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antibiotics and obese

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165758/early-antibiotic-exposure-and-risk-of-childhood-obesity-in-latinos
#1
Annette P Ville, Melvin B Heyman, Rosalinda Medrano, Janet M Wojcicki
We investigated the relationship between early antibiotic exposure before 6 months age and risk for obesity at 2 years in a high-risk, low-income, urban Latino cohort (n = 97), with the hypothesis that antibiotic exposure would increase risk for obesity by 2 years. Data were collected through maternal report of infant 24-hour dietary intake at 4-6 weeks, 6 months, 1, and 2 years; and food frequency questionnaires at 4-6 weeks, 6 months, 1, and 2 years. Antibiotic use data, including type and frequency, were collected through maternal self-report at 6 months and 1 year...
February 6, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137820/pharmacokinetics-of-clindamycin-in-obese-and-non-obese-children
#2
Michael J Smith, Daniel Gonzalez, Jennifer L Goldman, Ram Yogev, Janice E Sullivan, Michael D Reed, Ravinder Anand, Karen Martz, Katherine Berezny, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Kevin Watt
Although obesity is prevalent among children in the United States, pharmacokinetic (PK) data in obese children are limited. Clindamycin is a commonly used antibiotic that may require dose adjustment in obese children due to its lipophilic properties. We performed a clindamycin population PK analysis using data from three separate trials. A total of 420 samples from 220 children, 76 of whom had a body mass index ≥ 95(th) percentile for age, were included in the analysis. As compared to other metrics, total body weight (TBW) was the most robust measure of body size...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134687/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#3
Thomas Malikowski, Sahil Khanna, Darrell S Pardi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The importance of the gut microbiome in human health is being increasingly recognized. The purpose of this review is to examine the existing literature pertaining to alterations in the gut microbiome and the utility of microbiome restoration therapies in gastrointestinal disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Imbalance and maladaptation of the microbiome, termed dysbiosis, has been associated with several disease states such as irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity among others...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128084/boils-at-frictional-locations-in-a-patient-with-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#4
Jurr Boer, Dalibor Mihajlovic
Dear Editor, Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory skin disease. The primary clinical presentation are painful inflamed nodules or boils of inverse areas, i.e. the axillary and anogenito-crural regions, but it can also involve the infra- and inter-mammary regions (1,2). The etiology of HS is not clearly defined. Obesity, smoking, and genetic factors are considered important risk factors. In addition, it has also been suggested that friction may contribute to the development of HS, especially in the obese, but this is based on highly anecdotal reports (3-5)...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122754/tigecycline-induced-coagulopathy
#5
Jonathan McMahan, Ryan P Moenster
PURPOSE: A case of coagulopathy in association with tigecycline use is described. SUMMARY: A 63-year-old morbidly obese, wheelchair-bound man was hospitalized for assessment of a possibly infected decubitus ulcer and surgical evaluation for placement of a diverting colostomy; he had been transferred from another facility after initiation of triple-agent antimicrobial therapy for suspected fecal infection of the ulcer. Based on the results of an ulcer swab culture, the patient's antibiotic regimen was modified (initially to i...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122314/does-current-cefazolin-dosing-achieve-adequate-tissue-and-blood-concentrations-in-obese-women-undergoing-cesarean-section
#6
Jessica J F Kram, Danielle M Greer, Omar Cabrera, Robert Burlage, Marie M Forgie, Danish S Siddiqui
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic administration of antibiotics preceding cesarean delivery is the most effective measure taken for preventing postpartum infection. While obese women are at greater risk for infection than non-obese women, evidence-based recommendations for modifying dosing in these women are limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese women undergoing cesarean delivery similarly reach adequate cefazolin concentrations within tissue and blood when weighing <120kg and dosed 2g versus weighing ≥120kg and dosed 3g...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118218/obesity-and-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-how-to-optimize-antimicrobial-usage-for-prevention-and-treatment
#7
Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are prevalent in the obese population, with rising trend expected. Although numerous antibiotics are available for the prevention and treatment of SSTIs, their characterization in obese patients is not a regulatory mandate. Consequently, information that carries importance for optimizing the dosing regimen in the obese population may not be readily available. This review focuses on the most recent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data on this topic with attention to cefazolin for surgical prophylaxis as well as antibiotics that are active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
January 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114473/historical-perspective-on-the-rise-and-fall-and-rise-of-antibiotics-and-human-weight-gain
#8
Scott H Podolsky
In recent medical and popular literature, audiences have been asked to consider whether antibiotics have contributed to the rising obesity epidemic. Prominent magazines have stated that weight may be adversely affected by antibiotics that destroy existing microbiomes and replace them with less helpful ones. However, there is a long history of efforts to investigate the relationship between antibiotics and human weight gain. In the early 1950s, amid initial findings that low doses of antibiotics served as growth promoters in animal livestock, investigators explored the role of antibiotics as magic bullets for human malnutrition...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079560/prenatal-exposures-and-the-development-of-childhood-wheezing-illnesses
#9
Christian Rosas-Salazar, Tina V Hartert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically evaluate and summarize studies published between July 2015 and June 2016 linking prenatal exposures and the onset of childhood wheezing illnesses and to discuss future research directions in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: The aggregated evidence indicates a consistent detrimental effect of prenatal exposure to parental smoking, outdoor air pollution, and maternal stress on childhood wheezing illnesses. Less consistent evidence suggests an adverse impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy and prenatal exposure to antibiotics on these outcomes...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072903/laparoscopic-treatment-of-giant-ventral-hernia-experience-of-35-patients
#10
Michele Grande, Giorgio Lisi, Michela Campanelli, Simona Grande, Dario Venditti, Casimiro Nigro, Francesca Cabry, Massimo Villa
BACKGROUND: Minimal access surgery for incisional hernia repair is still debated, especially for giant wall defects. Laparoscopic repair may reduce pain and hospital stay. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of the laparoscopic technique in giant hernia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2013, 35 consecutive patients with giant ventral hernia, according to the Chevrel classification, underwent laparoscopic repair. Fourteen patients were obese, with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 and in 21 patients the mean BMI was 24 (range 22-28)...
January 10, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069657/obesity-and-heart-failure-predictors-of-failure-in-outpatient-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#11
Erin L Conway, John A Sellick, Kari Kurtzhalts, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for failure of antibiotic treatment within 30 days for uncomplicated skin infections of outpatients treated in a Veteran's Affairs hospital. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of outpatients between January 2006 to July 2015 with an ICD-9 code of cellulitis or abscess were included in the analysis. The primary outcome was success versus failure of the antibiotic with failure defined as another antibiotic prescribed or hospitalization within 30 days for the original indication...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054929/rare-complication-of-stomas-peristomal-necrotizing-fasciitis
#12
Kivanc Derya Peker, Burak M Ilhan
INTRODUCTION: A stoma formation is a frequently performed procedure in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Although stoma formation is a simple process, it should be performed with caution. The aim of this study was to attract physicians' attention to this rare disease and also to identify the surgical and medical treatment options for peristomal necrotizing fasciitis as a rare complication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Risk factors including age, sex, additional diseases, previous surgical procedures, source of infection, physical findings, and vital signs of 14 patients with peristomal necrotizing fasciitis over a period of 10 years from 2005 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated...
December 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#13
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027341/antibiotics-and-obesity-a-burgeoning-or-thinning-argument
#14
Frank I Scott, Ronac Mamtani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027334/weight-gain-and-obesity-in-infants-and-young-children-exposed-to-prolonged-antibiotic-prophylaxis
#15
M Bruce Edmonson, Jens C Eickhoff
Importance: An association between antibiotic use and excessive weight gain or obesity in healthy infants and young children has been reported, but evidence is inconsistent and based on observational studies of growth in relation to incidental antibiotic exposures. Objective: To evaluate whether prolonged antibiotic exposure is associated with weight gain in children participating in a clinical trial of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027221/late-surgical-site-infection-in-immediate-implant-based-breast-reconstruction
#16
Indranil Sinha, Andrea L Pusic, Edwin G Wilkins, Jennifer B Hamill, Xiaoxue Chen, Hyungjin M Kim, Gretchen Guldbrandsen, Yoon S Chun
BACKGROUND: Surgical-site infection causes devastating reconstructive failure in implant-based breast reconstructions. Large national database studies offer insights into complication rates, but only capture outcomes within 30 days postoperatively. This study evaluates both early and late surgical-site infection in immediate implant-based reconstruction and identifies predictors. METHODS: As part of the Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium Study, 1662 implant-based breast reconstructions in 1024 patients were evaluated for early versus late surgical-site infection...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025609/indications-for-tonsillectomy-stratified-by-the-level-of-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Jochen P Windfuhr
Background: One of the most significant clinical trials, demonstrating the efficacy of tonsillectomy (TE) for recurrent throat infection in severely affected children, was published in 1984. This systematic review was undertaken to compile various indications for TE as suggested in the literature after 1984 and to stratify the papers according to the current concept of evidence-based medicine. Material and methods: A systematic Medline research was performed using the key word of "tonsillectomy" in combination with different filters such as "systematic reviews", "meta-analysis", "English", "German", and "from 1984/01/01 to 2015/05/31"...
2016: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018766/differentiation-of-lung-cancer-empyema-and-abscess-through-the-investigation-of-a-dry-cough
#18
Brittany Urso, Scott Michaels
An acute dry cough results commonly from bronchitis or pneumonia. When a patient presents with signs of infection, respiratory crackles, and a positive chest radiograph, the diagnosis of pneumonia is more common. Antibiotic failure in a patient being treated for community-acquired pneumonia requires further investigation through chest computed tomography. If a lung mass is found on chest computed tomography, lung empyema, abscess, and cancer need to be included on the differential and managed aggressively. This report describes a 55-year-old Caucasian male, with a history of obesity, recovered alcoholism, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension, presenting with an acute dry cough in the primary care setting...
November 24, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008784/therapeutic-interventions-for-gut-dysbiosis-and-related-disorders-in-the-elderly-antibiotics-probiotics-or-faecal-microbiota-transplantation
#19
R C Vemuri, R Gundamaraju, T Shinde, R Eri
Ageing and physiological functions of the human body are inversely proportional to each other. The gut microbiota and host immune system co-evolve from infants to the elderly. Ageing is accompanied by a decline in gut microbial diversity, immunity and metabolism, which increases susceptibility to infections. Any compositional change in the gut is directly linked to gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and metabolic diseases. Increase in opportunistic pathogen invasion in the gut like Clostridium difficile leading to C...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997266/obesity-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-group-b-streptococcal-colonization
#20
Mitchell D Alvareza, Akila Subramaniam, Ying Tang, Rodney K Edwards
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 25% of women are colonized with group B streptococcus (GBS). We assessed whether body mass index (BMI) is an independent risk factor for GBS colonization. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study using a previously collected database of women who delivered singleton gestations at term. Individual patient medical record review was undertaken to add GBS-related information to the database. Univariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between GBS colonization and BMI...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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