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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132552/intravenous-drug-abuse-is-a-risk-factor-in-the-failure-of-two-stage-treatment-for-infected-total-hip-arthroplasty
#1
Yu-Jie Su, Sung-Yen Lin, Hsuan-Ti Huang, Je-Ken Chang, Chung-Hwan Chen
Reinfection after two-stage revision hip arthroplasty (RHA) is still a complex issue. Only few studies revealed the factors affecting the success rate in the treatment of periprosthetic hip infection (PHI), especially risk factors. A retrospective study was conducted using records of 30 patients underwent two-stage RHA for infected total hip arthroplasty (THA). Treatment was defined as successful if a patient did not need any reoperation or invasive procedure such as image-guided drainage during the two years after reimplantation...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130235/-a-meta-analysis-on-risk-factors-of-postoperative-perineal-wound-complications-after-abdominoperineal-resection-for-rectal-cancer
#2
Senqi Lu, Xiaofeng Chang, Xiaodong Yang, Decai Yu, Qigen Huang, Feng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors of postoperative perineal wound complications after abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. METHODS: The databases of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Ovid, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP and WANFANG were searched for the studies of abdominoperineal resection up to October 2016. The quality of the included studies was assessed by using "Cochrane collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias" and "the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale"...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124056/microbial-therapeutics-designed-for-infant-health
#3
REVIEW
Claire Watkins, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross
Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120742/the-human-microbiome-and-obesity-moving-beyond-associations
#4
REVIEW
Padma Maruvada, Vanessa Leone, Lee M Kaplan, Eugene B Chang
Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiome responds to diet, antibiotics, and other external stimuli with speed and high precision and in ways that impact a variety of metabolic conditions including obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Despite a decade of research establishing a strong association between the gut microbiota and obesity in humans, a causal relationship and the underlying mechanism remain outstanding. Several technological and methodological limitations in obesity and microbiome research have made it difficult to establish causality in this complex relationship...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119027/dosing-of-ertapenem-in-an-extreme-obesity-a-case-report-of-250%C3%A2-kg-patient
#5
Jana Lass, Kadri Tamme, Karin Kipper, Joel Starkopf
Limited available data for dosing in obesity of the medicines used in this case are discussed, with the emphasis on ertapenem. The case illustrates the difficulties in dosing medicines to morbidly overweight patients. The number of such patients is increasing but data on adequate doses of medicines are scarce. We demonstrate that ertapenem 1,5 g i.v. once daily provided adequate drug exposure for susceptible bacteria in a 250 kg patient with normal renal function. The case suggests the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring of antibiotics, especially in critically ill patients...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114639/knee-septic-arthritis-after-arthroscopy-incidence-risk-factors-functional-outcome-and-infection-eradication-rate
#6
REVIEW
G Balato, S L Di Donato, T Ascione, A D'Addona, F Smeraglia, G Di Vico, D Rosa
Purpose  Septic knee arthritis following arthroscopy is a rare but dreaded complication. Definition and management of knee deep infections are quite discussed in literature. In this review, literature regarding infections after knee arthroscopy is analyzed highlighting the incidence, causative bacteria, risk factors as well as clinical outcomes. Methods  We performed a review of the literature matching the following key words: "septic arthritis" OR "infection" AND "arthroscopy" AND "knee." Knee arthroscopic procedures, such as debridement, meniscectomy, meniscus repair, synovectomy, microfracture, and lateral release, were considered...
June 2017: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107964/obesogenic-diet-induced-gut-barrier-dysfunction-and-pathobiont-expansion-aggravate-experimental-colitis
#7
June-Chul Lee, Hae-Youn Lee, Tae Kang Kim, Min-Soo Kim, Young Mi Park, Jinyoung Kim, Kihyoun Park, Mi-Na Kweon, Seok-Hyung Kim, Jin-Woo Bae, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung-Shik Lee
Consumption of a typical Western diet is a risk factor for several disorders. Metabolic syndrome is the most common disease associated with intake of excess fat. However, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is also greater in subjects consuming a Western diet, although the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We examined the morphological and functional changes of the intestine, the first site contacting dietary fat, in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) inducing obesity. Paneth cell area and production of antimicrobial peptides by Paneth cells were decreased in HFD-fed mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080460/chlorogenic-acid-cga-a-pharmacological-review-and-call-for-further-research
#8
REVIEW
Muhammad Naveed, Veghar Hejazi, Muhammad Abbas, Asghar Ali Kamboh, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Muhammad Shumzaid, Fawwad Ahmad, Daryoush Babazadeh, Xia FangFang, Faezeh Modarresi-Ghazani, Li WenHua, Zhou XiaoHui
Phenolic acids have recently gained substantial attention due to their various practical, biological and pharmacological effects. Chlorogenic Acid (CGA, 3-CQA) is a most abundant isomer among caffeoylquinic acid isomers (3-, 4-, and 5-CQA), that currently known as 5-CQA as per guidelines of IUPAC. It is one of the most available acids among phenolic acid compounds which can be naturally found in green coffee extracts and tea. CGA is an important and biologically active dietary polyphenol, playing several important and therapeutic roles such as antioxidant activity, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, neuroprotective, anti-obesity, antiviral, anti-microbial, anti-hypertension, free radicals scavenger and a central nervous system (CNS) stimulator...
October 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080046/the-microbiome-that-shapes-us-can-it-cause-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Endashaw Omer, Hadi Atassi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We sought to examine the effects of the gut microbial makeup on weight gain and obesity. We wanted to find out what the current research on this topic was and what the effect of the gut microbiota on energy metabolism is, as well the effects of diet on the microbiome and what effect the microbiome has on metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is thought to be due to greater calorie intake than expenditure. Recently, research has looked into the effects of the microbiome on obesity...
October 27, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073935/human-health-implications-of-organic-food-and-organic-agriculture-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Axel Mie, Helle Raun Andersen, Stefan Gunnarsson, Johannes Kahl, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Ewa Rembiałkowska, Gianluca Quaglio, Philippe Grandjean
This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions. Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071710/microbiota-replacement-therapies-innovation-in-gastrointestinal-care
#11
Sahil Khanna
There has been an increasing interest in the association between human disease and altered gut microbiota, and therapeutics to modulate microbiota to treat disease. Healthy human gastrointestinal microbiota is highly diverse and rich, and harbors between 500 and 2000 species. Diseases associated with dysbiotic microbiota include antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection, multi-drug resistant organisms, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, neuro-psychiatric diseases and systemic autoimmune diseases...
October 26, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063877/optimisation-of-antimicrobial-dosing-based-on-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-principles
#12
REVIEW
Grace Si Ru Hoo, Yi Xin Liew, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
While suboptimal dosing of antimicrobials has been attributed to poorer clinical outcomes, clinical cure and mortality advantages have been demonstrated when target pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for various classes of antimicrobials were achieved to maximise antibiotic activity. Dosing optimisation requires a good knowledge of PK/PD principles. This review serves to provide a foundation in PK/PD principles for the commonly prescribed antibiotics (β-lactams, vancomycin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides), as well as dosing considerations in special populations (critically ill and obese patients)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056933/linking-the-gut-microbial-ecosystem-with-the-environment-does-gut-health-depend-on-where-we-live
#13
Nishat Tasnim, Nijiati Abulizi, Jason Pither, Miranda M Hart, Deanna L Gibson
Global comparisons reveal a decrease in gut microbiota diversity attributed to Western diets, lifestyle practices such as caesarian section, antibiotic use and formula-feeding of infants, and sanitation of the living environment. While gut microbial diversity is decreasing, the prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity, allergies and asthma is on the rise in Westernized societies. Since the immune system development is influenced by microbial components, early microbial colonization may be a key factor in determining disease susceptibility patterns later in life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046933/-regional-anesthesia-are-the-standards-changing
#14
REVIEW
T Volk, C Kubulus
Regional anesthesia has undergone many changes over the years and the increasing use of ultrasound has certainly played an important role in this. Apart from individual case reports in the literature of very different blocking options, some new procedures seem to have become established and can be broadly applied. Among these are blockades, by which ultrasound-guided injection of local anesthetics is carried out in fascial or muscular layers rather than around target nerves (e.g. cervical plexus blocks and truncal blocks)...
October 18, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035308/gut-microbiota-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-insights-on-mechanisms-and-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Junli Ma, Qihang Zhou, Houkai Li
The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can be manipulated, including through use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and some active components from herbal medicines. In this review, we review the main roles of gut microbiota in mediating the development of NAFLD, and the advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies for NAFLD in both the experimental and clinical studies, as well as the conclusions on the prospect of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in the future...
October 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026883/increased-weight-gain-by-c-section-functional-significance-of-the-primordial-microbiome
#16
Keith A Martinez, Joseph C Devlin, Corey R Lacher, Yue Yin, Yi Cai, Jincheng Wang, Maria G Dominguez-Bello
Epidemiological evidence supports a direct association between early microbiota impact-including C-section-and obesity. We performed antibiotic-free, fostered C-sections and determined the impact on the early microbiota and body weight during development. Mice in the C-section group gained more body mass after weaning, with a stronger phenotype in females. C-section-born mice lacked the dynamic developmental gut microbiota changes observed in control mice. The results demonstrate a causal relationship between C-section and increased body weight, supporting the involvement of maternal vaginal bacteria in normal metabolic development...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023853/antibiotics-gut-microbiome-and-obesity
#17
Karen S W Leong, José G B Derraik, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
Antibiotics have been hailed by many as 'miracle drugs' that have been effectively treating infectious diseases for over a century, leading to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, with the increasing use of antibiotics, we are now faced not only with the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, but also with a rising concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on human health, including the development of obesity. The obesity pandemic continues to increase, a problem that affects both adults and children alike...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019017/leptospirosis-associated-catastrophic-respiratory-failure-supported-by-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#18
Tamara Cantwell, Andrés Ferre, Nicolette Van Sint Jan, Rodrigo Blamey, Jorge Dreyse, Cristian Baeza, Rodrigo Diaz, Tomás Regueira
A previously healthy, 39-year-old obese farmer, arrived hypotensive and tachycardic, with fever, myalgia, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and progressive dyspnea. Ten days before symptoms onset, he was in direct contact with mice and working in a contaminated drain. Patient laboratory showed acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. Chest X-ray exhibited bilateral diffuse interstitial infiltrates. First-line empirical antibiotics were started and influenza discarded. Patient evolved with severe respiratory failure, associated with hemoptysis, and rapidly severe hemodynamic compromise...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988290/early-microbiota-antibiotics-and-health
#19
REVIEW
Alicja M Nogacka, Nuria Salazar, Silvia Arboleya, Marta Suárez, Nuria Fernández, Gonzalo Solís, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Miguel Gueimonde
The colonization of the neonatal digestive tract provides a microbial stimulus required for an adequate maturation towards the physiological homeostasis of the host. This colonization, which is affected by several factors, begins with facultative anaerobes and continues with anaerobic genera. Accumulating evidence underlines the key role of the early neonatal period for this microbiota-induced maturation, being a key determinant factor for later health. Therefore, understanding the factors that determine the establishment of the microbiota in the infant is of critical importance...
October 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975304/effect-of-post-cesarean-delivery-oral-cephalexin-and-metronidazole-on-surgical-site-infection-among-obese-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Amy M Valent, Chris DeArmond, Judy M Houston, Srinidhi Reddy, Heather R Masters, Alison Gold, Michael Boldt, Emily DeFranco, Arthur T Evans, Carri R Warshak
Importance: The rate of obesity among US women has been increasing, and obesity is associated with increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery. The optimal perioperative antibiotic prophylactic regimen in this high-risk population undergoing cesarean delivery is unknown. Objective: To determine rates of SSI among obese women who receive prophylactic oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery...
September 19, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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