CEP290-LCA patients (ages 5-48) with the intronic mutation (c.2991+1655A>G) were studied as a retrospective observational case series using clinical methods and with full-field sensitivity testing (FST), optical coherence tomography (OCT), autofluorescence imaging (NIR-RAFI), transient pupillary light reflex (TPLR), oculomotor control and instability (OCI), a mobility course, and a questionnaire (NEI-VFQ)...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509387/progranulin-increases-phagocytosis-by-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-in-culture
#8
Hiromi Murase, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yoshiki Kuse, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells take part in retinal preservation, such as phagocytizing the shed photoreceptor outer segments (POS), every day. The incomplete phagocytic function accelerates RPE degeneration and formation of the toxic by-product lipofuscin. Excessive lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic of various blinding diseases in the human eye. Progranulin is a cysteine-rich protein that has multiple biological activities, and it has a high presence in the retina. Progranulin has been recognized to be involved in macrophage phagocytosis in the brain...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508114/oral-l-menthol-reduces-thermal-sensation-increases-work-rate-and-extends-time-to-exhaustion-in-the-heat-at-a-fixed-rating-of-perceived-exertion
#9
T R Flood, M Waldron, O Jeffries
PURPOSE: The study investigated the effect of a non-thermal cooling agent, L-menthol, on exercise at a fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in a hot environment. METHOD: Eight male participants completed two trials at an exercise intensity between 'hard' and 'very hard', equating to 16 on the RPE scale at ~35 °C. Participants were instructed to continually adjust their power output to maintain an RPE of 16 throughout the exercise trial, stopping once power output had fallen by 30%...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507131/involvement-of-a-gut-retina-axis-in-protection-against-dietary-glycemia-induced-age-related-macular-degeneration
#10
Sheldon Rowan, Shuhong Jiang, Tal Korem, Jedrzej Szymanski, Min-Lee Chang, Jason Szelog, Christa Cassalman, Kalavathi Dasuri, Christina McGuire, Ryoji Nagai, Xue-Liang Du, Michael Brownlee, Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley, James D Baleja, Amy A Deik, Kerry A Pierce, Justin M Scott, Clary B Clish, Donald E Smith, Adina Weinberger, Tali Avnit-Sagi, Maya Lotan-Pompan, Eran Segal, Allen Taylor
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of blindness in developed nations. AMD is characterized by retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cell dysfunction and loss of photoreceptor cells. Epidemiologic studies indicate important contributions of dietary patterns to the risk for AMD, but the mechanisms relating diet to disease remain unclear. Here we investigate the effect on AMD of isocaloric diets that differ only in the type of dietary carbohydrate in a wild-type aged-mouse model. The consumption of a high-glycemia (HG) diet resulted in many AMD features (AMDf), including RPE hypopigmentation and atrophy, lipofuscin accumulation, and photoreceptor degeneration, whereas consumption of the lower-glycemia (LG) diet did not...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506437/association-between-interleukin-6-and-striatal-prediction-error-signals-following-acute-stress-in-healthy-female-participants
#11
Michael T Treadway, Roee Admon, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Malavika Mehta, Samuel Douglas, Gordana Vitaliano, David P Olson, Jessica A Cooper, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Stress is widely known to alter behavioral responses to rewards and punishments. It is believed that stress may precipitate these changes through modulation of corticostriatal circuitry involved in reinforcement learning and motivation, although the intervening mechanisms remain unclear. One candidate is inflammation, which can rapidly increase following stress and can disrupt dopamine-dependent reward pathways. METHODS: Here, in a sample of 88 healthy female participants, we first assessed the effect of an acute laboratory stress paradigm on levels of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine known to be both responsive to stress and elevated in depression...
March 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506260/atypical-retinal-pigment-epithelial-defects-with-retained-photoreceptor-layers-a-so-far-disregarded-finding-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#12
Helena Giannakaki-Zimmermann, Giuseppe Querques, Inger Christine Munch, Daraius Shroff, David Sarraf, Xuejing Chen, Eduardo Cunha-Souza, Sarah Mrejen, Vittorio Capuano, Murilo W Rodrigues, Charu Gupta, Andreas Ebneter, Martin S Zinkernagel, Marion R Munk
BACKGROUND: To report patients with age-related macular degeneration and atypical central retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) defects not attributable to geographic atrophy (GA) or RPE-tears with overlying preserved photoreceptor layers. METHODS: Multimodal imaging case-series evaluating the course of atypical RPE- defects in patients with AMD using Color fundus images, Optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-Angiography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and fluorescein-angiography (FA)...
May 15, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505174/extracellular-matrix-nitration-alters-growth-factor-release-and-activates-bioactive-complement-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#13
Mark A Fields, Hannah E Bowrey, Jie Gong, Ernesto F Moreira, Hui Cai, Lucian V Del Priore
PURPOSE: We have shown previously that non-enzymatic nitration (NEN) of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which serves as a model of Bruch's membrane (BM) aging, has a profound effect on the behavior of the overlying retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, including altered phagocytic ability, reduced cell adhesion, and inhibition of proliferation. We know that transplanted RPE monolayers will encounter a hostile sub-RPE environment, including age-related alterations in BM that may compromise cell function and survival...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504201/cilia-the-sensory-antennae-in-the-eye
#14
REVIEW
Helen May-Simera, Kerstin Nagel-Wolfrum, Uwe Wolfrum
Cilia are hair-like projections found on almost all cells in the human body. Originally believed to function merely in motility, the function of solitary non-motile (primary) cilia was long overlooked. Recent research has demonstrated that primary cilia function as signalling hubs that sense environmental cues and are pivotal for organ development and function, tissue hoemoestasis, and maintenance of human health. Cilia share a common anatomy and their diverse functional features are achieved by evolutionarily conserved functional modules, organized into sub-compartments...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503424/interleukin-13-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#15
Bo Fu, Zhe-Li Liu, Han Zhang, Feng Gu
AIM: o identify the effects of interleukin (IL)-13 on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and the IL-13 level in aqueous humor of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. METHODS: IL-13 levels in aqueous humor specimens from AMD patients were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ARPE-19 cells were treated with 10 ng/mL IL-13 for 12, 24, and 48h. The cell proliferaton was evaluated by the MTS method. The mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA and ZO-1 were evaluated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot respectively...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503422/inhibition-of-cell-proliferation-migration-and-apoptosis-in-blue-light-illuminated-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-by-down-regulation-of-htra1
#16
Tian Yu, Chang-Zheng Chen, Yi-Qiao Xing
AIM: To investigate the effect of HtrA1 on the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in the light injured model, as well as the expression of the apoptosis related molecules. METHODS: The human RPE cell line ARPE-19 was exposed to blue light to establish the light injured model. The cells were transfected with HtrA1 siRNA to knockdown HtrA1 expression. Subsequent expression of HtrA1 was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503420/oxidative-stress-affects-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-survival-through-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-akt-signaling-pathway
#17
Xiao-Dong Chen, Ming-Yang Su, Tao-Tao Chen, Hai-Yan Hong, Ai-Dong Han, Wen-Sheng Li
AIM: To investigate the cross-talk between oxidative stress and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/AKT signaling pathway in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. METHODS: Human RPE cell lines (ARPE-19 cell) were treated with different doses of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cell viability was determined by a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Cell proliferation was examined by a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500718/rpe65-and-the-accumulation-of-retinyl-esters-in-mouse-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#18
Colleen Sheridan, Nicholas P Boyer, Rosalie K Crouch, Yiannis Koutalos
The RPE65 protein of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) enables the conversion of retinyl esters to the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal. Fresh 11-cis retinal is generated from retinyl esters following photoisomerization of the visual pigment chromophore to all-trans during light detection. Large amounts of esters accumulate in Rpe65(-/-) mice, indicating their continuous formation when 11-cis retinal generation is blocked. We hypothesized that absence of light, by limiting the conversion of esters to 11-cis retinal, would also result in the build-up of retinyl esters in the RPE of wild-type mice...
May 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499705/measurement-and-reproducibility-of-preserved-ellipsoid-zone-area-and-preserved-rpe-area-in-a-cohort-of-eyes-with-choroideremia
#19
Amir H Hariri, Swetha B Velaga, Aniz Girach, Michael S Ip, Phuc V Le, Byron L Lam, M Dominik Fischer, Eeva-Marja Sankila, Mark Pennesi, Frank G Holz, Robert E MacLaren, David G Birch, Carel B Hoyng, Ian M MacDonald, Graeme C Black, Stephen H Tsang, Neil M Bressler, Michael Larsen, Michael B Gorin, Andrew R Webster, SriniVas R Sadda
PURPOSE: To identify valid and reproducible methods for quantifying anatomical outcome measures for eyes with choroideremia (CHM) in clinical trials. DESIGN: Reliability analysis study. METHODS: In this multicenter study, patients with confirmed genetic diagnosis of CHM were enrolled. All cases underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging. Two graders independently delineated boundaries of preserved autofluorescence (PAF) and preserved ellipsoid zone (EZ) on FAF and OCT images respectively...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497446/the-role-of-water-jet-dissection-in-improving-erectile-function-and-urinary-continence-after-nerve-sparing-prostatectomy
#20
Peter V Glybochko, Leonid M Rapoport, Eugene A Bezrukov, Eugene S Sirota, Gurgen A Martirosyan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess erectile function (EF) and urinary continence (UC) recovery after nerve-sparing retropubic radical prostatectomy (NS-RRPE) and nerve-sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (NS-LRPE) depending on the neurovascular bundle (NVB) dissection technique used. METHODS: Twenty-four hour pad test was used to assess the degree of postoperative UC 1, 6 and 12 months after the surgery. For the purpose of EF assessment, International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire was used...
May 10, 2017: Urologia
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