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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770863/siv-latency-in-macrophages-in-the-cns
#1
Lucio Gama, Celina Abreu, Erin N Shirk, Suzanne E Queen, Sarah E Beck, Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Brandon T Bullock, M Christine Zink, Joseph L Mankowski, Janice E Clements
Lentiviruses infect myeloid cells, leading to acute infection followed by persistent/latent infections not cleared by the host immune system. HIV and SIV are lentiviruses that infect CD4+ lymphocytes in addition to myeloid cells in blood and tissues. HIV infection of myeloid cells in brain, lung, and heart causes tissue-specific diseases that are mostly observed during severe immunosuppression, when the number of circulating CD4+ T cells declines to exceeding low levels. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) controls viral replication but does not successfully eliminate latent virus, which leads to viral rebound once ART is interrupted...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761366/correction-to-an-siv-macaque-model-of-siv-and-hand-the-need-for-adjunctive-therapies-in-hiv-that-target-activated-monocytes-and-macrophages
#2
Jaclyn Mallard, Kenneth Williams
Due to an oversight, acknowledgement and source of funding was inadvertently omitted from the original article.
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760177/epigenetic-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mir-124-promotes-hiv-1-tat-mediated-microglial-activation-via-mecp2-stat3-axis
#3
Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ming-Lei Guo, Guoku Hu, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
The present study demonstrates HIV-1 Tat-mediated epigenetic downregulation of microglial miR-124 and its association with microglial activation. Exposure of mouse primary microglia isolated from newborn pups of either sex to HIV-1 Tat resulted in decreased expression of primary miR-124-1, primary miR-124-2 as well as the mature miR-124. In parallel, HIV-1 Tat exposure to mouse primary microglial cells resulted in increased expression of DNA methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B that were also accompanied by increased global DNA methylation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758080/correction-mir-21-in-extracellular-vesicles-leads-to-neurotoxicity-via-tlr7-signaling-in-siv-neurological-disease
#4
Sowmya V Yelamanchili, Benjamin G Lamberty, Deborah A Rennard, Brenda M Morsey, Colleen G Hochfelder, Brittney M Meays, Efrat Levy, Howard S Fox
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005032.].
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755487/enhancing-epa-content-in-an-arctic-diatom-a-factorial-design-study-to-evaluate-interactive-effects-of-growth-factors
#5
Pia Steinrücken, Svein A Mjøs, Siv K Prestegard, Svein R Erga
Microalgae with a high content of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are of great demand for microalgae-based technologies. An Arctic strain of the diatom Attheya septentrionalis was shown in previous experiments to increase its EPA content from 3.0 to 4.6% of dry weight (DW) in the nutrient-replete exponential phase and nutrient-depleted stationary phase, respectively. In the present study, a factorial-design experiment was used, to investigate this effect in more detail and in combination with varying salinities and irradiances...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754427/pain-and-development-of-identity-in-adolescents-who-frequently-use-over-the-counter-analgesics-a-qualitative-study
#6
Siv Skarstein, Per Lagerløv, Lisbeth Gravdal Kvarme, Sølvi Helseth
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe conditions that may influence the development of identity in adolescents frequently using over-the-counter analgesics (OTCAs). BACKGROUND: Frequent self-medication with analgesics among adolescents is associated with several physical pain points, low self-esteem and low ambitions for the future. Continuous use of OTCAs can keep adolescents from learning healthier coping strategies. DESIGN: Qualitative individual interviews with adolescents and their mothers were conducted and transcribed...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750804/temporal-compartmental-changes-in-viral-rna-and-neuronal-injury-in-a-primate-model-of-neuroaids
#7
R Gilberto González, Robert Fell, Julian He, Jennifer Campbell, Tricia H Burdo, Patrick Autissier, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Faramarz Taheri, Termara Parker, Jeffrey D Lifson, Elkan F Halpern, Mark Vangel, Eliezer Masliah, Susan V Westmoreland, Kenneth C Williams, Eva-Maria Ratai
Despite the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a significant problem. Furthermore, the precise pathogenesis of this neurodegeneration is still unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between infection by the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and neuronal injury in the rhesus macaque using in vivo and postmortem sampling techniques. The effect of SIV infection in 23 adult rhesus macaques was investigated using an accelerated NeuroAIDS model...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749641/antioxidant-rich-foods-and-response-to-altitude-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#8
Anu Elisa Koivisto, Gøran Paulsen, Ingvild Paur, Ina Garthe, Espen Tønnessen, Truls Raastad, Nasser Ezzatkhah Bastani, Jostein Hallén, Rune Blomhoff, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn
High doses of isolated antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C and E, have demonstrated the potential to blunt cellular adaptations to training It is, however, unknown whether intake of high doses of antioxidants from foods has similar effects. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate whether intake of antioxidant-rich foods affects adaptations to altitude training in elite athletes. In a randomized controlled trial, 31 national team endurance athletes (23 ± 5 years), ingested antioxidant-rich foods (n=16) or eucaloric control foods (n=15) daily during a 3-week altitude training camp (2320 m)...
May 11, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743643/modulation-of-gene-transcription-and-epigenetics-of-colon-carcinoma-cells-by-bacterial-membrane-vesicles
#9
Svitlana Vdovikova, Siv Gilfillan, Shixiong Wang, Mitesh Dongre, Sun Nyunt Wai, Antoni Hurtado
Interactions between bacteria and colon cancer cells influence the transcription of the host cell. Yet is it undetermined whether the bacteria itself or the communication between the host and bacteria is responsible for the genomic changes in the eukaryotic cell. Now, we have investigated the genomic and epigenetic consequences of co-culturing colorectal carcinoma cells with membrane vesicles from pathogenic bacteria Vibrio cholerae and non-pathogenic commensal bacteria Escherichia coli. Our study reveals that membrane vesicles from pathogenic and commensal bacteria have a global impact on the gene expression of colon-carcinoma cells...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743377/equine-myxovirus-resistance-protein-2-restricts-lentiviral-replication-by-blocking-nuclear-uptake-of-capsid-protein
#10
Shuang Ji, Lei Na, Huiling Ren, Yujie Wang, Xiaojun Wang
Human Myxovirus resistance 2 (huMxB) has been shown to be a determinant type I interferon-induced host factor involved in the inhibition of HIV-1 as well as many other primate lentiviruses. This blocking occurs after the reverse transcription of viral RNA and ahead of the integration into the host DNA, which is closely connected to the ability of the protein to bind the viral capsid. To date, Mx2s derived from non-primate animals have shown no capacity for HIV-1 suppression. In this study, we examined the restrictive effect of equine Mx2 (eqMx2) on both the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and HIV-1 and investigated possible mechanisms for its specific function...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740993/child-welfare-services-and-social-media-childhood-being-and-becoming-in-a-digital-society
#11
Siv-Britt Björktomta, Heidi Aarum Hansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2018: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739964/whole-genome-sequencing-in-the-search-for-genes-associated-with-the-control-of-siv-infection-in-the-mauritian-macaque-model
#12
Marc de Manuel, Takashi Shiina, Shingo Suzuki, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Henri-Jean Garchon, Masayuki Tanaka, Nicolas Congy-Jolivet, Alice Aarnink, Roger Le Grand, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Antoine Blancher
In the Mauritian macaque experimentally inoculated with SIV, gene polymorphisms potentially associated with the plasma virus load at a set point, approximately 100 days post inoculation, were investigated. Among the 42 animals inoculated with 50 AID50 of the same strain of SIV, none of which received any preventive or curative treatment, nine individuals were selected: three with a plasma virus load (PVL) among the lowest, three with intermediate PVL values and three among the highest PVL values. The complete genomes of these nine animals were then analyzed...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734476/prevalence-and-risk-of-vertebral-fractures-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism-a-nested-case-control-study
#13
Henriette Ejlsmark-Svensson, Lise Sofie Bislev, Siv Lajlev, Torben Harsløf, Lars Rolighed, Tanja Sikjaer, Lars Rejnmark
Introduction Prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFx) in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) remains uncertain. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of VFx, investigate potential risk factors associated with VFx and whether bone mineral density (BMD) differs between PHPT- and osteoporotic-patients with VFx. Methods Through the Danish National Patient Register, we identified patients diagnosed with PHPT between 2005-2015. The diagnosis was verified by reviewing biochemical findings and X-ray reports were reviewed by two investigators...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734222/progressive-lentivirus-infection-induces-natural-killer-cell-receptor-expressing-b-cells-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#14
Cordelia Manickam, Chiadika Nwanze, Daniel R Ram, Spandan V Shah, Scott Smith, Rhianna Jones, Brady Hueber, Kyle Kroll, Valerie Varner, Paul Goepfert, Stephanie Jost, R Keith Reeves
OBJECTIVE: Recently, a seemingly novel innate immune cell subset bearing features of natural killer and B cells was identified in mice. So-called NKB cells appear as first responders to infections, but whether this cell population is truly novel or is in fact a subpopulation of B cells and exists in higher primates remains unclear. The objective of this study was to identify NKB cells in primates and study the impact of HIV/SIV infections. DESIGN AND METHODS: NKB cells were quantified in both naïve and lentivirus infected rhesus macaques and humans by excluding lineage markers (CD3, CD127), and positive Boolean gating for CD20, NKG2A/C and/or NKp46...
May 3, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732720/distribution-of-gene-segments-of-the-pandemic-a-h1n1-2009-virus-lineage-in-pig-populations
#15
K Okuya, A Matsuu, T Kawabata, F Koike, M Ito, T Furuya, A Taneno, S Akimoto, E Deguchi, M Ozawa
Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are important not only for pig farming, but also for public health. In fact, pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 viruses [A(H1N1)pdm09] were derived from SIVs. Therefore, timely characterization of locally circulating SIVs is necessary for understanding the global status of SIVs. To genetically characterize SIVs circulating in Japanese pig populations, we isolated 24 SIVs of three subtypes (17 H1N1, four H1N2 and three H3N2 strains) from 14 pig farms in Japan from 2013 to 2016. Genetic analyses revealed that the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the 17 H1N1 and the HA gene of one H1N2, A/swine/Aichi/02/2016 (H1N2), SIVs belonged to the A(H1N1)pdm09 lineage...
May 6, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729526/characterization-of-twin-cysteine-motif-in-the-v2-loop-region-of-gp120-in-primate-lentiviruses
#16
Dane Bowder, Jesse Thompson, Kate Durst, Haley Hollingsead, Duoyi Hu, Wenzhong Wei, Shi-Hua Xiang
The twin-cysteine motif (TCM) in the V2 loop region of gp120, identified in our previous report on the simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239), is a conserved evolutionary element in all primate lentiviruses except for HIV-1 which has lost the TCM during cross-species transmission. In this study, we have further explored the TCM in other SIV and HIV-2 strains. Our data shows that strains from different evolutionary lineages have different phenotypes when the twin-cysteines are removed. In the SIVsm/HIV-2 lineage, removal of the twin-cysteines decreases envelope trimer stability, but in the SIVagm lineage, a blockage of gp160 processing is observed...
May 2, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725327/lymph-node-cellular-and-viral-dynamics-in-natural-hosts-and-impact-for-hiv-cure-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Nicolas Huot, Steven E Bosinger, Mirko Paiardini, R Keith Reeves, Michaela Müller-Trutwin
Combined antiretroviral therapies (cARTs) efficiently control HIV replication leading to undetectable viremia and drastic increases in lifespan of people living with HIV. However, cART does not cure HIV infection as virus persists in cellular and anatomical reservoirs, from which the virus generally rebounds soon after cART cessation. One major anatomical reservoir are lymph node (LN) follicles, where HIV persists through replication in follicular helper T cells and is also trapped by follicular dendritic cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724285/testing-the-reliability-and-validity-of-the-nursing-activities-score-in-critical-care-nursing
#18
Siv K Stafseth, Tor Inge Tønnessen, Lien My Diep, Lisbeth Fagerstrøm
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the conceptual model of critical care nursing using the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: An observational study conducted in 2011 using the NAS scores of 219 patients in Norway. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) was tested by parallel classifications. The validity was explored by an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as the measurement models in the structural equation model...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721065/development-of-a-novel-albumin-based-and-maleimidopropionic-acid-conjugated-peptide-with-prolonged-half-life-and-increased-in-vivo-anti-tumor-efficacy
#19
Junnan Feng, Chuanke Zhao, Lixin Wang, Like Qu, Hua Zhu, Zhi Yang, Guo An, Huifang Tian, Chengchao Shou
Angiogenesis plays a critical role in tumor aggressiveness, and a lot of anti-angiogenic agents have been used in clinical therapy. The therapeutic efficacy of peptides are generally restricted by the short in vivo life-time, thus, we were interested in developing a novel albumin-based and maleimidopropionic acid-conjugated peptide to prolong the half-life and improve the anti-tumor effect. Methods: We developed a peptide F56 with a maleimidopropionic acid (MPA) at the C-terminal (denoted as F56-CM), which allows immediate and irreversible conjugation with serum albumin...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720521/short-term-pifn-%C3%AE-2a-treatment-does-not-significantly-reduce-the-viral-reservoir-of-siv-infected-art-treated-rhesus-macaques
#20
David Palesch, Steven E Bosinger, Maud Mavigner, James M Billingsley, Cameron Mattingly, Diane Carnathan, Mirko Paiardini, Ann Chahroudi, Thomas Vanderford, Guido Silvestri
The major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication is a reservoir of latently infected cells that persists despite long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and causes rapid viral rebound if treatment is interrupted. Type I interferons are immunomodulatory cytokines that induce antiviral factors and have been evaluated for the treatment of HIV-infected individuals, resulting in moderate reduction of viremia and inconclusive data about their effect on reservoir size. Here, we assessed the potential of pegylated IFN-α2a (pIFN-α2a) to reduce the viral reservoir in SIV-infected, ART-treated rhesus macaques (RMs)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Virology
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