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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548097/scalable-focused-ion-beam-creation-of-nearly-lifetime-limited-single-quantum-emitters-in-diamond-nanostructures
#1
Tim Schröder, Matthew E Trusheim, Michael Walsh, Luozhou Li, Jiabao Zheng, Marco Schukraft, Alp Sipahigil, Ruffin E Evans, Denis D Sukachev, Christian T Nguyen, Jose L Pacheco, Ryan M Camacho, Edward S Bielejec, Mikhail D Lukin, Dirk Englund
The controlled creation of defect centre-nanocavity systems is one of the outstanding challenges for efficiently interfacing spin quantum memories with photons for photon-based entanglement operations in a quantum network. Here we demonstrate direct, maskless creation of atom-like single silicon vacancy (SiV) centres in diamond nanostructures via focused ion beam implantation with ∼32 nm lateral precision and <50 nm positioning accuracy relative to a nanocavity. We determine the Si+ ion to SiV centre conversion yield to be ∼2...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539448/virological-control-by-the-cd4-binding-site-antibody-n6-in-shiv-infected-rhesus-monkeys
#2
Boris Julg, Amarendra Pegu, Peter Abbink, Jinyan Liu, Amanda Brinkman, Katherine Molloy, Shanell Mojta, Abishek Chandrashekar, Katherine Callow, Keyun Wang, Xuejun Chen, Stephen D Schmidt, Jinghe Huang, Richard A Koup, Michael S Seaman, Brandon F Keele, John R Mascola, Mark Connors, Dan H Barouch
Passive immunotherapies against HIV-1 will most likely require broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb) with maximum breadth and potency to assure therapeutic efficacy. Recently, the novel CD4 binding site antibody N6 demonstrated extraordinary neutralization breadth and potency against large panels of cross clade pseudoviruses. We evaluated the in-vivo antiviral activity of N6-LS, alone or in combination with the established V3-glycan antibody PGT121, in chronically SHIV-SF162P3 infected macaques. A single dose of N6-LS suppressed plasma viral loads in 4 out of 5 animals at day 7 (mean 1...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539445/structure-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-spikes-bound-with-cd4-and-monoclonal-antibody-36d5
#3
Guiqing Hu, Jun Liu, Kenneth H Roux, Kenneth A Taylor
The HIV-1/SIV envelope spike (Env) mediates the viral entry into host cells. The V3 loop of the gp120 component of the Env trimer contributes to the co-receptor binding site and is a target for neutralizing antibodies. We have used cryoelectron tomography to visualize the binding of CD4 and the V3 loop monoclonal antibody 36D5 to gp120 of the SIV Env. Our results show that 36D5 binds gp120 at the base of the V3 loop and suggest the antibody exerts its neutralization effect by blocking the co-receptor binding site...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530684/tackling-hiv-and-aids-contributions-by-non-human-primate-models
#4
Koen K A Van Rompay
During the past three decades, non-human primate (NHP) models have gained an increasing importance in HIV basic and translational research. In contrast to natural host models, infection of macaques with virulent simian or simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, SHIV) results in a disease that closely resembles HIV infection and AIDS. Although there is no perfect animal model, and each of the available models has its benefits and limitations, carefully designed NHP studies with selection of experimental variables have unraveled important questions of basic pathogenesis and have provided the tools to explore and screen intervention strategies...
May 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512685/modeling-brain-lentiviral-infections-during-antiretroviral-therapy-in-aids
#5
Weston C Roda, Michael Y Li, Michael S Akinwumi, Eugene L Asahchop, Benjamin B Gelman, Kenneth W Witwer, Christopher Power
Understanding HIV-1 replication and latency in different reservoirs is an ongoing challenge in the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. A mathematical model was created to describe and predict the viral dynamics of HIV-1 and SIV infection within the brain during effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The mathematical model was formulated based on the biology of lentiviral infection of brain macrophages and used to describe the dynamics of transmission and progression of lentiviral infection in brain...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503929/rare-control-of-sivmac239-infection-in-a-vaccinated-rhesus-macaque
#6
Mauricio de Aguiar Martins, Damien C Tully, Young C Shin, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Kim Weisgrau, David J Bean, Rujuta Gadgil, Martin J Gutman, Aline Domingues, Helen Skye Maxwell, Diogo Magnani, Michael Ricciardi, Nuria Pedreño-Lopez, Varian Bailey, Michael Cruz, Noemia S Lima, Myrna Bonaldo, John Altman, Eva Rakasz, Saverio Capuano, Keith Reimann, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey Lifson, Ronald Desrosiers, Todd Allen, David Watkins
Effector memory T-cell (T<sub>EM</sub>) responses display potent antiviral properties and have been linked to stringent control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Since recurrent antigen stimulation drives the differentiation of CD8<sup>+</sup> T-cells toward the T<sub>EM</sub> phenotype, here we incorporated a persistent herpesviral vector into a heterologous prime/boost/boost vaccine approach in order to maximize the induction of T<sub>EM</sub> responses...
May 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498847/paradoxical-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-reduction-in-the-bone-marrow-of-siv-chronically-infected-macaques
#7
Yongjun Sui, Blake Frey, Yichuan Wang, Rolf Billeskov, Shweta Kulkarni, Katherine McKinnon, Tracy Rourke, Linda Fritts, Christopher J Miller, Jay A Berzofsky
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which suppress anti-tumor or anti-viral immune responses, are expanded in the peripheral blood and tissues of patients/animals with cancer or viral infectious diseases. We here show that in chronic SIV infection of Indian rhesus macaques, the frequency of MDSCs in the bone marrow (BM) was paradoxically and unexpectedly decreased, but increased in peripheral blood. Reduction of BM MDSCs was found in both CD14+MDSC and Lin-CD15+MDSC subsets. The reduction of MDSCs correlated with high plasma viral loads and low CD4+ T cell counts, suggesting that depletion of BM MDSCs was associated with SIV/AIDS disease progression...
May 12, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494344/pa-x-protein-contributes-to-virulence-of-triple-reassortant-h1n2-influenza-virus-by-suppressing-early-immune-responses-in-swine
#8
Guanlong Xu, Xuxiao Zhang, Qinfang Liu, Guoxia Bing, Zhe Hu, Honglei Sun, Xin Xiong, Ming Jiang, Qiming He, Yu Wang, Juan Pu, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang, Jinhua Liu, Yipeng Sun
Previous studies have identified a functional role of PA-X for influenza viruses in mice and avian species; however, its role in swine remains unknown. Toward this, we constructed PA-X deficient virus (Sw-FS) in the background of a Triple-reassortment (TR) H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) to assess the impact of PA-X in viral virulence in pigs. Expression of PA-X in TR H1N2 SIV enhanced viral replication and host protein synthesis shutoff, and inhibited the mRNA levels of type I IFNs and proinflammatory cytokines in porcine cells...
May 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491048/both-the-what-and-why-of-youth-sports-participation-matter-a-conditional-process-analysis
#9
Siv Gjesdal, Paul R Appleton, Yngvar Ommundsen
This study builds on previous research combining achievement goal orientation from Achievement Goal Theory and motivational regulation from Self-Determination Theory. The aim was to assess the combination of the "what" and "why" of youth sport activity, and how it relates to the need for competence and self-esteem. Achievement goal orientation, specifically task and ego, was employed to represent the "what", whilst intrinsic and external regulation reflected the "why". Based on a sample of 496 youth sports participants, structural equation modeling with a bootstrapping procedure was used to examine whether the indirect relationship between achievement goal orientation and self-esteem was conditional to motivational regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488731/development-of-a-rectal-sexually-transmitted-infection-sti-model-in-rhesus-macaques-using-chlamydia-trachomatis-serovars-e-and-l2
#10
Tara R Henning, Monica Morris, Shanon Ellis, Kristen Kelley, Christi Phillips, Jana Ritter, Tara Jones, Eli Nachamkin, Cheng Y Chen, Jaeyoung Hong, Joseph Kang, Dorothy Patton, Janet McNicholl, John Papp, Ellen N Kersh
BACKGROUND: Rectal STI coinfection models enhance the understanding of rectal HIV transmission risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus macaques (n=9) were exposed to one of three rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) challenges: C. trachomatis L2 (CT-L2 ); C. trachomatis serovar E (CT-E), followed by CT-L2 ; or CT-E, treatment/clearance, then CT-L2 . Infections were monitored by PCR. Weekly blood and rectal secretion/lavage samples were collected for cytokine analyzes and/or epithelial sloughing, occult, and overt blood determinations...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486838/brain-microglial-cells-are-highly-susceptible-to-hiv-1-infection-and-spread
#11
Jennifer J Cenker, Ryan D Stultz, David McDonald
Macrophages are a target of HIV-1 infection and may serve as an important reservoir of the virus in the body, particularly after depletion of CD4+ T cells in HIV/AIDS. Recently, sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) was identified as the major restriction factor of HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. SAMHD1 is targeted for proteolytic degradation by Vpx, a viral protein encoded by HIV-2 and many SIVs but not HIV-1. In this study, we assessed SAMHD1 restriction in in vitro differentiated macrophages and in freshly isolated macrophages from the lungs, abdomen, and brain...
May 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486095/concurrent-adversities-and-suicide-attempts-among-sami-and-non-sami-adolescents-the-norwegian-arctic-adolescent-study-naahs
#12
Bjørn Reigstad, Siv Kvernmo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about connections between adolescent suicide attempts (SA) and concurrent adversities. AIMS: In a cross-sectional study, the authors wanted to investigate prevalences, additive effects of adversities, family and peer relations, gender, divorce and poverty, and ethnic differences between Sami and non-Sami youth. METHODS: In an adolescent community population encompassing 4881 adolescents of 15-16 years of age, youth with and without self-reports of attempted suicide the last year were compared on 12 concurrent adversities, on scales assessing family and peer functioning, and on sociodemographic variables...
May 9, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484447/hiv-1-and-siv-predominantly-use-ccr5-expressed-on-a-precursor-population-to-establish-infection-in-t-follicular-helper-cells
#13
Yin Xu, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Kazuo Suzuki, Anu Aggrawal, Stephanie Graff-Dubois, Michael Roche, Michelle Bailey, Sheilajen Alcantara, Kieran Cashin, Rahuram Sivasubramaniam, Kersten K Koelsch, Brigitte Autran, Richard Harvey, Paul R Gorry, Arnaud Moris, David A Cooper, Stuart Turville, Stephen J Kent, Anthony D Kelleher, John Zaunders
BACKGROUND: T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are increasingly recognized as a major reservoir of HIV infection that will likely need to be addressed in approaches to curing HIV. However, Tfh express minimal CCR5, the major coreceptor for HIV-1, and the mechanism by which they are infected is unclear. We have previously shown that macaque Tfh lack CCR5, but are infected in vivo with CCR5-using SIV at levels comparable to other memory CD4(+) T cells. Similarly, human splenic Tfh cells are highly infected with HIV-1 DNA...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483193/expression-of-complete-siv-p27-gag-and-hiv-gp120-engineered-outer-domains-targeted-by-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-in-live-rubella-vectors
#14
Konstantin Virnik, Edmund Nesti, Cody Dail, Max Hockenbury, Yisheng Ni, Barbara K Felber, William R Schief, Ira Berkower
Infection with HIV or SIV often elicits a potent immune response to viral antigens. This includes T cells and antibodies specific for Gag and Env antigens. In contrast, when given as a vaccine, the same antigens have been weak immunogens, unable to elicit antibodies with comparable titer, durability, or neutralizing activity. We have used the live attenuated rubella vaccine strain RA27/3 as a viral vector to express HIV and SIV antigens. By mimicking an HIV infection, these vectors could elicit stronger and more durable immunity to HIV antigens...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475623/analysis-of-the-functional-compatibility-of-siv-capsid-sequences-in-the-context-of-the-fiv-gag-precursor
#15
César A Ovejero, José L Affranchino, Silvia A González
The formation of immature lentiviral particles is dependent on the multimerization of the Gag polyprotein at the plasma membrane of the infected cells. One key player in the virus assembly process is the capsid (CA) domain of Gag, which establishes the protein-protein interactions that give rise to the hexagonal lattice of Gag molecules in the immature virion. To gain a better understanding of the functional equivalence between the CA proteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively), we generated a series of chimeric FIV Gag proteins in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by its SIV counterpart...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472741/working-fulltime-throughout-pregnancy-the-norwegian-women-s-perspectives-a-qualitative-approach
#16
Siv-Tonje Selboe, Ann-Karin Skogås
OBJECTIVE: the purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of aspects that influence healthy women's ability to work fulltime throughout the pregnancy, considering women's experiences and individual perspectives, as well as understanding health resources available to them. DESIGN/SETTING: a qualitative approach was selected for the data collection, and the data presented is derived from in-depth interviews. Ten pregnant Norwegian women with uncomplicated pregnancies, aged 24-40, working fulltime throughout their pregnancies with no sick leave, were interviewed during pregnancy week 37-39...
April 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472156/genetically-barcoded-siv-facilitates-enumeration-of-rebound-variants-and-estimation-of-reactivation-rates-in-nonhuman-primates-following-interruption-of-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Christine M Fennessey, Mykola Pinkevych, Taina T Immonen, Arnold Reynaldi, Vanessa Venturi, Priyanka Nadella, Carolyn Reid, Laura Newman, Leslie Lipkey, Kelli Oswald, William J Bosche, Matthew T Trivett, Claes Ohlen, David E Ott, Jacob D Estes, Gregory Q Del Prete, Jeffrey D Lifson, Miles P Davenport, Brandon F Keele
HIV and SIV infection dynamics are commonly investigated by measuring plasma viral loads. However, this total viral load value represents the sum of many individual infection events, which are difficult to independently track using conventional sequencing approaches. To overcome this challenge, we generated a genetically tagged virus stock (SIVmac239M) with a 34-base genetic barcode inserted between the vpx and vpr accessory genes of the infectious molecular clone SIVmac239. Next-generation sequencing of the virus stock identified at least 9,336 individual barcodes, or clonotypes, with an average genetic distance of 7 bases between any two barcodes...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465428/hiv-exploits-antiviral-host-innate-gcn2-atf4-signaling-for-establishing-viral-replication-early-in-infection
#18
Guochun Jiang, Clarissa Santos Rocha, Lauren A Hirao, Erica A Mendes, Yuyang Tang, George R Thompson, Joseph K Wong, Satya Dandekar
Antiviral innate host defenses against acute viral infections include suppression of host protein synthesis to restrict viral protein production. Less is known about mechanisms by which viral pathogens subvert host antiviral innate responses for establishing their replication and dissemination. We investigated early innate defense against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and viral evasion by utilizing human CD4(+) T cell cultures in vitro and a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model of AIDS in vivo Our data showed that early host innate defense against the viral infection involves GCN2-ATF4 signaling-mediated suppression of global protein synthesis, which is exploited by the virus for supporting its own replication during early viral infection and dissemination in the gut mucosa...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462488/an-oral-form-of-methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone-reduces-monocyte-activation-and-traffic-to-the-dorsal-root-ganglia-in-a-primate-model-of-hiv-peripheral-neuropathy
#19
Jessica R Lakritz, Samshita Yalamanchili, Michael J Polydefkis, Andrew D Miller, Michael S McGrath, Kenneth C Williams, Tricia H Burdo
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a major comorbidity of HIV infection that is caused in part by chronic immune activation. HIV-PN is associated with infiltration of monocytes/macrophages to the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) causing neuronal loss and formation of Nageotte nodules. Here, we used an oral form of methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, to specifically reduce activation of myeloid cells. MGBG is selectively taken up by monocyte/macrophages in vitro and inhibits HIV p24 expression and DNA viral integration in macrophages...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446051/sleep-deprivation-sensitizes-human-craniofacial-muscles
#20
Eva Szuchy Kristiansen, Louise Skou Nielsen, Siv Sofie Christensen, Sofia Hedvig Christina Botvid, Jeppe Nørgaard Poulsen, Parisa Gazerani
It is unknown whether and how sleep deprivation influences craniofacial muscle sensitivity in healthy humans. We investigated whether total sleep deprivation (TSD) and one night of recovery sleep (RS) can alter mechanical pain sensitivity in temporal and masseter muscles. Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in three consecutive sessions. Pressure pain thresholds were measured on the temporal and masseter muscles. Both temporal and masseter muscles became sensitized after 24 h of TSD. RS reversed the muscle sensitization...
April 26, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
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