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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429755/opossum-apobec1-is-a-dna-mutator-with-retrovirus-and-retroelement-restriction-activity
#1
Terumasa Ikeda, Mayuko Shimoda, Diako Ebrahimi, John L VandeBerg, Reuben S Harris, Atsushi Koito, Kazuhiko Maeda
APOBEC3s (A3s) are single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases that provide innate immune defences against retroviruses and mobile elements. A3s are specific to eutherian mammals because no direct homologs exist at the syntenic genomic locus in metatherian (marsupial) or prototherian (monotreme) mammals. However, the A3s in these species have the likely evolutionary precursors, the antibody gene deaminase AID and the RNA/DNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 (A1). Here, we used cell culture-based assays to determine whether opossum A1 restricts the infectivity of retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the mobility of LTR/non-LTR retrotransposons...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427945/accessories-to-siv-control-t-cell-vaccination-shows-potential
#2
Merlin L Robb, Diane L Bolton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424694/immune-responses-in-the-central-nervous-system-are-anatomically-segregated-in-a-non-human-primate-model-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#3
Barbara Tavano, Vicky Tsipouri, Gareth A D Hardy, Caroline M Royle, Michael R Keegan, Dietmar Fuchs, Steven Patterson, Neil Almond, Neil Berry, Claire Ham, Deborah Ferguson, Adriano Boasso
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accesses the central nervous system (CNS) early during infection, leading to HIV-associated cognitive impairment and establishment of a viral reservoir. Here, we describe a dichotomy in inflammatory responses in different CNS regions in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, a model for HIV infection. We found increased expression of inflammatory genes and perivascular leukocyte infiltration in the midbrain of SIV-infected macaques. Conversely, the frontal lobe showed downregulation of inflammatory genes associated with interferon-γ and interleukin-6 pathways, and absence of perivascular cuffing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424283/simian-immunodeficiency-virus-targeting-of-cxcr3-cd4-t-cells-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-is-associated-with-robust-cxcl10-expression-in-monocyte-macrophage-subsets
#4
Masayuki Fujino, Hirotaka Sato, Tomotaka Okamura, Akihiko Uda, Satoshi Takeda, Nursarat Ahmed, Shigeyuki Shichino, Teiichiro Shiino, Yohei Saito, Satoru Watanabe, Chie Sugimoto, Marcelo Kuroda, Manabu Ato, Yoshiyuki Nagai, Shuji Izumo, Kouji Matsushima, Masaaki Miyazawa, Aftab A Ansari, Francois Villinger, Kazuyasu Mori
Glycosylation of Env defines pathogenic properties of SIV. We previously demonstrated that pathogenic SIVmac239 and live-attenuated, quintuple deglycosylated Env mutant (Δ5G) target CD4(+) T cells residing in different tissues during acute infection. SIVmac239 and Δ5G preferentially infected distinct CD4(+) T cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) and within the lamina propria of the small intestine, respectively (C. Sugimoto et al., J Virol 86:9323-9336, 2012). Herein, we studied the host responses relevant to SIV targeting of CXCR3(+)CCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells in SLOs...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413399/hsv-1-hsv-2-infection-related-cancers-in-bantu-populations-driving-hiv-1-prevalence-in-africa-tracking-the-origin-of-aids-at-the-onset-of-the-20th-century
#5
Jacqueline Le Goaster, Patrice Bouree, Franck N El Sissy, Florence Phuong Bui, Johanna Pokossy Epee, Paul Rollin, Frédéric Tangy, Anne-Lise Haenni
INTRODUCTION: At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1...
September 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412217/dalbergia-odorifera-extract-promotes-angiogenesis-through-upregulation-of-vegfrs-and-pi3k-mapk-signaling-pathways
#6
Zhu-Ming Fan, Da-Ying Wang, Jian-Mei Yang, Zhi-Xiu Lin, Ai-Lin Yang, Hua Fan, Min Cao, Su-Yun Yuan, Zong-Jun Liu, Xin Zhou, You-Hua Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The heart wood of Dalbergia odorifera is a Chinese herbal medicine commonly used for the treatment of various ischemic diseases in Chinese medicine practice. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, therapeutic angiogenesis effects of the Dalbergia odorifera extract (DOE) were investigated on transgenic zebrafish in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pro-angiogenic effects of DOE on zebrafish were examined by subintestinal vessels (SIVs) sprouting assay and intersegmental vessels (ISVs) injury assay...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405463/the-use-of-oral-fluids-to-monitor-key-pathogens-in-porcine-respiratory-disease-complex
#7
Juan Hernandez-Garcia, Nardy Robben, Damien Magnée, Thomas Eley, Ian Dennis, Sara M Kayes, Jill R Thomson, Alexander W Tucker
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of oral fluid (OF) sampling for surveillance of infections in pig populations is already accepted but its value as a tool to support investigations of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) has been less well studied. This study set out to describe detection patterns of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus type A (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) among farms showing differing severity of PRDC...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403667/a-computational-model-for-predicting-transmembrane-regions-of-retroviruses
#8
Ze Liu, Hongqiang Lv, Jiuqiang Han, Ruiling Liu
Transmembrane region (TR) is a conserved region of transmembrane (TM) subunit in envelope (env) glycoprotein of retrovirus. Evidences have shown that TR is responsible for anchoring the env glycoprotein on the lipid bilayer and substitution of the TR for a covalently linked lipid anchor abrogates fusion. However, universal software could not achieve sufficient accuracy as TM in env also has several motifs such as signal peptide, fusion peptide and immunosuppressive domain composed largely of hydrophobic residues...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400591/pathogenicity-and-transmission-of-a-swine-influenza-a-h6n6-virus
#9
Hailiang Sun, Bryan S Kaplan, Minhui Guan, Guihong Zhang, Jianqiang Ye, Li-Ping Long, Sherry Blackmon, Chun-Kai Yang, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Nan Zhao, Jim Cooley, David F Smith, Ming Liao, Carol Cardona, Lei Li, George Peng Wang, Richard Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Subtype H6 influenza A viruses (IAVs) are commonly detected in wild birds and domestic poultry and can infect humans. In 2010, a H6N6 virus emerged in southern China, and since then, it has caused sporadic infections among swine. We show that this virus binds to α2,6-linked and α2,3-linked sialic acids. Mutations at residues 222 (alanine to valine) and 228 (glycine to serine) of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) affected its receptor-binding properties. Experiments showed that the virus has limited transmissibility between ferrets through direct contact or through inhalation of infectious aerosolized droplets...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399824/long-term-impact-of-self-financed-rotavirus-vaccines-on-rotavirus-associated-hospitalizations-and-costs-in-the-valencia-region-spain
#10
Alejandro Orrico-Sanchez, Mónica López-Lacort, Silvia Pérez-Vilar, Javier Díez-Domingo
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines are available in Spain from 2007. They are recommended by the Spanish Pediatric Association, but not funded by the National Health System (NHS) and its coverage rate reached 40-50%. The hospitalization rate reduction of rotavirus caused gastroenteritis (RVAGE) directly attributable to vaccination remains unclear due to the large differences described in published studies, ranging from 14 to 44.5% in children <5 years of age, even with similar vaccination coverage...
April 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397318/characterization-of-immune-cells-and-infection-by-hiv-in-human-ovarian-tissues
#11
Zheng Shen, Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, Christina Ochsenbauer, Charles R Wira
PROBLEM: New HIV infections in women are predominantly spread through sexual intercourse. Recent non-human primate studies demonstrated that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) deposited in the vagina infected immune cells in the ovary. Whether immune cells in the human ovary are susceptible to HIV infection is unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: Immune cells were isolated from ovaries and characterized by flow cytometry. Cells were exposed to HIV for 2 hours. HIV infection was measured by flow cytometry and p24 secretion following 6 days in culture...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397143/tropism-intracerebral-distribution-and-transduction-efficiency-of-hiv-and-siv-based-lentiviral-vectors-after-injection-into-the-mouse-brain-a-qualitative-and-quantitative-in-vivo-study
#12
Juraj Hlavatý, Zbyněk Tonar, Matthias Renner, Sylvia Panitz, Helga Petznek, Matthias Schweizer, Silke Schüle, Björn-Philipp Kloke, Rudolf Moldzio, Kirsti Witter
Lentiviruses are suitable to transfer potential therapeutic genes into non-replicating cells such as neurons, but systematic in vivo studies on transduction of neural cells within the complete brain are missing. We analysed the distribution of transduced cells with respect to brain structure, virus tropism, numbers of transduced neurons per brain, and influence of the Vpx or Vpr accessory proteins after injection of vectors based on SIVsmmPBj, HIV-2, and HIV-1 lentiviruses into the right striatum of the mouse brain...
April 10, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396390/correction-for-mylvaganam-et-al-dynamics-of-siv-specific-cxcr5-cd8-t-cells-during-chronic-siv-infection
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#14
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392419/early-phase-dynamics-of-traceable-mcherry-fluorescent-protein-carrying-hiv-1-infection-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-transplanted-nod-scid-jak3-mice
#15
Nobuyo Higashi-Kuwata, Hiromi Ogata-Aoki, Shin-Ichiro Hattori, Hironori Hayashi, Matthew Danish, Manabu Aoki, Chiemi Shiotsu, Tatsuyoshi Kawamura, Hironobu Ihn, Hisataka Kobayashi, Seiji Okada, Hiroaki Mitsuya
We attempted to elucidate early-phase dynamics of HIV-1 infection using replication-competent, red-fluorescent-protein (mCherry)-labeled HIV-1JR-FL (HIVJR-FL(mC)) and NOD/SCID/Jak3(-/-) mice transplanted with Individual-A's human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC)(hNOJ mice). On day 7 following HIVJR-FL(mC) inoculation, mCherry-signal-emitting infection foci were readily identified in the subserosa of 10 of 10 HIVJR-FL(mC)-inoculated hNOJ mice, although infection foci were not located without the mCherry signal in unlabeled HIV-1JR-FL-inoculated mice (n = 6)...
April 6, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391149/multi-organ-toxicity-induced-by-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-model
#16
Junchao Duan, Hejing Hu, Yannan Zhang, Lin Feng, Yanfeng Shi, Mark R Miller, Zhiwei Sun
The fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air pollution is a major public health concern and now known to contribute to severe diseases, therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PM2.5-induced adverse effects in living organisms is needed urgently. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxicity of PM2.5 on multi-organ systems in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. The embryonic toxicity induced by PM2.5 was demonstrated by an increase in mortality and inhibition of hatching rate, in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
April 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383997/full-genome-characterization-of-a-new-simian-immune-deficiency-virus-lineage-in-a-naturally-infected-cercopithecus-ascanius-whitesidei-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-reveals-high-genetic-diversity-among-red-tailed-monkeys-in-central-and-eastern-africa
#17
Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Placide Mbala-Kingebeni, Simon-Pierre Ndimbo-Kumogo, Caroline Foncelle, Octavie Lunguya-Metila, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Eric Delaporte, Martine Peeters, Ahidjo Ayouba
Our knowledge on simian immune deficiency virus (SIV) diversity and evolution in the different nonhuman primate species is still incomplete. In this study, we report the full genome characterization of a new SIV from a red-tailed monkey (2013DRC-I8), from the Cercopithecus ascanius whitesidei subspecies, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The new full-length genome is 9,926 bp long, and the genomic structure is similar to that of other SIVs with the absence of vpx and vpu genes. The new SIVasc-13DRC-I8 strain fell within the Cercopithecus specific SIV lineage...
April 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380372/gpcr-mediated-signaling-of-metabolites
#18
REVIEW
Anna Sofie Husted, Mette Trauelsen, Olga Rudenko, Siv A Hjorth, Thue W Schwartz
In addition to their bioenergetic intracellular function, several classical metabolites act as extracellular signaling molecules activating cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), similar to hormones and neurotransmitters. "Signaling metabolites" generated from nutrients or by gut microbiota target primarily enteroendocrine, neuronal, and immune cells in the lamina propria of the gut mucosa and the liver and, through these tissues, the rest of the body. In contrast, metabolites from the intermediary metabolism act mainly as metabolic stress-induced autocrine and paracrine signals in adipose tissue, the liver, and the endocrine pancreas...
April 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379346/a-penalized-regression-approach-to-haplotype-reconstruction-of-viral-populations-arising-in-early-hiv-siv-infection
#19
Sivan Leviyang, Igor Griva, Sergio Ita, Welkin E Johnson
Motivation: Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly applied to characterize viral evolution during HIV and SIV infections. In particular, NGS datasets sampled during the initial months of infection are characterized by relatively low levels of diversity as well as convergent evolution at multiple loci dispersed across the viral genome. Consequently, fully characterizing viral evolution from NGS datasets requires haplotype reconstruction across large regions of the viral genome...
April 4, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368362/sus-scrofa-mir-204-and-mir-4331-negatively-regulate-swine-h1n1-2009-influenza-a-virus-replication-by-targeting-viral-ha-and-ns-respectively
#20
Shishuo Zhang, Ruifang Wang, Huijuan Su, Biaoxiong Wang, Suolang Sizhu, Zhixin Lei, Meilin Jin, Huanchun Chen, Jiyue Cao, Hongbo Zhou
The prevalence of swine pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus (SIV-H1N1/2009) in pigs has the potential to generate novel reassortant viruses, posing a great threat to human health. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proven as promising small molecules for regulating influenza A virus replication by directly targeting viral genomic RNA. In this study, we predicted potential Sus scrofa (ssc-, swine) miRNAs targeting the genomic RNA of SIV-H1N1/2009 by RegRNA 2.0, and identified ssc-miR-204 and ssc-miR-4331 to target viral HA and NS respectively through dual-luciferase reporter assays...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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