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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333940/distinct-transcriptome-profiles-of-gag-specific-cd8-t-cells-temporally-correlated-with-the-protection-elicited-by-siv%C3%AE-nef-live-attenuated-vaccine
#1
Wuxun Lu, Yanmin Wan, Fangrui Ma, R Paul Johnson, Qingsheng Li
The live attenuated vaccine (LAV) SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) confers the best protection among all the vaccine modalities tested in rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 infection. This vaccine has a unique feature of time-dependent protection: macaques are not protected at 3-5 weeks post vaccination (WPV), whereas immune protection emerges between 15 and 20 WPV. Although the exact mechanisms of the time-dependent protection remain incompletely understood, studies suggested that both cellular and humoral immunities contribute to this time-dependent protection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328549/epigallocatechin-gallate-inhibits-macaque-sevi-mediated-enhancement-of-siv-or-shiv-infection
#2
Run-Hong Zhou, Le Guo, Jin-Biao Liu, Hang Liu, Wei Hou, Tong-Cui Ma, Xu Wang, Jian-Guo Wu, Li Ye, Wen-Zhe Ho, Jie-Liang Li
BACKGROUND: Human semen contains a factor that can enhance HIV infection up to 10^5-fold in cultures. This factor is termed SEVI (Semen-derived Enhancer of Virus Infection), which is composed of proteolytic fragments (PAP248-286) from prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in semen. Here, we examined whether macaque SEVI can facilitate simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. We also studied the effect of EGCG on macaque SEVI-mediated SIV or SHIV enhancement...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327640/compatibility-study-of-danggui-buxue-tang-on-chemical-ingredients-angiogenesis-and-endothelial-function
#3
Ping-Lan Lin, Zhi-Cheng Li, Rui-Fang Xie, You-Hua Wang, Xin Zhou
Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a classic Chinese herbal formula which consists of Astragali mongholici Radix and Angelica sinensis Radix (ASR). For chemical ingredients, HPLC were performed. Results showed compared with single herbs, DBT decoction could promote the dissolution of ingredients such as ferulic acid and calycosin. Furthermore, when ratio of AMR to ASR was 5 to 1, synthetic score was the best. For angiogenesis, normal and injured zebrafish model were applied. Results showed DBT and its ingredients had angiogenesis effects on Sub Intestinal vessels (SIVs) of normal zebrafish...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323893/effect-of-supervised-exercise-training-during-pregnancy-on-neonatal-and-maternal-outcomes-among-overweight-and-obese-women-secondary-analyses-of-the-etip-trial-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Kirsti Krohn Garnæs, Siri Ann Nyrnes, Kjell Åsmund Salvesen, Øyvind Salvesen, Siv Mørkved, Trine Moholdt
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity associates with complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Our aim was to investigate if exercise during pregnancy in overweight/obese women could influence birth weight or other neonatal and maternal outcomes at delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial of exercise training in pregnancy for women with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2. Ninety-one women (31.3 ± 4.3 years, BMI 34...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315663/enhancing-the-catalytic-deamination-activity-of-apobec3c-is-insufficient-to-inhibit-vif-deficient-hiv-1
#5
Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva Vasudevan, Henning Hofmann, Dieter Willbold, Dieter Häussinger, Bernd W Koenig, Carsten Münk
The retroviral restriction factors of the APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminase family catalyze the deamination of cytidines in single-stranded viral DNA. APOBEC3C (A3C) is a strong antiviral factor against viral infectivity factor (vif)-deficient simian immunodeficiency (SIV) Δvif, however, a weak inhibitor against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 for reasons unknown. The precise link between the antiretroviral effect of A3C and its catalytic activity is incompletely understood. Here we show that the S61P mutation in human A3C (A3C...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302457/mucosal-vaccination-with-heterologous-viral-vectored-vaccine-targeting-subdominant-siv-accessory-antigens-strongly-inhibits-early-viral-replication
#6
Huanbin Xu, Anne-Marie Andersson, Emeline Ragonnaud, Ditte Boilesen, Anders Tolver, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech Jensen, James L Blanchard, Alfredo Nicosia, Antonella Folgori, Stefano Colloca, Riccardo Cortese, Allan Randrup Thomsen, Jan Pravsgaard Christensen, Ronald S Veazey, Peter Johannes Holst
Conventional HIV T cell vaccine strategies have not been successful in containing acute peak viremia, nor in providing long-term control. We immunized rhesus macaques intramuscularly and rectally using a heterologous adenovirus vectored SIV vaccine regimen encoding normally weakly immunogenic tat, vif, rev and vpr antigens fused to the MHC class II associated invariant chain. Immunizations induced broad T cell responses in all vaccinees. Following up to 10 repeated low-dose intrarectal challenges, vaccinees suppressed early viral replication (P=0...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298291/plasmablast-response-to-primary-rhesus-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-a-monkey-model-of-congenital-cmv-transmission
#7
Qihua Fan, Cody S Nelson, Kristy M Bialas, Flavia Chiuppesi, Joshua Amos, Thaddeus C Gurley, Dawn Jones Marshall, Joshua Eudailey, Holly Heimsath, Jonathon Himes, Ashlesha Deshpande, Mark R Walter, Felix Wussow, Don J Diamond, Peter A Barry, M Anthony Moody, Amitinder Kaur, Sallie R Permar
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection worldwide, and the leading infectious cause of neurologic deficits and hearing loss in newborns. Development of a maternal HCMV vaccine to prevent vertical virus transmission is a high priority, yet protective maternal immune responses following acute infection are poorly understood. To characterize the maternal humoral immune response to primary CMV infection, we investigated the plasmablast and early antibody repertoire using a nonhuman primate model with two acutely rhesus CMV (RhCMV) infected animals - a CD4+ T cell-depleted dam that experienced fetal loss shortly after vertical RhCMV transmission and an immunocompetent dam that did not transmit RhCMV to her infant...
March 15, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284612/pathogenicity-and-transmission-of-triple-reassortant-h3n2-swine-influenza-a-viruses-is-attenuated-following-turkey-embryo-propagation
#8
Shobana Raghunath, Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam, Jagadeeswaran Deventhiran, Rahul Tevatia, Tanya Leroith
Genetic lineages of swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) have recently been established in Turkeys in the United States. To identify molecular determinants that are involved in virulence and transmission of SIVs to Turkeys, we sequentially passaged two triple reassortant H3N2 SIV isolates from Minnesota in ten day old specific-pathogen free (SPF) Turkey embryos and tested them in seven-day old Turkey poults. We found that SIV replication in Turkey embryos led to minimal mutations in and around the receptor binding and antigenic sites of the HA molecule, while other gene segments were unchanged...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284596/kinetics-of-single-and-dual-infection-of-pigs-with-swine-influenza-virus-and-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#9
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Ewelina Stasiak, Zygmunt Pejsak
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a common problem in modern pork production worldwide. Pathogens that are amongst other pathogens frequently involved in PRDC etiology are swine influenza virus (SIV) and A. pleuropneumoniae. The effect of dual infection with mentioned pathogens has not been investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of single and dual infection of pigs with SIV and A. pleuropneumoniae with regard to clinical course, pathogens shedding, lung lesions and early immune response...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275190/identification-of-serinc5-001-as-the-predominant-spliced-isoform-for-hiv-1-restriction
#10
Xianfeng Zhang, Tao Zhou, Jie Yang, Yumei Lin, Jing Shi, Xihe Zhang, Dylan A Frabutt, Xiangwei Zeng, Sunan Li, Patrick J Venta, Yong-Hui Zheng
Among the five serine incorporator (SERINC) family members, SERINC5 (Ser5) was reported to strongly inhibit HIV-1 replication, which is counteracted by Nef. Ser5 produces 5 alternatively spliced isoforms: Ser5-001 has 10 putative transmembrane domains, whereas Ser5-004, -005, -008a, and -008b do not have the last one. Here, we confirmed the strong Ser5 anti-HIV-1 activity and investigated its isoforms' expression and antiviral activity. It was found that Ser5-001 transcripts were detected at least 10-fold more than the other isoforms by real-time quantitative PCR...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275184/rna-associated-early-stage-anti-viral-factor-reaf-is-a-major-component-of-lv2-restriction
#11
Kelly M Marno, Eithne O'Sullivan, Christopher E Jones, Julieta Díaz-Delfín, Claire Pardieu, Richard D Sloan, Áine McKnight
HIV and SIV replication in human cells is restricted at early post-entry steps by host inhibitory factors. We previously described and characterised an early phase restriction of HIV-1 and 2 replication in human cell lines, primary macrophages and PBMCs. The restriction was termed Lentiviral restriction 2 (Lv2). The viral determinants of Lv2 susceptibility mapped to the HIV-2 Env and CA. We subsequently reported a whole genome siRNA screen for factors involved in to HIV which identified RNA-associated Early-stage Anti-viral Factor (REAF)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271669/expression-of-pigr-in-the-tracheal-mucosa-of-shiv-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#12
Dong Li, Feng-Jie Wang, Lei Yu, Wen-Rong Yao, Yan-Fang Cui, Gui-Bo Yang
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptors(pIgR) are key participants in the formation and secretion of secretory IgA(S-IgA), which is critical for the prevention of microbial infection and colonization in the respiratory system. Although increased respiratory colonization and infections are common in HIV/AIDS, little is known about the expression of pIgR in the airway mucosa of these patients. To address this, the expression levels of pIgR in the tracheal mucosa and lungs of SHIV/SIV-infected rhesus macaques were examined by real-time RTPCR and confocal microscopy...
January 18, 2017: Zool Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270571/hiv-1-tat-primes-and-activates-microglial-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-neuroinflammation
#13
Ernest T Chivero, Ming-Lei Guo, Palsamy Periyasamy, Ke Liao, Shannon E Callen, Shilpa Buch
Neuroinflammation associated with HIV-1 infection is a problem affecting ∼50% of HIV-infected individuals. NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in HIV-induced microglial activation, but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. Since HIV-Tat continues to be present despite antiretroviral therapy and activates NF-kB, we hypothesized that Tat could prime the NLRP3 inflammasome. We found a dose- and time-dependent induction of NLRP3 expression in microglia exposed to Tat compared with control. Tat exposure also time-dependently increased the mature caspase-1 and IL-1β levels and enhanced the IL-1β secretion...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270404/pbx1-haploinsufficiency-leads-to-syndromic-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-cakut-in-humans
#14
Pauline Le Tanno, Julie Breton, Marie Bidart, Véronique Satre, Radu Harbuz, Pierre F Ray, Caroline Bosson, Klaus Dieterich, Sylvie Jaillard, Sylvie Odent, Gemma Poke, Rachel Beddow, Maria Christina Digilio, Antonio Novelli, Laura Bernardini, Maria Antonietta Pisanti, Luisa Mackenroth, Karl Hackmann, Ida Vogel, Rikke Christensen, Siv Fokstuen, Frédérique Béna, Florence Amblard, Francoise Devillard, Gaelle Vieville, Alexia Apostolou, Pierre-Simon Jouk, Fitsum Guebre-Egziabher, Hervé Sartelet, Charles Coutton
BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) represent a significant healthcare burden since it is the primary cause of chronic kidney in children. CNVs represent a recurrent molecular cause of CAKUT but the culprit gene remains often elusive. Our study aimed to define the gene responsible for CAKUT in patients with an 1q23.3q24.1 microdeletion. METHODS: We describe eight patients presenting with CAKUT carrying an 1q23.3q24.1 microdeletion as identified by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269744/osteoblast-like-cell-responses-to-ion-products-released-from-magnesium-and-silicate-containing-calcium-carbonates
#15
Shinya Yamada, Yoshio Ota, Akiko Obata, Toshihiro Kasuga
BACKGROUND: Inorganic ions released from bioceramics and bioactive glasses have been reported to influence osteogenic cell functions. Cell responses depend on types of the ions provided, for example, silicate ion has been found to up-regulate their proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. OBJECTIVE: Mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) were cultured in media containing silicate and calcium ions with/without magnesium ion to evaluate their combined effects on the cell's functions...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267619/protection-of-human-influenza-vaccines-against-a-reassortant-swine-influenza-virus-of-pandemic-h1n1-origin-using-a-pig-model
#16
Jirapat Arunorat, Nataya Charoenvisal, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Supattra Jittimanee, Panchan Sitthicharoenchai, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Pariwat Poolperm, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2...
February 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265271/cd4-t-follicular-helper-cells-and-hiv-infection-friends-or-enemies
#17
REVIEW
Félicien Moukambi, Vasco Rodrigues, Yasmina Fortier, Henintsoa Rabezanahary, Chloé Borde, Bernard Krust, Guadalupe Andreani, Ricardo Silvestre, Constantinos Petrovas, Mireille Laforge, Jérôme Estaquier
Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells, a subset of CD4 T lymphocytes, are essential for memory B cell activation, survival, and differentiation and assist B cells in the production of antigen-specific antibodies. Work performed in recent years pointed out the importance of Tfh cells in the context of HIV and SIV infections. The importance of tissue distribution of Tfh is also an important point since their frequency differs between peripheral blood and lymph nodes compared to the spleen, the primary organ for B cell activation, and differentiation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264678/passive-case-detection-of-malaria-in-ratanakiri-province-cambodia-to-detect-villages-at-higher-risk-for-malaria
#18
Somony Heng, Lies Durnez, Sokny Mao, Sovannaroth Siv, Sochantha Tho, Vanna Mean, Vincent Sluydts, Marc Coosemans
BACKGROUND: Cambodia reduced malaria incidence by more than 75% between 2000 and 2015, a target of the Millennium Development Goal 6. The Cambodian Government aims to eliminate all forms of malaria by 2025. The country's malaria incidence is highly variable at provincial level, but less is known at village level. This study used passive case detection (PCD) data at village level in Ratanakiri Province from 2010 to 2014 to describe incidence trends and identify high-risk areas of malaria to be primarily targeted towards malaria elimination...
March 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262253/sexual-dysfunction-after-inguinal-hernia-repair-with-the-onstep-versus-lichtenstein-technique-a%C3%A2-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Kristoffer Andresen, Jakob Burcharth, Siv Fonnes, Line Hupfeld, Josephine Philip Rothman, Søren Deigaard, Dorte Winther, Maj-Britt Errebo, Rikke Therkildsen, Dina Hauge, Fritz Søbæk Sørensen, Jesper Bjerg, Jacob Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Sequelae after inguinal hernia repair include pain-related impairment of sexual function. Pain during intercourse can originate from the scar, scrotum, penis, or during ejaculation. The aim of this study was to investigate if the Onstep technique resulted in better results than the Lichtenstein technique regarding pain-related impairment of sexual function. METHODS: This study was part of the randomized ONLI trial (NCT01753219, Onstep versus Lichtenstein for inguinal hernia repair)...
March 2, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261165/primate-lentiviruses-modulate-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-by-multiple-mechanisms-to-fine-tune-viral-and-cellular-gene-expression
#20
REVIEW
Elena Heusinger, Frank Kirchhoff
The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) plays a complex role during the replication of primate lentiviruses. On the one hand, NF-κB is essential for induction of efficient proviral gene expression. On the other hand, this transcription factor contributes to the innate immune response and induces expression of numerous cellular antiviral genes. Recent data suggest that primate lentiviruses cope with this challenge by boosting NF-κB activity early during the replication cycle to initiate Tat-driven viral transcription and suppressing it at later stages to minimize antiviral gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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