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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036897/inhibition-of-starvation-triggered-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-arpe-19-cells-by-taurine-through-modulating-the-expression-of-calpain-1-and-calpain-2
#1
Yuanyuan Zhang, Shu Ren, Yuci Liu, Kun Gao, Zheng Liu, Zhou Zhang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease with multiple initiators and pathways that converge on death for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this study, effects of taurine on calpains, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells (a human RPE cell line) were investigated. We first confirmed that autophagy, ER stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells were induced by Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) through starvation to induce RPE metabolic stress...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035598/rpe-during-concentric-and-eccentric-cycling-are-we-measuring-effort-or-exertion
#2
Luis Peñailillo, Karen Mackay, Chris R Abbiss
Despite the terms often being used interchangeably it has been suggested that perceptions of effort and perceptions of exertion may differ. Eccentric cycling may provide a model of exercise by which differences between these perceptions can be examined. PURPOSE: of this study was to examine and compare perceptions of effort and exertion during eccentric and concentric cycling at four intensities. METHODS: Ten healthy male participants (mean ± SD; age: 29.8 ± 2...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030796/classification-and-characterization-of-acute-macular-neuroretinopathy-with-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#3
Katerina Hufendiek, Maria-Andreea Gamulescu, Karsten Hufendiek, Horst Helbig, David Märker
PURPOSE: To classify and characterize AMN lesions with SD-OCT during a follow-up as long as 5 years. METHODS: Retrospective study of 14 patients (18 eyes) with special focus on SD-OCT. We measured thickness of inner nuclear layer (INL), outer retinal layer (ONL), and hyperreflective band at baseline and during follow-up. AMN lesions were classified as type 1 and type 2. RESULTS: Of 14 patients (six males, eight females, mean age 29.7 years), three patients (four eyes) had type 1 and nine (12 eyes) had type 2...
October 13, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030399/robust-lysosomal-calcium-signaling-through-channel-trpml1-is-impaired-by-lysosomal-lipid-accumulation
#4
Néstor Más Gómez, Wennan Lu, Jason C Lim, Kirill Kiselyov, Keith E Campagno, Yulia Grishchuk, Susan A Slaugenhaupt, Bruce A Pfeffer, Steven J Fliesler, Claire H Mitchell
The transient receptor potential cation channel mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) channel is a conduit for lysosomal calcium efflux, and channel activity may be affected by lysosomal contents. The lysosomes of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells are particularly susceptible to build-up of lysosomal waste products because they must degrade the outer segments phagocytosed daily from adjacent photoreceptors; incomplete degradation leads to accumulation of lipid waste in lysosomes. This study asks whether stimulation of TRPML1 can release lysosomal calcium in RPE cells and whether such release is affected by lysosomal accumulations...
October 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028920/perceived-fatigability-and-objective-physical-activity-in-mid-to-late-life
#5
Amal A Wanigatunga, Eleanor M Simonsick, Vadim Zipunnikov, Adam P Spira, Stephanie Studenski, Luigi Ferrucci, Jennifer A Schrack
Background: Fatigability, defined as fatigue in relation to a standardized task, predicts functional decline in older adults independent of reported tiredness or energy level. Although the sensation of fatigue, tiredness, and energy level adversely affect physical activity (PA), the association between fatigability and objectively measured PA is unknown. Methods: Participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n=557, 50% women, aged 50-97) were instructed to wear an Actiheart accelerometer for 7 consecutive days in the free-living environment...
September 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027919/shiga-toxins-induce-apoptosis-and-er-stress-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#6
Jun-Young Park, Yu-Jin Jeong, Sung-Kyun Park, Sung-Jin Yoon, Song Choi, Dae Gwin Jeong, Su Wol Chung, Byung Joo Lee, Jeong Hun Kim, Vernon L Tesh, Moo-Seung Lee, Young-Jun Park
Shiga toxins (Stxs) produced by Shiga toxin-producing bacteria Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and select serotypes of Escherichia coli are the most potent known virulence factors in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic colitis progressing to potentially fatal systemic complications such as acute renal failure, blindness and neurological abnormalities. Although numerous studies have defined apoptotic responses to Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) or Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) in a variety of cell types, the potential significance of Stx-induced apoptosis of photoreceptor and pigmented cells of the eye following intoxication is unknown...
October 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026682/wavelength-dependent-optical-properties-of-melanosomes-in-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-and-their-changes-with-melanin-bleaching-a-numerical-study
#7
Weiye Song, Lei Zhang, Steve Ness, Ji Yi
In this paper, we present the first numerical study on full metrics of wavelength-dependent optical properties of melanosomes in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. T-matrix method was used to simulate the spheroidal shapes of mature melanosomes, and the complex refractive index was calculated by a subtractive Kramers-Kronig relation for melanin. The validity of the method was first confirmed by Mie theory, and corroborated by a comparison between visible light and near infrared (NIR) optical coherence tomography (OCT) on human retinal imaging...
September 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026201/dual-contribution-of-trpv4-antagonism-in-the-regulatory-effect-of-vasoinhibins-on-blood-retinal-barrier-permeability-diabetic-milieu-makes-a-difference
#8
David Arredondo Zamarripa, Ramsés Noguez Imm, Ana María Bautista Cortés, Osvaldo Vázquez Ruíz, Michela Bernardini, Alessandra Fiorio Pla, Dimitra Gkika, Natalia Prevarskaya, Fernando López-Casillas, Wolfgang Liedtke, Carmen Clapp, Stéphanie Thébault
Breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), as occurs in diabetic retinopathy and other chronic retinal diseases, results in vasogenic edema and neural tissue damage, causing vision loss. Vasoinhibins are N-terminal fragments of prolactin that prevent BRB breakdown during diabetes. They modulate the expression of some transient receptor potential (TRP) family members, yet their role in regulating the TRP vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) remains unknown. TRPV4 is a calcium-permeable channel involved in barrier permeability, which blockade has been shown to prevent and resolve pulmonary edema...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023460/the-association-between-photoreceptor-layer-thickness-measured-by-optical-coherence-tomography-and-visual-sensitivity-in-glaucomatous-eyes
#9
Ryo Asaoka, Hiroshi Murata, Mieko Yanagisawa, Yuri Fujino, Masato Matsuura, Tatsuya Inoue, Kenji Inoue, Junkichi Yamagami
PURPOSE: To assess the thickness of the photoreceptor layer in the macular region in glaucomatous eyes. METHOD: Humphrey 10-2 visual field (VF) testing was carried out and mean threshold (mTH) was calculated in 118 eyes from 118 patients with open angle glaucoma. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements (RS 3000, Nidek Co.ltd., Aichi, Japan) were also carried out in all eyes. Thickness measurements were recorded in the outer segment and retinal pigment epithelium (OS+RPE), the nerve fiber layer (NFL), the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL), the inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer (INL+OPL) and the outer nuclear layer and inner segment (ONL+IS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022897/cooperation-of-rel-family-members-in-regulating-a%C3%AE-1-40-mediated-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-secretion-by-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#10
Junran Sun, Peirong Huang, Jian Liang, Jie Li, Mengxi Shen, Xiangjun She, Yiji Feng, Xueting Luo, Te Liu, Xiaodong Sun
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) is a hallmark component of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which induces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Previous studies have shown that p50/RelA (p65), a member of NF-κB family, is an essential pro-inflammatory transcription factor responding to Aβ1-40 stimulation, but few focused on the other two Rel transcription factor members - RelB and c-Rel - and their role in Aβ1-40-mediated inflammation. It was reported that RelA, RelB and c-Rel are also implicated in various NF-κB-mediated inflammatory diseases...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021717/enhanced-detection-of-sub-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-layer-deposits-in-human-and-murine-tissue-imaging-zinc-as-a-biomarker-for-age-related-macular-degeneration-an-american-ophthalmological-society-thesis
#11
Frederik J G M van Kuijk, Scott W McPherson, Heidi Roehrich
PURPOSE: Understanding the apparent paradoxical role of zinc in the pathogenesis and prevention of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been limited by the lack of animal models for its detection in sub-retinal epithelial deposits (drusen), a definitive early hallmark of AMD. In-vitro studies using Zinpyr-1 showed drusen contained high levels of zinc, but the probe was not suitable for in-vivo studies. This study compares Zinpyr-1 to ZPP1, a new fluorescein-based probe for zinc, to assess the potential of ZPP1 for in-vivo detection of zinc in drusen...
August 2017: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020431/overloaded-dysfunctional-rpe-leads-to-delayed-absorption-of-subretinal-fluid-after-retinal-detachment-repair
#12
Patrick Oellers, Dean Eliott
Persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) can impair visual recovery after vitrectomy or scleral buckling surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Several hypotheses have been proposed for delayed absorption of SRF, but the etiology has not been clearly identified. The authors present a patient with persistent SRF after vitrectomy for retinal detachment who developed central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) during the postoperative period in the nonoperative eye. Thus, subclinical retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) dysfunction was likely present in the operative eye, and when overloaded with SRF after retinal detachment repair, this manifested as delayed absorption...
October 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020430/acute-exudative-polymorphous-paraneoplastic-vitelliform-maculopathy-managed-with-intravitreal-aflibercept
#13
Kaan Gündüz, Gökçen Çöndü, Carol L Shields
The authors report on two patients with bilateral acute exudative polymorphous paraneoplastic vitelliform maculopathy (AEPPVM) treated with intravitreal aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY [marketed locally in Turkey by Bayer]). Underlying malignancy had been treated in each case, including breast carcinoma in one case and colon carcinoma in the other case. A macular vitelliform lesion was noted in the right eye and atrophic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) changes were noted in the left eye of each case...
October 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018359/that-escalated-quickly-planning-to-ignore-rpe-can-backfire
#14
Maik Bieleke, Wanja Wolff
Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are routinely assessed in exercise science and RPE is substantially associated with physiological criterion measures. According to the psychobiological model of endurance, RPE is a central limiting factor in performance. While RPE is known to be affected by psychological manipulations, it remains to be examined whether RPE can be self-regulated during static muscular endurance exercises to enhance performance. In this experiment, we investigate the effectiveness of the widely used and recommended self-regulation strategy of if-then planning (i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017395/electrical-support-during-outdoor-cycling-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-impact-on-exercise-intensity-volume-and-perception-of-effort
#15
Dominique Hansen, An Soors, Valerie Deluyker, Ines Frederix, Paul Dendale
BACKGROUND: Electrical assisted bicycles (EAB's) could be used to overcome barriers and difficulties to outdoor cycling and thus assist in achieving a sufficient physical activity level in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, but it is unknown whether sufficient exercise intensities and volumes could be elicited during cycling on EAB's. In this study we examined, for the first time, the acute physiological impact of electrical support during outdoor cycling in CAD patients (ISRCTN32238279)...
October 10, 2017: Acta Cardiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016360/pkc%C3%AE-dependent-upregulation-of-p27kip1-contributes-to-oxidative-stress-induced-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-multinucleation
#16
Dinusha Rajapakse, Mei Chen, Tim M Curtis, Heping Xu
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells increase in size and multinucleate during aging. We have shown using human and mouse cell lines that oxidised photoreceptor outer segments (oxPOS)-induced cytokinesis failure is related to RPE cell multinucleation, although the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study investigated the role of the PKC pathway in oxPOS-induced RPE multinucleation using ARPE19 cells. oxPOS treatment promoted PKC activity and upregulated the mRNA expression of PKC α, δ, ζ, ι and μ...
October 9, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016241/analysing-a-cycling-grand-tour-can-we-monitor-fatigue-with-intensity-or-load-ratios
#17
Dajo Sanders, Mathieu Heijboer, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Tony Myers, Ibrahim Akubat
This study evaluated the changes in ratios of different intensity (rating of perceived exertion; RPE, heart rate; HR, power output; PO) and load measures (session-RPE; sRPE, individualized TRIMP; iTRIMP, Training Stress Score™; TSS) in professional cyclists. RPE, PO and HR data was collected from twelve professional cyclists (VO2max 75 ± 6 ml∙min∙kg(-1)) during a two-week baseline training period and during two cycling Grand Tours. Subjective:objective intensity (RPE:HR, RPE:PO) and load (sRPE:iTRIMP, sRPE:TSS) ratios and external:internal intensity (PO:HR) and load (TSS:iTRIMP) ratios were calculated for every session...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993630/%C3%AE-synuclein-impairs-ferritinophagy-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-implications-for-retinal-iron-dyshomeostasis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Shounak Baksi, Neena Singh
Retinal degeneration is prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD), a neuromotor disorder associated with aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in the substantia-nigra (SN). Although α-syn is expressed in the neuroretina, absence of prominent aggregates suggests altered function as the likely cause of retinal pathology. We demonstrate that α-syn impairs ferritinophagy, resulting in the accumulation of iron-rich ferritin in the outer retina in-vivo and retinal-pigment-epithelial (RPE) cells in-vitro. Over-expression of Rab1a restores ferritinophagy, suggesting that α-syn impairs lysosomal function by disrupting the trafficking of lysosomal hydrolases...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993207/effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-time-limit-and-ratings-of-perceived-exertion-in-physically-active-women
#19
Eduardo Lattari, Bruno Soares de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho Oliveira, Rodrigo Cunha de Mello Pedreiro, Sérgio Machado, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhão Neto
The limiting factors of maximum performance in humans have been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to verify the acute effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on time limit (i.e., the time by which an individual is able to sustain a certain intensity of effort) at 100% of peak power (tlim@100%PP) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Eleven moderately active women underwent an anthropometric evaluation and a maximal incremental test in the cycle ergometer, in order to obtain peak power (PP)...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993010/early-and-late-retinal-pigment-epithelium-tears-after-anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-therapy-for-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#20
Alessandro Invernizzi, Vuong Nguyen, Jennifer Arnold, Stephanie Young, Daniel Barthelmes, Mark C Gillies
PURPOSE: To investigate when retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tears occur and their associated treatment patterns and long-term visual outcomes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. DESIGN: Case-control analysis from a prospectively designed observational database. PARTICIPANTS: Treatment-naïve eyes enrolled in the Fight Retina Blindness! observational study that commenced anti-VEGF treatment for nAMD between January 2006 and January 2017 were identified...
October 6, 2017: Ophthalmology
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