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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346349/early-treatment-of-siv-macaques-with-an-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-mab-alters-virus-distribution-and-preserves-cd4-t-cells-in-later-stages-of-infection
#1
P J Santangelo, C Cicala, S N Byrareddy, K T Ortiz, D Little, K E Lindsay, S Gumber, J J Hong, K Jelicic, K A Rogers, C Zurla, F Villinger, A A Ansari, A S Fauci, J Arthos
Integrin α4β7 mediates the trafficking of leukocytes, including CD4+ T cells, to lymphoid tissues in the gut. Virus mediated damage to the gut is implicated in HIV and SIV mediated chronic immune activation and leads to irreversible damage to the immune system. We employed an immuno-PET/CT imaging technique to evaluate the impact of an anti-integrin α4β7 mAb alone or in combination with ART, on the distribution of both SIV infected cells and CD4+ cells in rhesus macaques infected with SIV. We determined that α4β7 mAb reduced viral antigen in an array of tissues of the lung, spleen, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345061/monocyte-subsets-exhibit-transcriptional-plasticity-and-a-shared-response-to-interferon-in-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#2
Brian T Nowlin, John Wang, Jamie L Schafer, Patrick Autissier, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams
The progression to AIDS is influenced by changes in the biology of heterogeneous monocyte subsets. Classical (CD14++CD16-), intermediate (CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++) monocytes may represent progressive stages of monocyte maturation or disparate myeloid lineages with different turnover rates and function. To investigate the relationship between monocyte subsets and the response to SIV infection, we performed microarray analysis of monocyte subsets in rhesus macaques at three time points: prior to SIV infection, 26 days postinfection, and necropsy with AIDS...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343575/high-resolution-sequencing-of-viral-populations-during-early-siv-infection-reveals-evolutionary-strategies-for-rapid-escape-from-emerging-env-specific-antibody-responses
#3
Sergio Ita, Alison K Hill, Evan C Lam, Fay J Dufort, Xiao Yang, Ruchi Newman, Sivan Leviyang, Ismael B Fofana, Welkin E Johnson
Primate lentiviruses, including the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), produce infections marked by persistent, ongoing viral replication. This occurs despite the presence of virus-specific adaptive immune responses, including antibodies targeting the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), and evolution of antibody-escape variants is a well-documented feature of lentiviral infection. Here, we examined the evolutionary dynamics of the SIV env gene during early infection (≤ 29 weeks post-infection) in a cohort of four SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328295/bright-nanowire-single-photon-source-based-on-siv-centers-in-diamond
#4
L Marseglia, K Saha, A Ajoy, T Schröder, D Englund, F Jelezko, R Walsworth, J L Pacheco, D L Perry, E S Bielejec, P Cappellaro
The practical implementation of many quantum technologies relies on the development of robust and bright single photon sources that operate at room temperature. The negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV-) color center in diamond is a possible candidate for such a single photon source. However, due to the high refraction index mismatch to air, color centers in diamond typically exhibit low photon out-coupling. An additional shortcoming is due to the random localization of native defects in the diamond sample...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324751/stage-specific-ifn-induced-and-ifn-gene-expression-reveal-convergence-of-type-i-and-type-ii-ifn-and-highlight-their-role-in-both-acute-and-chronic-stage-of-pathogenic-siv-infection
#5
Nadia Echebli, Nicolas Tchitchek, Stéphanie Dupuy, Timothée Bruel, Caroline Peireira Bittencourt Passaes, Nathalie Bosquet, Roger Le Grand, Christine Bourgeois, Benoit Favier, Rémi Cheynier, Olivier Lambotte, Bruno Vaslin
Interferons (IFNs) play a major role in controlling viral infections including HIV/SIV infections. Persistent up-regulation of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) is associated with chronic immune activation and progression in SIV/HIV infections, but the respective contribution of different IFNs is unclear. We analyzed the expression of IFN genes and ISGs in tissues of SIV infected macaques to understand the respective roles of type I and type II IFNs. Both IFN types were induced in lymph nodes during early stage of primary infection and to some extent in rectal biopsies but not in PBMCs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321688/changes-in-nutritional-care-after-implementing-national-guidelines-a-10-year-follow-up-study
#6
Siv Hilde Fjeldstad, Lene Thoresen, Morten Mowé, Øivind Irtun
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In 2004, a survey conducted in Scandinavia documented insufficient knowledge in nutrition care among doctors and nurses. The survey also revealed a significant discrepancy in nutritional practice, where Norway ranked lowest, thus leading to several actions including elaboration of national guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential changes in nutritional practice, as well as assessing barriers to nutrition therapy, 10 years after the former study...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321330/glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored-anti-hiv-env-single-chain-variable-fragments-interfere-with-hiv-1-env-processing-and-viral-infectivity
#7
Anisha Misra, Emile Gleeson, Weiming Wang, Chaobaihui Ye, Paul Zhou, Jason T Kimata
In previous studies, we demonstrated that single-chain variable fragments (scFv) from anti-HIV Env monoclonal antibodies act as entry inhibitors when tethered to the surface of target cells by a glycosyl-phosphitidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Interestingly, even if a virus escapes inhibition at entry, its replication is ultimately controlled. We hypothesized that in addition to functioning as entry inhibitors, anti-HIV GPI-scFvs may also interact with Env in an infected cell, thereby interfering with infectivity of newly produced virions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319809/increased-microglial-csf1r-expression-in-the-siv-macaque-model-of-hiv-cns-disease
#8
Audrey C Knight, Samuel A Brill, Suzanne E Queen, Patrick M Tarwater, Joseph L Mankowski
Chronic microglial activation and associated neuroinflammation are key factors in neurodegenerative diseases including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R)-mediated signaling is constitutive in cells of the myeloid lineage, including microglia, promoting cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimers disease, CSF1R is upregulated. Inhibiting CSF1R signaling in animal models of these diseases improved disease outcomes...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316956/next-generation-in-situ-hybridization-approaches-to-define-and-quantify-hiv-and-siv-reservoirs-in-tissue-microenvironments
#9
REVIEW
Claire Deleage, Chi N Chan, Kathleen Busman-Sahay, Jacob D Estes
The development of increasingly safe and effective antiretroviral treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) over the past several decades has led to vastly improved patient survival when treatment is available and affordable, an outcome that relies on uninterrupted adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy for life. Looking to the future, the discovery of an elusive 'cure' for HIV will necessitate highly sensitive methods for detecting, understanding, and eliminating viral reservoirs. Next-generation, in situ hybridization (ISH) approaches offer unique and complementary insights into viral reservoirs within their native tissue environments with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity...
January 9, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310617/exercise-training-during-pregnancy-reduces-circulating-insulin-levels-in-overweight-obese-women-postpartum-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-the-etip-trial
#10
Kirsti K Garnæs, Siv Mørkved, Kjell Å Salvesen, Øyvind Salvesen, Trine Moholdt
BACKGROUND: The primary aim was to investigate if supervised exercise training during pregnancy could reduce postpartum weight retention (PPWR) three months after delivery in overweight and obese women. We also measured circulating markers of cardiometabolic health, body composition, blood pressure, and physical activity level. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial in which 91 women with BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 were allocated 1:1 to an exercise program or a control group...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301196/sustained-ifn-i-expression-during-established-persistent-viral-infection-a-bad-seed-for-protective-immunity
#11
REVIEW
Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Hamza Loucif, Armstrong Murira, Xavier Laulhé, Simona Stäger, Alain Lamarre, Julien van Grevenynghe
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are one of the primary immune defenses against viruses. Similar to all other molecular mechanisms that are central to eliciting protective immune responses, IFN-I expression is subject to homeostatic controls that regulate cytokine levels upon clearing the infection. However, in the case of established persistent viral infection, sustained elevation of IFN-I expression bears deleterious effects to the host and is today considered as the major driver of inflammation and immunosuppression...
December 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300007/sooty-mangabey-genome-sequence-provides-insight-into-aids-resistance-in-a-natural-siv-host
#12
David Palesch, Steven E Bosinger, Gregory K Tharp, Thomas H Vanderford, Mirko Paiardini, Ann Chahroudi, Zachary P Johnson, Frank Kirchhoff, Beatrice H Hahn, Robert B Norgren, Nirav B Patel, Donald L Sodora, Reem A Dawoud, Caro-Beth Stewart, Sara M Seepo, R Alan Harris, Yue Liu, Muthuswamy Raveendran, Yi Han, Adam English, Gregg W C Thomas, Matthew W Hahn, Lenore Pipes, Christopher E Mason, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Daniel Sauter, Kim Worley, Jeffrey Rogers, Guido Silvestri
In contrast to infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques, SIV infection of a natural host, sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), is non-pathogenic despite high viraemia. Here we sequenced and assembled the genome of a captive sooty mangabey. We conducted genome-wide comparative analyses of transcript assemblies from C. atys and AIDS-susceptible species, such as humans and macaques, to identify candidates for host genetic factors that influence susceptibility...
January 3, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296919/hypoxia-promotes-il-32-expression-in-myeloma-cells-and-high-expression-is-associated-with-poor-survival-and-bone-loss
#13
Muhammad Zahoor, Marita Westhrin, Kristin Roseth Aass, Siv Helen Moen, Kristine Misund, Katarzyna Maria Psonka-Antonczyk, Mariaserena Giliberto, Glenn Buene, Anders Sundan, Anders Waage, Anne-Marit Sponaas, Therese Standal
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic cancer characterized by expansion of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Most patients develop an osteolytic bone disease, largely caused by increased osteoclastogenesis. The myeloma bone marrow is hypoxic, and hypoxia may contribute to MM disease progression, including bone loss. Here we identified interleukin-32 (IL-32) as a novel inflammatory cytokine expressed by a subset of primary MM cells and MM cell lines. We found that high IL-32 gene expression in plasma cells correlated with inferior survival in MM and that IL-32 gene expression was higher in patients with bone disease compared with those without...
December 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288344/fdc-tfh-interactions-within-cervical-lymph-nodes-of-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#14
Rajnish S Dave, Ravi K Sharma, Roshell R Muir, Elias Haddad, Sanjeev Gumber, Francois Villinger, Artinder P Nehra, Zafar K Khan, Brian Wigdahl, Aftab A Ansari, Siddappa N Byrareddy, Pooja Jain
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains via the lymphatic drainage pathway. This lymphatic pathway connects the central nervous system (CNS) to the cervical lymph node (CLN). As the CSF drains to CLN via the dural and nasal lymphatics, T cells and antigen presenting cells pass along the channels from the subarachnoid space through the cribriform plate. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may also egress from the CNS along this pathway. As a result, HIV egressing from the CNS may accumulate within the CLN. Towards this objective, we analyzed CLNs isolated from rhesus macaques that were chronically-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288000/quantitative-analysis-of-helical-flow-with-accuracy-using-ultrasound-speckle-image-velocimetry-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-feasibility-studies
#15
Sang Joon Lee, Jun Hong Park, Jeong Ju Kim, Eunseop Yeom
Venous valve dysfunction and induced secondary abnormal flows are closely associated with venous diseases. Thus, detailed analysis of venous valvular flow is invaluable from biological and medical perspectives. However, most of the previous studies on venous perivalvular flows were based on qualitative analysis. On the contrary, quantitative analysis of perivalvular flows has not been fully understood. In this study, we used the ultrasound speckle image velocimetry (SIV) technique, which utilizes the speckle patterns of red blood cells (RBCs) created by ultrasound waves to measure 3-D valvular flows quantitatively...
December 26, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286819/silicon-vacancy-spin-qubit-in-diamond-a-quantum-memory-exceeding-10%C3%A2-ms-with-single-shot-state-readout
#16
D D Sukachev, A Sipahigil, C T Nguyen, M K Bhaskar, R E Evans, F Jelezko, M D Lukin
The negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV^{-}) color center in diamond has recently emerged as a promising system for quantum photonics. Its symmetry-protected optical transitions enable the creation of indistinguishable emitter arrays and deterministic coupling to nanophotonic devices. Despite this, the longest coherence time associated with its electronic spin achieved to date (∼250  ns) has been limited by coupling to acoustic phonons. We demonstrate coherent control and suppression of phonon-induced dephasing of the SiV^{-} electronic spin coherence by 5 orders of magnitude by operating at temperatures below 500 mK...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282596/a-poroelasticity-theory-approach-to-study-the-mechanisms-leading-to-elevated-interstitial-fluid-pressure-in-solid-tumours
#17
Andrijana Burazin, Corina S Drapaca, Giuseppe Tenti, Siv Sivaloganathan
Although the mechanisms responsible for elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumours remain obscure, it seems clear that high IFP represents a barrier to drug delivery (since the resulting adverse pressure gradient implies a reduction in the driving force for transvascular exchange of both fluid and macromolecules). R. Jain and co-workers studied this problem, and although the conclusions drawn from their idealized mathematical models offered useful insights into the causes of elevated IFP, they by no means gave a definitive explanation for this phenomenon...
December 27, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280055/sirtuin-1-chromatin-binding-dynamics-points-to-a-common-mechanism-regulating-inflammatory-targets-in-siv-infection-and-in-the-aging-brain
#18
Nikki Bortell, Liana Basova, Julia A Najera, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes
Microglia and macrophages are the main non-neuronal subsets of myeloid origin in the brain, and are critical regulators in neurodegenerative disorders, where inflammation is a key factor. Since HIV infection results in neurological perturbations that are similar to those in aging, we examined microglial and infiltrating myeloid subsets in the search for changes that might resemble the ones in aging. For that, we used the SIV infection in rhesus macaques to model neuroAIDS. We found that Sirt-1, a molecule that impacts survival and health in many models, was decreased in cell preparations containing a majority of microglia and myeloid cells from the brain of infected macaques...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277086/the-challenges-of-integrating-two-genomes-in-one-cell
#19
REVIEW
Erik Hagström, Siv Ge Andersson
Mutualistic bacteria and mitochondria have small genomes that harbor host-essential genes. A major question is why a distinct bacterial or mitochondrial genome is needed to encode these functions. The dual location of genes demand two sets of information processing systems, coordination of gene expression and elaborate transport systems. A simpler solution would be to harbor all genes in a single genome. Functional gene transfers to the host nuclear genome is uncommon in mutualistic bacteria and lost gene functions are rather rescued by co-symbiotic bacteria...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273667/user-involvement-in-adolescents-mental-healthcare-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#20
Petter Viksveen, Stig Erlend Bjønness, Siv Hilde Berg, Nicole Elizabeth Cardenas, Julia Rose Game, Karina Aase, Marianne Storm
INTRODUCTION: User involvement has become a growing importance in healthcare. The United Nations state that adolescents have a right to be heard, and user involvement in healthcare is a legal right in many countries. Some research provides an insight into the field of user involvement in somatic and mental healthcare for adults, but little is known about user involvement in adolescents' mental healthcare, and no overview of the existing research evidence exists. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of existing research reporting on experiences with and the effectiveness and safety issues associated with user involvement for adolescents' mental healthcare at the individual and organisational level...
December 21, 2017: BMJ Open
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