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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202763/inhibition-of-vpx-mediated-samhd1-and-vpr-mediated-hltf-degradation-by-selective-disruption-of-viral-crl4-dcaf1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-assembly
#1
Hong Wang, Haoran Guo, Jiaming Su, Yajuan Rui, Wenwen Zheng, Wenying Gao, Wenyan Zhang, Zhaolong Li, Guanchen Liu, Wei Wei, Xiao-Fang Yu
The lentiviral accessory proteins Vpx and Vpr are known to utilize CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase to induce the degradation of the host restriction factor SAMHD1 or transcriptional factor HLTF, respectively. Selective disruption of viral CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase could be a promising antiviral strategy. Recently, we have determined that post-translational modification (neddylation) of Cullin-4 is required for the activation of Vpx-CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase. However, the mechanism of Vpx/Vpr-CRL4 (DCAF1) E3 ligase assembly is still poorly understood...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197332/escitalopram-induced-amenorrhea-and-false-positive-urine-pregnancy-test
#2
Vithyalakshmi Selvaraj, Siv Hour, Palanikumar Gunasekar, Caron Gray, James F Smith
Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. A 34-year-old female patient with major depressive disorder developed amenorrhea and had a false-positive urine pregnancy test after initiation of escitalopram treatment. To our knowledge, no published case report of amenorrhea and false-positive urine pregnancy tests in women taking escitalopram exists. This case report suggests that women of child-bearing age should be carefully monitored for amenorrhea while they are on an antidepressant treatment regimen...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188296/effect-of-garlic-gingko-and-st-john-s-wort-extracts-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-fexofenadine-a-mechanistic-study
#3
Jasmina Turkanovic, Jacobus P Gerber, Michael B Ward, Robert W Milne
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of garlic and ginkgo herbal extracts on the pharmacokinetics of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/Organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) substrate fexofenadine. Male rats were dosed orally with garlic (120 mg/kg), ginkgo (17 mg/kg), St. John's wort (SJW; 1000 mg/kg; positive control) or milli Q water for 14 days. On day 15, rats were either administered fexofenadine (orally or intravenously), had their livers isolated and perfused with fexofenadine, or the small intestine divided into four segments (SI-SIV) and analysed for P-gp and Oatp1a5...
February 10, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188150/multisite-musculoskeletal-pain-in-adolescence-and-later-mental-health-disorders-a-population-based-registry-study-of-norwegian-youth-the-naahs-cohort-study
#4
Christian Eckhoff, Bjørn Straume, Siv Kvernmo
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and mental health disorders in young adulthood. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data were obtained from a linkage between the Norwegian Patient Registry (2008-2012) and the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study, a school-based survey conducted among 10th grade students in North Norway (2003-2005). PARTICIPANTS: In total, 3987 (68%) of all 5877 invited participants consented to the registry linkage...
February 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183395/swine-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-siv-infection-requiring-extracorporeal-life-support-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-patient-with-indirect-exposure-to-pigs-italy-october-2016
#5
Francesca Rovida, Antonio Piralla, Federico Capra Marzani, Ana Moreno, Giulia Campanini, Francesco Mojoli, Marco Pozzi, Alessia Girello, Chiara Chiapponi, Fausto Vezzoli, Paola Prati, Elena Percivalle, Anna Pavan, Maria Gramegna, Giorgio Antonio Iotti, Fausto Baldanti
We describe a case of severe swine influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in an immunocompetent middle-aged man in October 2016 in Italy who had only indirect exposure to pigs. The patient developed a severe acute distress respiratory syndrome which was successfully supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and treated with antiviral therapy. The sole risk factor for influenza was a body mass index > 30 kg/m(2). After a month of hospitalisation, the patient was discharged in good health.
February 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182614/similar-immunological-profiles-between-nonprogressing-hiv-infection-in-children-and-nonpathogenic-siv-infection
#6
Eva Poveda, Enrique Martin-Gayo
In the absence of antirretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection leads to progression to AIDS in most infected individuals. However, there is a small group of HIV-infected patients capable of spontaneously controlling HIV infection, known as the elite controllers (less than 1% of total infected population). These patients maintain undetectable levels of HIV replication, in part, due to a continuously effective HIV specific T cell response. Moreover, in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viremia under ART, a chronic activation of the immune system persist, which can be related to a poor clinical outcome including death, development of co-morbidities, AIDS and non-AIDS defining events...
January 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178646/menin-mediates-tat-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-brain-frontal-cortex-of-siv-infected-macaques-and-in-tat-treated-cells
#7
Jun Wang, Yu Zhang, Qiping Xu, Jinhua Qiu, Honghua Zheng, Xiang Ye, Yuhua Xue, Yongmei Yin, Zhou Zhang, Ying Liu, Yanling Hao, Qiang Wei, Wei Wang, Kazuyasu Mori, Shuji Izumo, Ryuji Kubota, Yiming Shao, Hui Qin Xing
The molecular mechanisms involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain poorly understood. It has been recently reported that HIV-1 Tat transactivation requires menin, suggesting that menin may be involved in HAND pathogenesis. But the role of menin is not clear. Here, we found that protein level of menin was increased in simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric virus (SHIV)-SF162.P4 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) sm543-3-infected rhesus macaques compared with the controls by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot...
February 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159893/dynamics-of-siv-specific-cxcr5-cd8-t-cells-during-chronic-siv-infection
#8
Geetha H Mylvaganam, Daniel Rios, Hadia M Abdelaal, Smita Iyer, Gregory Tharp, Maud Mavinger, Sakeenah Hicks, Ann Chahroudi, Rafi Ahmed, Steven E Bosinger, Ifor R Williams, Pamela J Skinner, Vijayakumar Velu, Rama R Amara
A significant challenge to HIV eradication is the elimination of viral reservoirs in germinal center (GC) T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. However, GCs are considered to be immune privileged for antiviral CD8 T cells. Here, we show a population of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8 T cells express CXCR5 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5, a chemokine receptor required for homing to GCs) and expand in lymph nodes (LNs) following pathogenic SIV infection in a cohort of vaccinated macaques. This expansion was greater in animals that exhibited superior control of SIV...
February 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156015/a-second-chance-at-life-people-s-lived-experiences-of-surviving-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#9
Ann-Sofie Forslund, Jan-Håkan Jansson, Dan Lundblad, Siv Söderberg
BACKGROUND: There is more to illuminate about people's experiences of surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and how such an event affects people's lives over time. AIMS: This study aimed to elucidate meanings of people's lived experiences and changes in everyday life during their first year after surviving OHCA. METHODS: A qualitative, longitudinal design was used. Eleven people surviving OHCA from northern Sweden agreed to participate and were interviewed 6 and 12 months after the event...
February 3, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149882/simian-immunodeficiency-virus-confounds-t-follicular-helper-t-cells-and-the-germinal-centre
#10
COMMENT
Tom N Lea-Henry, Simon H Jiang
Yamamoto et al. have studied T follicular helper (TFH) and germinal centre (GC) responses after infection of rhesus macaques (RM) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). In this study the authors examined the behaviour of TFH, reproducing infection-associated TFH accumulation and their association with the quality of antibody responses against cross-clade viral epitopes. The authors correlate TFHIL4 and CD154 expression with superior antibody responses. Accumulation of TFH was accompanied by aberrant expression of non-TFH transcriptional regulators such as BLIMP1 in TFH, suggesting viral induced abnormalities may affect TFH function...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145571/a-significant-productive-in-vivo-infection-of-resting-cells-with-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-in-a-macaque-with-aids
#11
Bapi Pahar, Wendy Lala, Dot Kuebler, David Liu
Identifying the cells that can be infected with HIV in vivo and thus potentially persist as latent reservoirs is of high priority. Here, we report the major infected cells in a chronically simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque that developed AIDS and encephalitis. A majority of the infected cells were detected as non-proliferating resting cells. SIV-infected non-proliferating resting cells were found to be playing an important role in viral pathogenesis, persistence, or reservoir formation.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141779/direct-targeting-of-macrophages-with-methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone-decreases-siv-associated-cardiovascular-inflammation-and-pathology
#12
Joshua A Walker, Andrew D Miller, Tricia H Burdo, Michael S McGrath, Kenneth C Williams
BACKGROUND: Despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) HIV infected individuals develop co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD), where activated macrophages play a key role. To date, few therapies target activated monocytes and macrophages. METHODS: We evaluated a novel oral form of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor methylglyoxal-bisguanylhydrazone (MGBG) on cardiovascular inflammation, carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), and fibrosis in a SIV infection model of AIDS...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137255/the-norwegian-dietary-guidelines-and-colorectal-cancer-survival-crc-nordiet-study-a-food-based-multicentre-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Hege Berg Henriksen, Hanna Ræder, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn, Ingvild Paur, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Siv Åshild Billington, Morten Tandberg Eriksen, Gro Wiedsvang, Iris Erlund, Arne Færden, Marit Bragelien Veierød, Manuela Zucknick, Sigbjørn Smeland, Rune Blomhoff
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer survivors are not only at risk for recurrent disease but also at increased risk of comorbidities such as other cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and functional decline. In this trial, we aim at investigating whether a diet in accordance with the Norwegian food-based dietary guidelines and focusing at dampening inflammation and oxidative stress will improve long-term disease outcomes and survival in colorectal cancer patients. METHODS/DESIGN: This paper presents the study protocol of the Norwegian Dietary Guidelines and Colorectal Cancer Survival study...
January 30, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135660/simian-immunodeficiency-virus-seroreactivity-in-inhabitants-from-rural-cameroon-frequently-in-contact-with-non-human-primates
#14
Claudia Filippone, Fabienne de Oliveira, Edouard Betsem, Laura Schaeffer, Arnaud Fontanet, Veronique Lemée, Antoine Gessain, Jean-Christophe Plantier
Central African tropical forests are home to several species of non-human primates (NHPs), infected by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). It is well-known that HIV-1 epidemic is due to cross-transmission and adaptation of SIV to humans. The main goal of this work was to investigate if a NHP bite is a risk factor for SIV acquisition. A cross-sectional study was performed in rural Cameroon on 246 bitten individuals (mostly by adult NHPs), matched, according to sex, age, and ethnicity (Bantus and Pygmies), with an equal number of not-bitten subjects...
January 27, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132908/administration-of-an-activin-receptor-iib-ligand-trap-protects-male-juvenile-rhesus-macaques-from-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-bone-loss
#15
Wen Guo, Karol M Pencina, Karyn O'Connell, Monty Montano, Liming Peng, Susan Westmoreland, Julie Glowacki, Shalender Bhasin
: HIV-infected individuals are at an increased risk of osteoporosis despite effective viral suppression. Observations that myostatin null mice have increased bone mass led us to hypothesize that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-associated bone loss may be attenuated by blocking myostatin/TGFβ signaling. In this proof-of-concept study, pair-housed juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239. Four weeks later, animals were treated with vehicle or Fc-conjugated soluble activin receptor IIB (ActR2B·Fc, iv...
January 26, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132001/safe-clinical-practice-for-patients-hospitalised-in-a-suicidal-crisis-a-study-protocol-for-a-qualitative-case-study
#16
Siv Hilde Berg, Kristine Rørtveit, Fredrik A Walby, Karina Aase
INTRODUCTION: Suicide prevention in psychiatric care is arguably complex and incompletely understood as a patient safety issue. A resilient healthcare approach provides perspectives through which to understand this complexity by understanding everyday clinical practice. By including suicidal patients and healthcare professionals as sources of knowledge, a deeper understanding of what constitutes safe clinical practice can be achieved. METHODS: This planned study aims to adopt the perspective of resilient healthcare to provide a deeper understanding of safe clinical practice for suicidal patients in psychiatric inpatient care...
January 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131394/novel-adenovirus-encoded-virus-like-particles-displaying-the-placental-malaria-associated-var2csa-antigen
#17
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Mafalda Resende, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Peter J Holst
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria and the CSA binding region of VAR2CSA has been identified as a promising vaccine target against placental malaria. Here we designed adenovirus encoded virus-like particles (VLP) by co-encoding Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) gag and VAR2CSA...
January 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122978/conserved-interaction-of-lentiviral-vif-molecules-with-hiv-1-gag-and-differential-effects-of-species-specific-vif-on-virus-production
#18
Wenwen Zheng, Limian Ling, Zhaolong Li, Hong Wang, Yajuan Rui, Wenying Gao, Shaohua Wang, Xing Su, Wei Wei, Xiao-Fang Yu
: Open reading frame virion infectivity factor (Vif) is conserved among most lentiviruses. Vif molecules contribute to viral replication by inactivating host anti-viral factors, the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. However, various species of lentiviral Vif proteins have evolved different strategies for overcoming host APOBEC3. Whether different species of lentiviral Vif proteins still preserve certain common features has not been reported. Here, we show for the first time that diverse lentiviral Vif molecules maintain the ability to interact with the HIV-1 Gag precursor (Pr55(Gag)) polyprotein...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122662/validity-of-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-in-estimation-of-fat-free-mass-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#19
Hanna Ræder, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Christine Henriksen, Geir Florholmen, Hege Berg Henriksen, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn, Ingvild Paur, Sigbjørn Smeland, Rune Blomhoff
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an accessible and cheap method to measure fat-free mass (FFM). However, BIA estimates are subject to uncertainty in patient populations with altered body composition and hydration. The aim of the current study was to validate a whole-body and a segmental BIA device against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and to investigate the ability of different empiric equations for BIA to predict DXA FFM (FFMDXA)...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122273/competence-evaluation-processes-for-nursing-students-abroad-findings-from-an-international-case-study
#20
Cristina Tommasini, Beata Dobrowolska, Danuta Zarzycka, Claudia Bacatum, Anne Marie Gran Bruun, Dag Korsath, Siv Roel, Mette Bro Jansen, Tine Milling, Anne Deschamps, Stefanos Mantzoukas, Christine Mantzouka, Alvisa Palese
BACKGROUND: Assessing clinical competence in nursing students abroad is a challenge, and requires both methods and instruments capable of capturing the multidimensional nature of the clinical competences acquired. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the clinical competence assessment processes and instruments adopted for nursing students during their clinical placement abroad. DESIGN: A case study design was adopted in 2015. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A purposeful sample of eight nursing programmes located in seven countries (Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Norway, Poland, Portugal and Italy) were approached...
January 10, 2017: Nurse Education Today
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