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antibiotics and obese

Valérie A Zeller, Valérie-Anne Letembet, Vanina A Meyssonnier, Beate Heym, Jean-Marc Ziza, Simon D Marmor
BACKGROUND: Cutibacterium spp. (formerly Propionibacterium) are slow-growing cutaneous anaerobic commensals, rarely reported in prosthetic joint infections (PJIs). We describe epidemiological, clinical, biological, and radiological characteristics of 15 Cutibacterium avidum PJIs, their treatments, and outcomes. METHODS: This study is an observational, monocenter study (January 2004 to April 2017), with comparison of C avidum vs Cutibacterium acnes (n = 40) PJI characteristics...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Alan Leviton, Stephen R Hooper, Scott J Hunter, Megan N Scott, Elizabeth N Allred, Robert M Joseph, T Michael O'Shea, Karl Kuban
BACKGROUND: The incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is higher among children born very preterm than among children who are mature at birth. METHODS: We studied 583 ten-year-old children who were born before 28 weeks of gestation whose IQ was above 84 and had a parent-completed Child Symptom Inventory-4, which allowed classification of the child as having or not having symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. For 422 children, we also had a teacher report, and for 583 children, we also had a parent report of whether or not a physician made an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis...
December 21, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Cyrus Jahansouz, Christopher Staley, Scott Kizy, Hongliang Xu, Ann V Hertzel, Jessi Coryell, Stephanie Singroy, Matthew Hamilton, Meri DuRand, David A Bernlohr, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Sayeed Ikramuddin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test whether the perioperative composition of intestinal microbiota can contribute to variable outcomes following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity, metabolic outcomes are variable. METHODS: Diet-induced obese mice were randomized to VSG or sham surgery, with or without exposure to antibiotics that selectively suppress mainly gram-positive (fidaxomicin, streptomycin) or gram-negative (ceftriaxone) bacteria on postoperative days (POD) 1-4...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Leah T Stiemsma, Karin B Michels
Although the prominent role of the microbiome in human health has been established, the early-life microbiome is now being recognized as a major influence on long-term human health and development. Variations in the composition and functional potential of the early-life microbiome are the result of lifestyle factors, such as mode of birth, breastfeeding, diet, and antibiotic usage. In addition, variations in the composition of the early-life microbiome have been associated with specific disease outcomes, such as asthma, obesity, and neurodevelopmental disorders...
March 8, 2018: Pediatrics
M Štefan, J Vojtěch
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews up-to-date data on antibiotic therapy in pregnancy. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Department of Infectious Diseases, Military University Hospital Prague; Institute for the Care of Mother and Child, Prague. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant literary sources have been considered, including articles in English indexed in Pubmed, monographies in English and articles in Czech. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic therapy in pregnancy must be rational...
2018: Ceská Gynekologie
Xiang Wu, Chenbo Yu, Tao Li, Le Lin, Qiong Xu, QingGuo Zhu, Liefu Ye, Xiangxun Gao
To detect the best antibiotic protocol for prostate biopsy and to assess the potential risk factors postbiopsy in Chinese patients.A total of 1526 patients underwent biopsy were assessed retrospectively. The effect of 3 antibiotic protocols was compared, including fluoroquinolone (FQ) monotherapy, third-generation cephalosporin combined with FQ and targeted antibiotics according to the prebiopsy rectal swab culture result. Postbiopsy infection (PBI) was defined as fever and/or active urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria or frequency with pyuria and/or leucocytosis, sepsis is defined as the presence of clinically or microbiologically documented infection in conjunction with systemic inflammatory response syndrome...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aafke W F Janssen, Saeed Katiraei, Barbara Bartosinska, Daniel Eberhard, Ko Willems van Dijk, Sander Kersten
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is an important regulator of triacylglycerol metabolism, carrying out this role by inhibiting the enzymes lipoprotein lipase and pancreatic lipase. ANGPTL4 is a potential target for ameliorating cardiometabolic diseases. Although ANGPTL4 has been implicated in obesity, the study of the direct role of ANGPTL4 in diet-induced obesity and related metabolic dysfunction is hampered by the massive acute-phase response and development of lethal chylous ascites and peritonitis in Angptl4-/- mice fed a standard high-fat diet...
March 3, 2018: Diabetologia
Jin Ah Cho, Daniel J F Chinnapen
Mucosal surfaces that line our gastrointestinal tract are continuously exposed to trillions of bacteria that form a symbiotic relationship and impact host health and disease. It is only beginning to be understood that the cross-talk between the host and microbiome involve dynamic changes in commensal bacterial population, secretion, and absorption of metabolites between the host and microbiome. As emerging evidence implicates dysbiosis of gut microbiota in the pathology and progression of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and allergy, conventional treatments that either overlook the microbiome in the mechanism of action, or eliminate vast populations of microbes via wide-spectrum antibiotics need to be reconsidered...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Preeti Pathak, Xie Cen, Robert G Nichols, Jessica M Ferrell, Shannon Boehme, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez, John Y L Chiang
Bile acids activate farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, aka TGR5) to regulate bile acid metabolism and glucose and insulin sensitivity. FXR and TGR5 are co-expressed in the enteroendocrine L cells but their roles in integrated regulation of metabolism are not completely understood. We reported recently that activation of FXR induces TGR5 to stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion to improve insulin sensitivity and hepatic metabolism. In this study, we used the intestine-restricted FXR agonist fexaramine (FEX) to study the effect of activation of intestinal FXR on the gut microbiome, bile acid metabolism, and FXR and TGR5 signaling...
February 27, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jason P Block, L Charles Bailey, Matthew W Gillman, Douglas Lunsford, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Lauren P Cleveland, Jonathan Finkelstein, Casie Horgan, Melanie Jay, Juliane S Reynolds, Jessica Sturtevant, Christopher B Forrest
OBJECTIVES: The National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) supports observational and clinical research using healthcare data. The PCORnet Antibiotics and Childhood Growth Study is one of PCORnet's inaugural observational studies. The objectives of this manuscript are to describe (1) the processes used to integrate and analyze data from children across 36 participating institutions and (2) the cohort characteristics and prevalence of antibiotic use. METHODS: We included children in the cohort if they had at least one same-day height and weight measured in each of three age periods: 1) before 12 months, 2) 12 to 30 months, and 3) after 24 months...
February 22, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Zhi-Jun Deng, Ruo-Xuan Liu, A-Rong Li, Jie-Wen Guo, Qing-Ping Zeng
Although the concept of inflammatory obesity remains to be widely accepted, a plethora of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, mitochondrial uncouplers, and other structurally distinct compounds with unknown mechanisms have been demonstrated to exert functionally identical effects on weight reduction. Here we summarize a universal mechanism in which weight loss is modulated by mitochondrial biogenesis, which is correlated with conversion from the mitochondria-insufficient white adipose tissue to the mitochondria-abundant brown adipose tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kevin Li, Tanmaya D Sambare, Sam Y Jiang, Emily J Shearer, Nathan P Douglass, Robin N Kamal
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic prophylaxis is a common but controversial practice for clean soft tissue procedures of the hand, such as carpal tunnel release or trigger finger release. Previous studies report no substantial reduction in the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after antibiotic prophylaxis, yet are limited in power by low sample sizes and low overall rates of postoperative infection. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Is there evidence that antibiotic prophylaxis decreases the risk of SSI after soft tissue hand surgery when using propensity score matching to control for potential confounding variables such as demographics, procedure type, medication use, existing comorbidities, and postoperative events? METHODS: This retrospective analysis used the Truven Health MarketScan databases, large, multistate commercial insurance claims databases corresponding to inpatient and outpatient services and outpatient drug claims made between January 2007 and December 2014...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
J D Voss, M S Goodson, J C Leon
We propose the idea of "phenotype diffusion," which is a rapid convergence of an observed trait in some human and animal populations. The words phenotype and diffusion both imply observations independent of mechanism as phenotypes are observed traits with multiple possible genetic mechanisms and diffusion is an observed state of being widely distributed. Recognizing shared changes in phenotype in multiple species does not by itself reveal a particular mechanism such as a shared exposure, shared adaptive need, particular stochastic process or a transmission pathway...
February 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Pattaranit Nernsai, Areepan Sophonsritsuk, Srithean Lertvikool, Artit Jinawath, Maria Nina Chitasombat
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis, the disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei is endemic in the Northeastern part of Thailand, South-East Asia, and Northern Australia. The pelvic involvement of disease is rare even in an endemic area. Therefore, we describe in this report the clinical presentation, management, and outcome of the patient with primary tubo-ovarian abscess due to melioidosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old Thai cassava farmer woman presented with fever and abdominal pain at left lower quadrant for one month...
February 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Shepard P Johnson, Lin Zhong, Kevin C Chung, Jennifer F Waljee
PURPOSE: Given that surgical site infections remain a common performance metric in assessing the quality of health care, we hypothesized that prophylactic antibiotics are overutilized in soft tissue hand surgery when antimicrobials are not indicated. METHODS: We studied insurance claims from the Truven MarketScan Databases to identify patients who underwent 1 of 5 outpatient hand surgery procedures: open or endoscopic carpal tunnel release, trigger finger release, de Quervain release, and wrist ganglion excision between 2009 and 2015 (n = 305,946)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Max Nyström, Evzen Machytka, Erik Norén, Pier Alberto Testoni, Ignace Janssen, Jesus Turró Homedes, Jorge Carlos Espinos Perez, Roman Turro Arau
PURPOSE: The objective of this post-market study was to evaluate long-term safety and efficacy of aspiration therapy (AT) in a clinical setting in five European clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The AspireAssist® System (Aspire Bariatrics, Inc. King of Prussia, PA) is an endoscopic weight loss therapy utilizing a customized percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube and an external device to aspirate approximately 30% of ingested calories after a meal, in conjunction with lifestyle counseling...
February 1, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Oliver James Dyar, Holly Hills, Lara-Turiya Seitz, Alex Perry, Diane Ashiru-Oredope
The Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance highlights the importance of training all healthcare professionals. No study has assessed patterns of students' knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning antibiotic use simultaneously across different healthcare course types. We conducted a cross-sectional multi-center survey among UK students. The survey was advertised through local survey coordinators at 25 universities. The online survey was accessible from 10th October to 17th November 2016 (before European Antibiotic Awareness Day)...
January 30, 2018: Antibiotics
Sandra Shenouda, Khaled Al-Farawi, Jenna Dolan, Susan L Flesher
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a diagnosis of exclusion defined by elevated intracranial pressure without mass lesions or hydrocephalus. Causes of idiopathic intracranial hypertension include obesity, vitamin derangements, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and autoimmune disorders. Cushing's disease and Addison's disease have been associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Secondary adrenal insufficiency following withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids has been found to be a relatively common phenomenon...
2018: SAGE open medical case reports
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: Amoxicillin is a broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. Due to its low toxicity, it is commonly used in obstetrics. The objective of this study was to assess amoxicillin concentrations in amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, placenta and maternal serum two hours following oral administration among pregnant women at term and to assess obstetric and non-obstetric factors that might affect amoxicillin's penetration of these tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 full-term pregnant women who qualified for elective Caesarean delivery were included in the study...
December 25, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
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